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Vita sine virtnto alqno crudi iono nullim irc:ii c.-t.
SATURDAY, AUG. 1, IS 10.
GLCAM.jj nnM Tin: uutoiiv noil
lU)()!.-JfM. No. 2.
Travelers have differed greatly in their
estimates of the elevation of Manna Kea.
Some raisin:,' it even to 18.000 feet, while;
others reduce? it to I i3,f 1 (apt. Wendt,'
in 1831, makes it. 1 1,035 feet. Consiu-:
crablo discrepancy scenic to exist in regard;
to Mr. Douglas's measurements. In a
letter to a friend in London, dated May;
6, 1831, and published wjlh his journai, !
he gives Mauna Kea an altitude of 1:3,851 i
feet. Mauna Loa 1. '3.5 17 fret. The ed-;
itors of the Hawaiian Spectator, volume I,
No. II, page H. qnote Douglas at loCi'
feet for Mauna Kea, 1:3,110 feet for Mau-j
na Loa. "The Prussian Chart," publish
ed at Potsdam, 18-30, citing Douglas ns
authority makes Mauna Kea 1 3,(315 feet,
Mauna Loa 1:3, W0.
Being une.vpertcdly disappointed in ob-!
tabling a barometer, wo were not able to(
add any scientific measurements to the iislj
priven, and hero as at other piaces on our
route, were obliged to depend upon the
dicta of others, or upon such calculations'
as could be obtained from simple eoinpu-'
taUous, pacings, hues, A:c., wliieh was a
source of m eat vexation to us,affer having,
as we flattered ourselves, obtained the
necessary instruments for ascertaining
heights, (one of t ho principal objects of
our tiip) ami not learning of our disap
pointment, until it was too late to reme
Doirjlas speaks also of the "nmarent
lion diminution of sound," as being a mat-j
ter of astonishment to him. The ease'
and distinctness with which we heard'
voices, and even conversation at long di-J
tances, was frequently noticed by us, also,!
the rapidity with which sound was trans-i
Pefore my friends reached the camp, L
had started with our men, to descend tliei
rnounlairi, zir.aging in a southerly dirce-l
tio.n. They were quite benumbed with
cold, and it was not until the sun had been!
up some hours, that they became suHi-1
cientlv thawed to proceed" with any vigor.!
The descent was exceedingly steep and
toilsome. This side of the mountain was1
nothing but a vast pile of compact vol-'
canic rocks, of all sizes, broken in every'
variety of shape, all presenting sharp sidesj
and jaz-ed points, and thrown at random j
into a boe, sliding bed of gravel, which1
slipping from under our feet at every s'ep,1
endangered our limbs bv the avalanches
of ro;:ks which it carried with it. After
a few miles of such slope, the men dis-1
covered a spring of cl ar, cold water, gush-'
ing out. of the mountain, to which we all
hastened, haing been upon an allowance'
of that article for the last, twenty-four,'
hours. Here the missing ones rejoined
our party. Mr. C. had brought with him!
a handkerchief filled with '"snow, with!
which we turned loo, and had a fine snow!
balling, while it lasted, pelting each other!
right merrily. Our Honolulu friends puf
fing and panting with heat ami dust, no
doubt would have envied us the oeen-i
pation. The declivity proved equally!
steep, the whole way down, with soil
enough to bear a few grasses, and a small
species of cassia with a yellow blossom.!
Herds of bullocks were frequently seen,
some of which were quite tame, and did'
not run until we approached within pistol'
shot. Before reaching the plain we were'
exceedingly annoyed by a strong wind'
suddenly springing up, which drove thJ
sand in dense c louds before it, cutting our
faces and blinding our eyes by its violence.
The plain, bounded by Mauna Kea on the
north, Mauna Loa on the south, and Mau
na Hivalulai on the west, ami embracing
nearly a third of the superficial extent of
the whole island, appears to have been to
most persons a " terra incognita." On
some of the earlier charts a swamp or mo
rass is delineated as occupying much of
this area, and even to this day it is but
seldom visited, except by bullock-catchers.
It is mostly a table land, gradually swell
ing from both sides of the island, until it
attains an elevation of four thousand feet.
On the south and cast it is cut up by
streams of lava, apparently of not very an
cient date, which have flowed from the
adjacent mountains. Numerous small
conical craters, of exceedingly regular
shape, and composed of slag and sand,
dot these streams. As they approach
Mauna Kea, vegetation commences, on a
soil composed of sand and ashes, through
which the volcanic layers occasionally
show themselves, but not frequently
enough to prevent a tolerable cart-road
from running along by the base of the
mountain. On this side, the plain, hills,
and small craters, for many miles are
beautifully diversified with groves of an
elegant laurel, which we noticed no where
else on the island, or indeed on any other
of the group. It grew in clusters of from
thirty to forty feet in height, with small dark
green leaves, delicate white blossoms, and
branches that nearly swept the ground.
