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THE GARDEN ISLAND TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 22, 1916
THE WATER INTERESTS OF
At the meeting of the Chamber
of Com merce last Thursday even
iiift, J. M. Lvdgate read the fol
lowing interesting and instructive
paper on the above subject, illus
trating it with a sketch of the
locality in question:
Even the most superficial obser
ve must be impressed by the
fact that Kauai has at once plenty
of water, and yet a great dearth of
it. On the south and west side of
the Island particularly there are
considerable areas of fertile land
absolutely deprived of water, and
other still larger areas insufficient
ly supplied, while a few miles away
the great streams of the windward
exposure run to waste.
The practical difficulties, how
ever, of bringing these conditions
together are so gteat, and the out
lay involved so prohibitive, that
we may dismiss the problem from
present consideration with the
suggesiion, however, that it may
not be by any means as unfeasible
as it looks.
In the mean time, however, there
are nearer sources of supply which
promise a more ready solution of
It must be evident to the most
casual observation that th- prob
lem of sufficient water supply is
simply a question of storage, On
the lowland there are thousands
of acres, arid and parching for
water, and in the highlands im
mediately above there is plenty of
water, more than enough to meet
the needs of these suffering lands.
It would seem to be a very s'mple
thing to connect these two condi
tions. Of course! And that has been
done by such ditches as the liana
pepe, the Olokele and the Kekaht,
but the difficulty is. as you all
know, that while there is plenty
of water in the aggregate, it isn't
dealt out wisely by nature to meet
the daily wants of her children. In
that upper country, most emphati
cally, it never rains but it pours,
it is a feast or a famine. It rains
for a few hours, vast freshets come
tearing down to the sea; then it is
dry for weeks. What is needed is
some artificial means of equalizing
nature, of storing the rainfall
and feeding it out gradually as
At great expense for instance,
the Olokele ditch has been con
structed. Through an admirable
system of subsidiary distributing
ditches it controls a vast area of
fertile land, which is fully equip
ed with all the varied and ex pen
sive requirtments for producing
large and lucrative crops. They
hang on that ditch; and that ditch
is more than adequate to the needs
if the water was only supplied with
anything like reasonable regulari
ty. It has plenty of capacity for
all ordinary purposes, but it is en
tirely unequal t o handling the
great freshets that periodically
sweep down the Olokele gorge
and go out to sea. No practical
ditch would be! To increase the
capacity of such a ditch to the
stormflow requirements would in
volve an expenditure that' would
be prohibitive, and at the same
time almost wholly unrenumera
tive, since the excess capacity
would be lying idle 99 of the
time. For a few hours a few times
a year the ditch might run full,
the rest of the time it would be
At this point it may be objected
that this is not iuteaded to be a
storm supply, but a normal supply-ditch,
and that, if it meets this
condition generously it is entirely
satisfactory which is true. But
the practical difficulty lies in the
fact that the supply at times falls
way short of the normal, what
shall make it good?
But now, suppose that we have
the big storm-ditch, that will carry
out; intact, the big freshets when
they come, running full to over
flowing for a few hours eveiy few
weeks, or a few times a year.
What will be done with this water
when we have it? Where will the
ditch deposit it when it has carried
it out? We have means for hand
ling just so much water and no
more, unless the whole plantation
is to be turned up-side-down to go
watering, an irregularity and ar.
extravagance that are not to be
thought of. A rainfall will ini
tiate the whole plantation in a
night, but you can't irrigate the
whole plantation in a night by any
artificial system of irrigation.
Manifestly the water must be
stored and dealt out little by little,
daily, according to the needs of the
plantation. And the water must
be stored not at the lower end of
ths supply ditch, but at the upper
end of it. If the storage capacity
is at the lower end of the ditch,
most of the available storm water
never gets there because of the
limitation of the ditch; it can carry
onlv 100 million a day, the 500
million goes by. The storage
capacity must be at the upper end
of the ditch system, in direct con
nection with the flooding streams,
and should be equal to the
emergency flow of these streams
which thus retained, can be fed out
through the ditch as required.
In this way large economies
may be effected in ditch construc
tion, since only the actual work
ing capacity need be considered,
and no provision need be made
for anything beyond the normal
daily requirements. Tunnel 4x5
instead of 10 x 10,
But in most cases the ideal rela
tion of watershed-ditch and re
servoir is not easy to secure for the
reason that suitable resorvoir sites
in the beds of streams, or conti
guous thereto, and at high eleva
tions, are practically non-existent.
As a rule the bed of a stream
grows gradually steeperas it tises
into the mountains, and becomes
at the same time narrower and
more confined, so that they are
practically out of the question for
the construction of storage reser
voirs of any capacity.
This is particularly true of Olo
kele which because, above the
ditch-intake, a narrow, preci
pitous, gorge, where an expensive
dam would scarcely unpound
enough water to wet your feet and
the same thing is true of Hana
pepe. But when it comes to the upland
plateau out of which the Waimea
system is fed the conditions are all
changed. There we have a great
flat country through which the
shallow streams wind and twist
slugglishly as though loath to
make their escape. Everyone of
these upland feeders, I believe,
furnishes excellent sites for stor
age, where a comparatively small
expense, under most favorable
conditions, will insure most bene
ficial results. The practical ob
jection to the utilization of this
valuable condition is, that it is not
naturally tributary to the Maka
weli system, which needs it, and
it isn't needed by the Waimea sys
tem which has it; so the resources
go to waste.
