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THE GARpEN,ISLAND TUESDAY, SEPT. 18, 1917
The Volcano :
At the annual meeting of the
Volcano Research Association, held
the Harvard Scientist Jii WliargA, of
the research work,1 nfiide .a'. report
which summarized the results of
some five years investigations of the
Volcano of Kilauea. These results
ard so surprising, and so intcreting,
that we venture to give our readers
a synopsis of thoiulch a a-layman
may. 'lJ UJ .''J
The traditional- theory? coming
down through the' ages ;has ;btfiH
that active volcanoes wero outcrop
pings of the molten liquid from the
interior of the earth. This in par
ticular was supposed to be true of
Kilauea. But now, as the result
of careful soundings and thermome
tries tests, it is established beyond
question that the lava lake is less
than fifty feet deep; that" in fact it
is a small body of molten lava oc-
cunvine a saucer in the cooler and
stiller solid crust of the earth.
At first this seem incredible, un
til we understand that the source of
the heat is not the molten lava it
self, but the mingling of the gases
at or near the surface of the lava
lake. These gases, delivered and
combined through natural tubes,
constitute great blow-pipes which
fuse the rock wherever they flame
Heretofore the islands in the lake
have been spoken of as floating,
they are now known to be hum
mocks, or reefs projecting up from
the shallow bottom of the lake.
Some 3.") measurements of volcanic
temperature have been made during
. the last year, which reveal the
strange fact that not the molten
lavabut the puffing flames above
. the lava are the hottest, say about
2500 degrees Fahrenheit, while the
surface of the lake is less hot, the
lava just below the surface still less
so. and the bottom probably the
least. so of all.
The connection between the two
adjacent volcanoes, Kilauea and
Mauna Loa, has been substantially
established, but not in the simple
form of a static connection as of two
columns of water connected at the
base, and responding to ' terrestrial
gravity. In the words of the report:
"The argument against connection
betwesn the two volcanoes falls when
we know a lava column to be a dup
lex substance nearly solid, full of
gas, and heating itself and foaming
when locally uncorked. An erup
Hon ol JMauna L.oa. so conceived is
an opening of the vent of a pent up
furnace whose gases were previously
but slightly escaping with quiet ef
fervescence through a small orifice
at Hale-mau-mau. The effect of
the unplugging immediately reacts
on the smaller vent, but not at . all
after the fashion of a watery liquid
As yet, however, all theories and
conclusions are merely tentative
and the aim and object of the Asso
ciation is to observe and tabulate
the facts, and do it over a long
series of years and under all' kind
of varying conditions, so that Telia
ble data may be available on which
to found theories which may them
selves be reliable. Thus far only a
start has been made : the work so
auspiciously and so successfully be
gun must he continued; to sur
render the work now would be to
throw away very much of what has
been already accomplished.
At the annual meeting provision
was made for the conduct of th
work along present lines to the end
of the year; after that its fate seems
Rats in the Trees Like Birds
One has to go away from horn
to learn the news. The July num
ber of the Geographic Magazine, i
an instructive article on 'The Itat
Pest" volunteers the information
that in Hawaii, as the result of the
introduction of mongooso the rat
' have taken refugejn the tree-tops
where many of them have nests lik
the birds of the air.
There may be an occasional rat
that has fitted up his sleeping porcl
in some tall tree, but so far as w
have heard or seen, this is not 1
any means a common practice.
Dry Wave Helps Candy Sale
A Local Author
At&ntic City, N. J., Aug.
DeletAtes to the annual convention
of thdNational Confectionary Sales
men' Association recently held
here reported that the spread of the
prohibition movement in the United
States is proving an important fact
or ill stimulating candy ; sales
They jfleclare that the demand fo
tL ? 1 -1 A 1 11
coniecxionery nus aimosi uouoie
within the last two years, and that
dry territory is providing the great
er proportion of the increase. Ac
cording to statements of the dele
gates, the average man turns natur
ally to candy when he stops; driftk
A really readable
is a matter
book ishat rcvtl,pu l. Ud Nj; j,
iiiuuuure ivienarus, i rensurcr 01
the "Hawaiian Board", liiitilledl
Scotty Kid; The Life Story f
The Scottv Kid" is one Thos.
the Spanish speaking peoples along
the- Windward Coast of I Hfiwhii.
The story is'the talc, graphically
told with many homely touches and
picturcsquo details,- of- the Jife ex
periences of a waif who passed
through all kinds of outcast' fxper
lonces, and hnally emerged,., as by
fire, into a life of service and sacri
Consigned to the care and com
panionship of a prodigal brother,
who was a professional gambler, as
a child he took torvico and'erime as
duck takes to water. 'As a means
of earning an honest, or dishonest,
living, he takes to clog dancing, to
hypnotism, to understudy in bur-
gulary, and to all the experiences
of a tramp and bum; and finally
by thp most natural means in the
world lands in jail; where of course
he has many more stirring and
vivid experiences that do not come
in tho ordinary course oi lite.
Finally he is converted, rescued
and save to a life ot usefulness and
All this and much more is told
in the naive and picturesque speech
of the tramp and the jailbird, with
much racy and incisive comment on
the part of the author which adds
materially to the interest of the
All together it is a very realistic
page out of life, very well told.
The following letter has been re
ceived in response to the Red Cross
Membership list and fund forward
ed to Washington some time ago.
Washftigton, I), c.
f ust27, 1917.
iliffrj", American Red
, Lihue Kauai, Ter. of Hawaii.
