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THE GARDEN ISLAND, TUESDAY, OCTOBER 27 1914.
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ilAMERiCAN EDUCATOR ON :
RAIIRFR OF FMROPFAN WARl Fos
article o u the j
in Europe was
causes of the war
written by Prof. John Y. Bur-!
gess of Cornell, and is published
bv request, in two Instalment:
This is no time and no sub-
ject when, or upon which, one ,
should speak lightly, ignorantlv , ,
or with nreitidice. It is one ot the,sia was allowed to take a little al
world's most serious moments and
the views and sympathies now
formed will determine the course
of the world's development for
many years to come, tieavy in
deed is the responsibility which
he incurs who would assume the
role of teacher a't this juncture and
it is his first duty to present the
credentials which warrant h 1 s
First of all, I am an Anglo-
American of the earliest stock and
the most pronounced type. I have
existed here, potentially or actual
ly, since the year 1638 and my
European cousins of today ate
squires and curates in Dorsetshire.
Moreover, I admire and revere
England, not only because of what
she has done for liberty and self
government at home, but because
of she has borne t h e white-
man's burden throughout t h e
world and borne it true and well.
On the other hand, what I pos
sess of higher learning has been
won in Germany. I have studied
in her famous universities and bear
their degrees and in three of them
have occupied the teacher's chair.
I have live ten years of my life
among her people and enjoy a cir
cle of valued friendships which
extends from Konigsberg to Stra-ss-
burg, from Hamburg to Munich
and from Osnalnik to Benhtes-
garten. and which reaches through
all classes of society from the occu
pant of the throne to the dweller
in the humble cottage. I have
known four generations of Ilohen-
zollerns and. of the three genera
tions now extant, have been
brought into rather close contact
with the members of two of them.
While, as to the men of science and
letters and politics who have made
the Germany of the last half cen
tury, I have known them nearly
all and have sat. as student, at
the feet of many of them. I must
concede that of English descent
though I am, still I feel somewhat
less at home in the luotheihuid
than in the fatherland. Neverthe
less, I am conscious of the impulse
to treat each with fairniss in any
account I may attempt to give of
their motives, purposes and
THE MISSION OF THE GER
It was in the vear 1871, in the
midst of the Franco Prussian war,
that I first trod the soil of Ger
manic and it was from and with
those who fought that war on the
German side that I first learned
the politics and diplomacy of Eu
rope. Almost from the first day
that I took my seat in the lecture
room of the university, I imbibed
the doctrine that the great nation
al, iuternatiuiial and world-pur
pose o f the newly-created Ger
man empire was to protect and
defend the Teutonic civilization of
oriental Slavic quasi - civilization
on the one-side, and the decaying
Latin civiliziat.on on the other.
After a little I began to hear of
the "pan-Slavic policy" of Russia
and the "revanche policy" of
France. For a while the latter, the
policy of France for retaking
Alsace-Lorraine, occupied the chief
attention. But in 1876, with the
Russian attack upon the Turks,
the pan-Slavic policy of Russia,
the policy ot uniting the Slavs in
the German empire, the Austro
Hungarian empire and in the Tur
kish empire with, and under the
sway of, Russia was moved into
the foreground. All western Eu
rope recognized the peril to mod
ern civilization ar.d the powers of
Europe assembled at Berlin in 187M
to meet and master it
The astute British premier. Lord
Beneonsfield, supported by the
blunt and masterful Bismarck,
directed the work of the congress,
ana uie pan-Mavic policy ot Kirssra
was given a severe setback. Rus-
most worthless territory in Europe
and territory of greater value in
Asia; Roitniania, Servia r.nd Mon
tenegro were made independent
states; Bulgaria was given an auto
nomous administration with a Eu
ropean Christian prince, but under
the nominal suzerainty o f the
Turkish provinces of Bosnia and
Herzegovina, t h e 11 almost free
zones infested by bandits, were
placed under Austro-Hungarian
administration, also subject to the I
nominal suzerainty of the sultan.
With this the much suspected
and dreaded activites of Russia
were directed toward Asia, and
Russia was now foi more than 20
years, from 1W0 to 1902, occupied
chiefly with the exlention of her
empire in the Orient. The German
empire and the Austro Hungarian
empire were delivered f o r the
moment from this great peril and
enabled to pursue the line of peace
able development and progress.
The greater stcurity of eastern
borders of these great states, thus
established, also helped to reduce
the force of the Fiencb spirit of
revenge, as the prospect of its
satisfaction became more distant.