By way of solution for this two
fold problem of water storage, and
water delivery, In quantities to
suit, I beg to Under the following
plan. Build a chain of reservoirs
at suitable points anywhere on the
head waters of the Waialae stream,
which is the nearest considerable
feeder of the Waimea, which re
servoirs shall retain and store only
the storm water that nobody wants
below, and which, in fact, every
body would sooner not have since
it threatens disaster. These re
servoirs would thus constitute a
sort of save-all, to catch and save
such fteshets as no ditch would
carrv. Then, at some suitable
line constiuct across-country ditch
of small capacity, intercepting the
Ifeedeisof the Waialae, draining
its water shed and conveying the
(Continued on page 4.)
NOTICE OF COPARTNFR.
Notice is hereby given that the
undersigned, residing at Kapaia,
Lihue, Kauai, on September 1st,
1912, formed between themselves a
copartnership under the firm name
of WONG HOCK SHEE for the
carrying on of a General Tailoring
Business at said Kapaia, with
Wong Hock Shee as General Man
ager, and the business is still car
ried on at the same place by the
Kapaia. Lihue, Kauai,. Feb 12,
Wong Hock Shee,
Kapaia, Lihue. Kauai.
Kapaia' Lihue, Kauai.
OLELO HOOLAHA HUI
Ma keia ke hoolahaia aku nei
ma ka la 1 o Sepatemaba. 1912. ua
hoohui ae na mea no laua na inoa
malalo iho e noho ana ma Kapaia,
Lihue, Kauai, ia laua iho ma ke
ano hui malalo o ka inoa hui o
WONG HOCK SHEK no ka lawe-
lawe ana i ka oihana Tela Lole ma
Kapaia no i oleloia, a o Wong
Hock Shee no ka Luna Hoohana
Nui, a ke hoomauia nei no keia
oihana ma kahi no i olelo ia e na
mea no laua na inoa t oleloia.
Kapaia, Lihue, Kauai, Feb. 12,
Wofo Hock Shee,
Kapaia, Lihue, Kauai.
Kapaia, Lihue, Kauai.
Sealed Tenders will be received
up until 11 A. M. of Saturday,
February 26, 1916, for the con
struction of the Waioli Homestead
The Superintendent of Public
Works reserves the right to reject
any or all tenders.
Plans, specifications and blank
forms of proposals are on file in
the office of the Superintendent of
Public Works, Capitol Building,
Honolulu, and in the office of the
Public Works Agent, Waimea,
Charles R. Forbes,
Superintendent of Public Works,
Honolulu, February 11, 1916.
Sealed tenders will be received
by the Board of Harbor Commis
sioners until 2:00 p. m. Wednes
day, March 1, 1916, for the con
struction of a warehouse at Ilana-
lei, Kauai. Plans, specificrtions
and blank forms of proposal are on
file in the office of the Board of
Harbor Commissioners, Capitol
Building. Honolulu, T. H.
The Board of Harbor Commis
sioners reserves the right to reject
any or all tenders.
Signed Charles R. Forbes,
Superintendent of Public Works
and Chairman, Board of Harbor
Honolulu, February 7, 1916.
Sealed tenders will he received
by the' Board of Harbor Commis
sioners until 2 p. ni., Wednesday,
March 1, 1916. for the construc
tion of a new wharf at Waimea,
Kauai. Plans, specifications and
blank forms of proposal are on file
in the office of the Board of Har
bor Commissioner, Capitol Build
ing, Honolulu, T. II.
The Board of Harbor Conimis
cioners reserves the right to reject
any or all tenders.
Signed Charles R. Forbes,
Chairman, Board of Harbor Com
Honolulu, February 8, 1916.
Stock Certificate No. 51 in War
mea Stables issued in favor of Wai
mea Wine Company has been lost
A reasonable reward will be paid
for its return to The Waimea Wine
Co., Waimea Kauai.
.CopFili hi Hn (txffncr tc
I Silva's Toggery, Honolulu. J
Packers and Provisioners
Have appointed us theii agnits in th-
We carrv a complete stock of their goods,
and solicit Island correspondence.
P. O. Box 595 74
JJl Haas's Delicious Candy
LJt " BENSON, SMITH & CO., LTD. j) Jj
II II Axortt-il Cliorohiti's uiul liun Hoiin li-'io ht iiiiiinl ; 1p.'J't II II
j! II two pound. .Milk CIiih'oIiiU'n 5ika hiiiuII Ihix ; llAHt II 1
ALLIS-GHALMERS 16. GO.
Honolulu Iron Wks. Co.
KVKR YTIIING IN THK
Silver and floi.n Link,
Rich CrT Glass aku
Merchandise of the
Bkst Qi-ality Only.
P. O. Box 342 Honolulu
& CO., LTD.
Queen St., Honolulu, T.H.
Direct Current. 3 to 10
Direct Current. 3 to lfj
h. p. 125 volt. Alternat
ing current 3-4 to 10 h.p.
are severe on
Get the best!
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"3-t5 Kiiiir St. I'bone 4937
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Some expect to save when
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