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THE GARDEN ISLAND, TUESDAY, FEB. 13, 1912,
Office and pocket diaries of
all sizes bound in cloth or
leather. Mail orders promptly
Hawaiian News Co., Ltd.
Young Bldg. Honolulu
and Real Estate
No. 857 Kaahumami Street
WHEN IN NEED OF
Paper Bags, Twines,
PAPER & SUPPLY CO., LTD.
Fort and Queen Street
GEO. G. GUILD, Vice Pres & Mgr
Four years with W. Ahana,
Honolulu, is now located at
Garments cleaned and pressed
.,- Latest prevailing fashions.
The favorite S. S.SIERRA, 10,
000 tons displacement, sails from
Honolulu Feb. 7. Feb. 28.
First-class single to San Fran
Cisco, $65; round trip, $110.
C. Brewer & Co. Ltd.
ji j J
Stock and Bond Broker
j j -
Member Honolulu Stock and Bond
In Campbell Block
T. E. DAVIS & CO.
HONOLULU, T. II.
Xita.m- and Mew-hast Stkketu
Blacksmith supplies, Wag
ons, Buggies, Harness, Bi
Prompt and careful atten
tion given to mail orders.
Now Read the Ada,
H Ti V Tfi H f 1 : , -
The artificial incentives used in
1. 'Prizes, as medals, books,
class honors, merit tickets, etc.
2. Privileges, as holidays, early
dismissals from school, honor
seats," positions as monitors, etc.
3. Immunities, a s exemptions
from task, class exercises, etc.
These several incentives are not
only artificial, but, as will be ob
vious, they are the lowest motives
ordinarily used in schools, the fear
motives possibly excepted. They
were once widely used, even in the
best schools; and they are still used
where the question of moral train
ing, and especially of motives as a
factor in such training, has not re
ceived due attention.
It must be conceded, at the out
set, that these incentives do not
lack power. Experience shows that
they may be so incorporated into
the discipline of a school, and so
intensified, as to become its very
life, the all-absorbing end of de
sire and effort; but this fact does
not determine their true value as a
meansof school training. What
are their results in character? This is
the one supreme and decisive "test
of all means used in the discipline
of a school;' and to this test let us
subject the several incentives named
The term "prize" is here used
to designate not only such rewards
for superiority in attainment and
conduct as medals, books, and other
articles of pecuniary value, but also
class honors, merit tickets, badges,
etc. As thus used, the term in
cludes not only prizes proper, but
formal honors of all kinds.
Prizes may be bestowed l for
superiority over all competitors, or
2 for excellence as determined
by the reaching of a given or pre
scribed standard or by the accom
plishiug of a given feat or task.
The characteristic feature of the
first plan the piize system proper
is a contest between two or more
competitors for the offered prize;
and, though all may strive with
equal fidelity, only one can win it.
This contest involves not only
competition, but also emulation,
with a tendency to rivalry, attend
! ed too often with envy and unkind
The objections to the prize sys'
tem are many and serious. An ob
vious one is the fact that it is not
possible, especially in schools em
ploying several teachers, to avoid
injustice. Few things in school ad
ministration are more difficult than
the determining of the compara
tive value of the attainments of pu
pils. What is the comparative va
lue of knowledge, power, and skill
as scholastic results? Which is the
superior knowledge, that disclosed
by verbal memory , or that disclosed
by thought? What is the compara
tive value of the several branches
of study? Which shall be ranked
highest, the thought studies as
arithmetic and grammar, J or the
so-called information studies as
geography and history, or the art
studies as drawing, writing and
music? What results in each
branch shall be considered as pos
sessing most worth? How are the
attainments in observation and la
boratory exercises to be determin
ed, and how compared with those
in book studies?
These questions are sufficient to
indicate the difficulties involved
in determining an intelligent basis
for the comparison of scholastic at-
tainments; and there are like Uim -
ties, possibly greater,
in !, ooHini
111 slW MX- V Vl- .
comparison of results. The writer
has some acquaintance with the in
side work of seviral colleges and
schools, where prizes are annually
awarded for supposed superiority
iu scholarship; and he is confident
that neither the standard of excel
lence adopted, nor the means used
in determining results, will stand
the test of intelligent criticism.