It was during this period, how
ever, that Germany developed
from an agricultural to a manufac
turing and commercial community,
that is, became a competitor of
Great Britain and France, especial
ly of Great Britain, in world in
dustry. Her marvelous growth in
this direction excited soon the
jealousy, the tiivv and then the
hostility of Great Britain. We in
the United States, however, reap
ed gi cat advantage from the in
dustrial and couimerical competi
tion between the two great powers
and we were amused at the pet
tishness of Great Britain in repre
senting it as something unfair and
illegitimate. We little suspected to
what direful results it would lead.
THE POLICY OF KING ED
When Edward VII came to the
throne, in the eai 1901, he saw
Great Britain's interests in the
Orient threatened by Russia's
policy ot extent ion in Asia and tier
couimerical interests throughout
the world threatened by the active
and intelligent competition of the
Germans. lit as all rulers at the
moment of accession, felt the am
bition to do something to relieve
the disadvantages, to say the least,
under which ;n these respects his
country was laboring. t He -began
that course of diplom.ev for which
he won the title of peace lover.
The first clement of it was the
approach to Japan and encourage
ment to Japan to resist the advance
of Russia. This movement culmi
nated in the war between Russia
and Japan of the years 1904 1905,
in which Russia was worsted and
checked in the realization of her
Asiatic policy and thrown back
The next element in the dip
lomacy of the peace-making king
was the fanning into flame again
of the "revanche" spirit of France
by the arrangement of the quasi
alliance, called the entente, be
tween Great Biitain, France and
Russia, aimed distinctly and avow
edly against what was known as
the triple alliance of Germany,
Austria and Italy, which had for
30 ycais kept the peace of Europe.
The third and last element of this
pacific program was the seduction
of Italy from the triple alliance,
by rousing the irredentist hopes
for winning from Austria the
Trente district i u so.ith
which Italy covets.
( To be continued. )
It has developed that the com
mittee that wa formed to canvass
the town of Hilo and interview j
the business men as to what they i
felt inclined to do regarding the j
proposition of the Honolulu Ad j
Club that they subscribe a month- j
ly amount for promotion work of
the Territory, found but little en
courgement. The committee reported that
some merchants declared that thev
never received a cent from tourists,
and that the sixty dollais a month
that is now donated to the Pro
motion Committee never comes
back in any shape or form.
Some of the business men said
that thev would like to encourage
the Honolulu Ail Club as they
thought it to be a splendid organ
ization, but the general opinion
wis that Hilo gained no benefit
from the tourist trade. The com
mittee was discharged with thanks.
Clothing Is Wanted
Iuhtor Garden Island:
It has been brought to the atten
tiou of the War Relief Committee
that there is an urgent Heed for
clothing all along in the war-de-vnsled
regions of Europe; also for
rags of all kinds. The American
Hawaiian Steamship Co. has gen
erously offered to carry any boxes
which we have, without charge.
to New York and the committee
has decided to instil ute a collection
of this kind C. M. Cooke. Limit
ed, has very kindly offered the use
of a room at 91113 Alakea street,
being the ground floor of the Ha
waiian Board rooms. Some one
will be there each day from 9 to 12
to receive any gift which may be
brought, until further notice, and
the public-spirited citizens of the
entire islands are earnestly request
ed to bring everything that they
can spare in the line of clothing,
which also covers boots and shoes,
caps, hats, etc., t o this depot,
where they will be received and
cared for and se it forward as soon
The committee hopes that people
will not only reyd this letter, but
will immediately act rrporr it. The
need is great.
W. R. Castle,
Chairman, War Relief Committee.
Any gifts may be sent to War
Rebef Committee. J. A. Rath,
High School vs. County
The High School baseball team
ran up against the countv officials
team Wednesday afternoon and af
ter six fierce innings came out
winner by a score of 4 to 1 . The
officials explained that several of
their regular players were absent.
Sugar Crops Of Hawaii
The following figures show the
sugar yields of the Hawaiian Isl
ands by years since 189J. or 23 '
years, and also indicates theim-j
incuse growth of the industry in
that period: !
1914 (est.) 625, COO tons !
1913... .. .. 546,798 "
1912 595.258 " !
1911 5 6,821 "
1910 517,090 " 1
1909.. 535,156 " j
1908 521.123 '
1907... 440,017 " !
1906... .429,213 " !