My dear Mrs. Rice,
xour letter of the 2nd, with 4ts
enclosure, addirFjmtoorthe Ameri
(;fli I&3r.j-f$js, I2tjafient of Chap
ters, Washington, D. C, is before
Our Common Names
An item in a recent Outlook calls
attention to the change that is tak
ing place in popular names through
out the country, and instances the
case of a certain Eastern city where
Johnson has completely swamped
out Smith and Rice of an earlier
This suggests an examination of
the popular names of these Islands
The following figures are complied
from the Honolulu Directory for
1916. The Chinese, strange to say,
are far and away in the ' lead ' with
201 Wongs, 127 Lees, 122 Changs,
75 Chings, 112 Lums. 90 Chuns,
1 5 Laus, 48 Hos, etc. The Portu
guese come next with 17b bilvas,
130 Souzas, 100 Fernandezs, 75
Gbmezs, 80 Medciros, 69 Santos,
56 Rodriguez, etc. American comes
next, with the traditional Smith, who
isn't in it with his Chinese and
Portuguese brethren; Smith with
1 1-5, Johnson 76, Davis 40. etc. A
poor weak showing for an American
strange to say Japan makes a
poor snowing. considering the over
whelming factor she is in our popu
lation with only 57 Tanakas. The
Japanese evidently haven't gof into
the directory in large numbers as
yet; or it may be that they have
more originality and variety in
How tie War Affects Prices
iinlo inadefthpfeiwlid record
in liihue, a record so distinctive
and signifinintjtlrat'arn going to
use it in my next Membership Cam
paign as a" supreme evidence of the
patriotic zeal! of ' Anlerians where
ever they are under our flag. Your
example will be an inspiration to a
great many people near Washing
ton. I am more anxious now than
ever before to see the Islands which
have again afforded us such a splen
did example of the highest type of
American. -' ', ' ,
I am instructing the proper de
partment to haye our membership
entered at once, and the names of
those entitled to the Magazine plac
ed on the mailing list.
I shall appreciate it very sincerely
if you Will keep.'md informed as to
your progress in Lihuo.
I know the Dulinghams, the
Withingtons. the Atkinsons, and
the Deshas out there,' and I hope
they are all getting into the Red
Cross work in the real way.
I am, very sincerely,
. :s W. A. Frost,
For Red Cross War Fund.
Weekly Market Letter
Island eggs are scarce and have
advanced three cent a dozen. Duck
eggs have also gone up. String
beans and wax beans have dropped
one cent a pound and are quite
Island chickens are scarce and
the price has advanced slightly dur
ing the week.
A shipment of Irish potatoes was
received the first part of this week
from Mokulica. These potatoes are
very good and are. selling for three
dollars a bag. Sweet potatoes are
plentiful and the price has dropped
to a dollar ten a hundred. These
potatoes which we are selling for a
trifle over a cent a pound, are much
cheaper to use than Irish potatoes
imported from the Coast, which are
selling for three times as much.
Papaias are also plentiful and the
price has dropped twenty-five cents
on the hundred. '
The price of bran and bats has
advanced a little during the past
week, while other feeds remain
about the same.
, .' O. B. Lightfoot,
ir in: f"inc
rpOBACCO, like fren'shlp.
A and so forth, is
the better for bein'
mellowed -by age.
VELVET Smoking-. Tobacco owes its "aged In the
wood" smoothness to more than two years' curing.
The greatest powder company in
the world the Du Pont is to. de
vote a part of its plant to manufac
turing dyes. A great many of the
substances classed as "interme
diates" in dye making are also used
in the manufacture of high explo
sives. They are derived from ben
zol toluol, naphthalene, benzene
and other coal-tar products. Vir
tually all the raw materials are
products ol this country; so theie
;s no reason why the United States
should not in time be wholly inde
pendent of German dyes.
"V '.Manufacturers' Agent "
KAUAI CORRESPONDENCE INVITED
Office: Hawaiian Hotel '
P. O. Box 524 HONOLULU
J. I. Silva, Prop. (
ONE of the LEADING HOUSES for all kinds of DRY
GOODS. BOOTS & SHOES, MEN'S FURNISHINGS.
CIGARS & TOBACCOS and NOTIONS of every description,
FOR WINE, BEER and OTHER LIQUORS, Ring Up 73 W.
Main Office, Eleele, Kauai. Tel. 7 1 W.
ATTENTION TO . ,
IF, YOU ARE TRAVELLING
ENTRUST YOUR BAGGAGE WITH THE
ANDREWS EXPRESS CO.
M. E. GOMES, JR., Mgr.,
American - Marsh Pumps
Boiler Feed Pumps
Hydraulic Pressure Pumps
Automatic Feed Pumps ,
Catton, Neill, & Co., Ltd.
A tecent popular journal tells
Jiow a primitive berry picker raised
the price of huckleberries.
"Arent buckle berries just as
plentiful as in former years. Big
Joe?" inquired the lady.
With" a grunt the Indian ad
mitted that they were.
"And they aren't any harder to
pick are they" she asked.
"No," he admitted.
"Well then, why do you come
up on the price?"
"Huckle-berries up because
damn big war in EuropeJ" de
clared Big Joe,
In a similiar vein, and by similar
reasoning, an enterprising school
boy whom we know very well,
passed out the word, the other day
that he would have to raise the
price of delivering, ?ot supply
ing, a," bottle bfj milk daily.
Price has gone upJ on acc
the war in Euro
One of the most Inspiring pages
in the story of American war relief
is that, Which tels wrjat the Jews
of this country, about three million
in number, baye'dpne for their
race in the lands that the war has
devastated. They-have already
raised and distributed "abroad, in
Europe and Palestine, nearly ten
minion dollars This is in addition
to their generous contributions to
other relief funds, and is at a rate
of giving many ( times greater than
that of the American people as a
... '. .. , -V ...
For Sale at Leading Markets and Grocers
eat Co., Ltd.
Sole Distributors Territory of Hawaii.