It is plain that there can be no
intelligent comparison of results
except on the tame basis and by the same
wean TUess essential condition
are only possible when the pupils
who are competing for prizes pur
sue the same studies, under the
same teachers, and when their
standing is determined by the same
tests made by the same persons,
conditions now existing in f e w
high schools and colleges. The in
troduction of different courses of
study and the allowing of elections
in each course, t h e division of
classes into sections and their in
struction by different teachers, etc..
have destroyed the uniformity of
conditions on which the prize sys
tem was originally based; and it is
high time that this important fact
was recognized by school and col
The awarding of prizes or honors
on attainments in different courses
of study, with few common studies,
and these taught by different teach
ers, not only involves an obvious
injustice, but it is little less than
a farce. Nor does it make much
difference whether the comparative
attainments of the pupils are deter
mined by class marks or estimates,
or by examination results, or by
both combined. Even uniform ex
aminations give no uniformity ot
result when the papers are read by
different persons. Little reliance
can be placed on comparisons of
pupils' attainments when these are
determined by different persons; and
this is true, whatever the method
used. There may be an approach
to accuracy when the attainments
compared are in a given branch,
taught by one teacher, and under
What is said above of the com
parison of scholastic attainments is
equally true of the attempt to com
pare conduct. Such mechanical
results as punctuality and regulari
ty may be recorded and compared;
but excellence in such virtues as
neatness, accuracy, silence, indus
try and obedience, to say nothing
of truthfulness, kindness, courtesy,
charity, justice, etc., escape all
comparative tests. Hence the usual
mode of comparing pupils' conduct
is by the negative test of demerit,
and no thoughtful teacher would
venture to offer a prize for superio
rity in conduct thus determined.
It is of course easy to make such
general estimates of conduct in
school as excellent, or good, or poor,
and this may be well, provided no
rewards are offered for superiority.
The awarding of prizes as incen
tives to good conduct is "evil, and
only evil, and that continually."
Another objection to the prize
system is the fact that it serves as
an incentive to only a few of the
pupils in any school or class; and
these, as a rule, are the very pupils
that do not need any artificial in
citement. It requires, at most, out
a few weeks to disclose to the ma
jority of the pupils in a class that
they "stand no chance," and, as a
consequence, active competition is
soon narrowed to two or three pu
pils; and not infrequently the su
perior gift and advantages of one
pupil so clearly indicate his superi
or standing, that he has no earnest
competitor. It is thus seen that
the prize system is based on a com
petitive principal, which, in prac
tice, does not secure general com
petition. The very pupils who
may most need stimulation are not
touched by the system, or, if touch
ed, they are discourage by it, The
most that can be claimed for the
system is that it may cause a very
few pupils at the head of a claw to,
that it mav cause a very
studies, especially in minuie cie-
tails; but this result is usually se-
cured at a sacrifice of what is more
important, broad attainments and
a scholarly spirit.
(Continued next week.)
Francis Gay came over in he
Klnau from Kauai. Star.
Rufus P. Spalding of Kealia ar
rived in the Kinau. Star.
W. T. Purvis of Lihue arrived
in the Kinau.-- Stai;.
U. G. K. Deverill of Lihue ar
rived in the Kinau. - Star,
Wheel Base 100 inches.
ires 32 x 3 1-2 inches, front
Weight - 1800 pounds.
Motor Renault type, 4-eylinder, cast en bloc,
3 3-4-inch bore and 4 1-2-inch stroke.
Transmission Selective sliding gear type.
Three speeds forward and reverse.
Fan Back of Radiator Cooling System Forced
circulation splash system, vertical tube
radiator, centrifugal water pump.
Axles Semi-floating rear; I-Beam front.
Springs Semi and three-quarter elliptic front
and rear respectively.
Gasoline Capacity Ten gallons
Water Capacity Four gallons.
Control Strictly standard and internal; secured
to rear wheels.
Clutch Leather-faced cone with slip springs
Likes Tonsorial Artist
One block above Post-Office
Hair trimmed in the latest style
Shampooing and shaving
7 a. m. to 8 p.