1905 426,248 ''
1904 -.367,475 " :
1903 437,991 " j
1902 .355,611 " '
1901... 560,038 "
1900 289.554 "
1899 282.807 "
1898 .229,414 "
1897 251,126 " !
1896 225,828 "
1S95 149,627 "
j 18J3 152.621 "
1 1892 122,279 "
SENATOR KHUDSEH'S TOUR
OF UGA ID EUROPE
NEW YORK AGAIN.
When we took passage in the !
Imperatot she was the largest pas
senger steamer afloat, yet when
we sailed in Mav she had already
been passed b y the Yatirland.
But, with her 52,000 tons she re
mained quite large, and in the
evenings after dinner when the
passengers met in the large pink
drawing room to sit in oasv chairs
and sip their coffee, it was more
like a large first class hotel than a
steamer; a n d sometimes it was
necessary to go and look out on
the ocean just to make sure you
were at sea and going at a rate of
25 miles an hour. When we left
Hamburg about 500 members
of the Hamburg Chamber of Com
merce or (Ad. Club Club or what
ever it was) went along for an ex
cursion as far as South Hampton
nnd Cherbourg, just for the trip
and sea voyage. There is no doubt
about it but that a large and well
appointed ship makes people
travel, whereas a small and uncom
fortible steamer drives awav trade.
There were six decks above th'
water line, and an electric elevator
running up and down. On the "A"
deck was a fine gymnasium, and
on the "F" deck a large swim
ming pool full of fresh salt water"
and on one day thev had great
swimming matches and water polo.
In the center of the large reception
room w;s an inlaid polished floor
and nearly every night they would
move awav the tables and chairs
and roll off the rug. and there
would be a splendid dance floor,
capable of holding fifty couples at
a time, while the military band
played the latest Tangoes and one
The staterooms were large and
comfortable; beds took the place of
tight, little bunks, and each room
had two large closets in which you
could hang vour clothes. It was
a great contrast to go from the
Imperator, 52,000 tons, to the
Siberia, and from that to the flag
ship Kinau. If we had reversed
the order, perhaps, we would have
thought them all the acme of ocean
We had heard of nil sorts of
atrocities of the New York customs
officials, yet when we arrived we
found that there was no trouble at
all and we were soon oil for our
hotel-the Netherlands, overlooking
Central Paik. What a difference
We paid 48 marks to get ourselves
"What is a football?"
"A piece of leather entirely
and hand baggage from the dock
to the hotel. and 28 marks more for
our heavy baggage. In Berlin we
would have done the whole for one
half; but we were back once more
in "Dollar Land", as the Emperor
likes to call America, and began to
feel at home again. And it did
sound good to hear the newsboys
veiling "Extra; I It aid Globe
Record - one edit 5 o'clock all
the news of the baseball game"'
And all the talk in New York at
that moment was "polo". Of
course the poor Britishers had no
chance, but thev were good sports
to come over and the betting was
2 to 1 against them. So we all
went down to Meadowbrook to see
the game 45,000 Americans and
Ilawaiians -and thev paraded the
ponies. First came the Americans
ar.d then the English, and they
all looked in fine shape. Then the
men came out, and they cettainlv
looked in the pink of condition
onlv the Americans seemed a little
fatter than the Englishmen. Then
the game began, and it was a reve
latioti to see how the Englishmen
hit the ball, Thev seemed to U
with the ball all the time--alway
two or three going aiong with it:
and while the Americans seemed
to be riding much harder than tin
English, iut neer were they :i
any time much together. The En
glish team plav seemed perfect am
after they had scored a few goal'
nnd were forcing the play, sudden
ly the whole vast audience seemer
to become sympathizers and t i
shout for them and I think th
Ivnglishmeu got far more applattM
than the Americans. As far as dar
ing riding and lon-hittiug went
I think I have seen better ridiny
and longer hits on Moanalua he'nl
than I saw in New York.
From New York we went to
Boston, and I took in mv 20 1.
celebration since graduating fioi.
Harvard. We saw the great bo .'
races between Harvard and Yah ,
and saw a host of friends, but
Hawaii was calling. I wanted to
get back for the elections, so w
bade our friends "Aloha" ami.
went to San Francisco bv the 20; h
Century Limited and the Overland
, special the finest trains in the
world, and sailing from San Frar
cisco June 25, reached Kauai Ji-b
7, and were back once more in t!
old Gardth Island the best ph" i
we had yet found in all our mont u
surrounded by men.