Cor. FortA Ber. 8tH., Honolulu
Rooms by the day, week
or month single or in
OPEN DAY and NIGHT
Kauai trade solicited
MRS. C. A. BLAISDELL,
A LIVE FIRM
The Territorial Messenger Ser
vice has moved from its old loca
tion to one door above on Union
street and will stay there until its
old quarters have been rebuilt,
when it will move back into them.
Manuel Peter, one of Honolulu
best known and deserving young
business men, started the messen
ger service twelve years ago and
has occupied the same quarters
The service was started with two
boys. Today it employs nine boys,
and the business also includes a
parcel delivery and a n efficient
guide service. It also holds the
agency tor the Young Hotel laun
The messenger service is prompt,
reliable and inteligent. The parcel
' delivery branch has made an en
! viable name for itself, and is liber-
allv oatronied bv most of the lo-
The guide service aims to help
j visitors to enjoy a brief stay in
j Hawaii and to spend their time
pleasantly and at the same time
In this connection, steamer day
i trolley trips are run and automo
bile and railroad excursions t o
! points of interest arranged nt re
asonable terms. By organizing
. parties the guide service saves its
patrons money, time and worry.
Mrs. Henry Sheldon, of Kapaa,
was the guest of Misses Hannah
md Patsy Sheldon Sunday i
New Stenciled Articles
Artistic in Designs Low in Price
Cushion covers, Curtains, Laundry bags,
Shoe bags, Wor bags, Table Covers, Belts,
SPECIAL ATTENTION GIVEN TO ALL MAIL ORDERS
Ye Arts and Grafts Shop
Wholesale Liquor Dealer
Complete Line of Oriental Goods
Telephone No. 102. Branch Wahiawa, Telephone No. 7.
310-111 notion Bldg. ii
Fort Stromt IT
Agents For Kauai, In The
J. M. Kaneakua on membership,
W. H .Rice, Merch andise, Lihue
Rev. J. A. Akina membership,
C. B. Hofgard & C o. Ltd.,
THE BANK OF HAW1I,
Lihue, Kauai, Hawaii
Deposits are received subject
to check. Certificates of de
posit issued payable on de
mand. Loans made on ap
Drafts Drawn on
San Francisco Berlin
New York Hong Konjr
London Yokoha .
Interest paid on Savings De
posits. 4 1-2 per c:nt on ordi
nary and 4 per cent on Term
Deposits. Ordinary Savings
Deposits will be received up 10
fi,500 in any one account.
Safe Deposit Boxes ior
Rent f 2 and $S a Year
The Garden Island $2.50
The Hudson j
BODY STYLES AND PRICES .
Roadster, two passenger, 25 gal. I
Roadster, three passenger, tingle
rumble Seat, $1000 I
Roadster, four passenger, doube
rumbl Seat, $1025
Bearings-Front wheels; large size, ball tyjw.
Rear wheels; roller, with ltall thrusts.
Frame Pressed steel; lest open hearth stock;
drop sub-frame, to which transmission and
motor are secured.
Radiator Extra large; vertical tubes; horizon
tal fins; very efficient.
Dash Rich mahogany, with coil box to match.
Protected on edges with brass moulding,
channeled out to the fit over edges of the
woodwork, providing protection from the
Equipment Two gas head lights; generator;
two side oil lamps; tail lamps; horn; full set
of tools and jack.
Runabout Price $1000 F. O. B. Detroit.
Price $1350 F. O. B. Honolulu with top,
glass front and Pres O. Lite tank.
Touring Car Price $1600 F. O. B. Honolulu
including top, glass front and Pres O. Lite
Frank E. Howes, Manager
Bishop & Co.
jr j4 jl
Honolulu, Hilo, Waimea
j J jt
Transacts a General Bakning
and Exchange Business
Commercial and Travelers'
Letters of Credit issued avail
able in all principal cities of
j j j
Interest allowed at the rate
of 4 per cent per annum
on Savings Bank deposits.
Interest paid on Time De
posits at the following rates:
3 Months 3 per cent
6 Months 3 1-2 per
cent per annum.
12 Months 4 percent
All business entrusted by
customers 011 other Mscd
receives careful and prompt
Wholesale and Retail Groceries.
Dry Goods of all Desc