Their foliage? formed a graceful dome, im
pervious to the sun; while beneath was a
green sward, free? from all undeibiush.
Upon the whole they Were decidedly the
prettiest trees that we met on the island.
The plain is too dry ever to become fer
tile, or of any value to the agriculturist,
being like a sponge, so porous that water
cannot remain upon it.
After leaving the mountain we travel
ed at a rapid rate for nine miles, the lat
ter part through a driving rain, until we
reached a bullock-catchers hut. It was a
mere temporary shelter, thrown up by them
while in their hunting excursions, but it
proved a welcome haven to us. Having
built a fire, dried our clothes, and supped
on pork, which by this time had become
quite Ihchj; laid down upon a bed of
leaves, and '"'joyed a sound night's rest..
Jul; :j. 'I-, e at five o'clock. Therm
ometer 18'. Started our natives imme
diately. A mile's more traveling s. s. e.,
carried us clear of the laurel trees, ami
we found ourselves upon one of those
mc'adamized tracts of Hawaii, yclept
" clinkers," or, in olher words, volcanic
st ream s. w h i eh i n cool i ng ha vc s j ; I i t , c ra ck -cd,
tumbled, and burst into every jagged
and irregular shape of which nature is ca
pable. Here came the tug of war for our
shoes, which soon gave o it, but having
four pair apiece in our bigjage, we re
shod ourselves, and hastened on. The
natives wore sandals made of raw hides,
which i equiring continual renewing, great
ly delayed our progress. However, the
" clinkers" weie interspersed with some
tracts of smoother lava, which at any other
time we should have thought bad enough,
but now proved a most agreeable change
from their rougher neighbors. We occa
sionally came upon wild geese, which were
very tame, and met with abundance of
rain water in the hollows of the rocks.
At one o'clock we reached a tract of
" clinkers" two miles across, which was
the very "blackness of desolation" itself.
Just imagine the slag from all the forges
and glass factories which have been in ex
istence since the commencement of time,
dropped in masses from the size of a small
house to that of a marble, upon a plain
like this; every mass being all points,
every point sharp and craggod, and all
uppermost, and you can form some faint
idea of this highway. After pitching,
twisting and tumbling over it, for two
hours, to the imminent danger of our
necks, and dislocation of our ancles, we
came to better footing. We were now
crossing the eastern spur of Mauna Loa,
through a forest of dwarf ohia trees. The
rain, which had been lowering all the
morning, now began to pour, and soon
thoroughly drenched us. At four o'clock
we passed on our left, quite a lake of
water, but owing to the storm could not
stop to examine it. At five having found
a cave, we concluded to encamp for the
night, having been on foot twelve hours,
though owing to the badness of the road,
we had not advanced more than fifteen
miles. The cave was but three feet high,
and a couple of rods in depth. The rain
had leaked through on to the floor, leav ing
us the choice only between ted or wetter
ground. However, having crawled in.
we soon disposed of ourselves for the
night, with the consoling prospect of hav
ing a cold or theumatism to accompany
us the remainder of the trip. Scarcely
had we got asleep, when we were awaken
ed all but suffocated with smoke; jump
ing up we found our natives had made a
(ire of wet wood at the mouth of the cave,
'and were coolly sitting at the icindicant,
'and seeing us gasping Tor breath. The
way natives and fire brands went out of
' the cave will prove a caution to them not
to attempt to convert any future travelers
into bacon. Lying down again, we pas
sed a tolerable night, and awoke in the
morning with merely a soreness in our
limbs, which exercise soon wore off. At
this height, five thousand feet, the Therm
ometer was .'38, indicating a low average
'temperature for this region; such being
the cold of a July morning.
smrwitncKri) jai.t.s?e. j
Having been requested to prepare srme
account of the unfortunate Japanese who
i were driven in a gale from their own
I country and brought to these islands in
the fall of ld.'J!), I will attempt to comply,
.though 1 have to regret that I have biit
few facts at command respecting them,
and these mostly of a general character.
I This scarcity of facts is owing to two
causes, I. The imperfect medium of com
munication while those men were with
me; and, 2. It did not occur to me, that
it would ever devolve on me to give an
account of them to the public. Still. I
I think, I have the general outline of their
; history and what lias befallen them; and
can give it with some degree of accuracy.
This work I shall do most cheerfully, if I
can thereby subserve the cause of human
ity by conferring a favor on these un
fortunates. I would just remark here, that where I
shall try to express Japanese names by
English letters, the vowels will generally
have the sound which they have in Eu
ropean languages; i. c. a in name or e in
met ; as in machine ; o is both long and
short; and u does not differ from the gen
eral sound of the same letter in English.
In pronouncing words of two syllables,
they generally accent the last; iii words
j of more syllables, they accent the last but
one. In this respect, they doubtless re
semble the Chinese, ami perhaps other
I My first interview with three of the
! Japanese was on the 18th of Oct. 18:31).
I had been absent from my dwelling, and
I on returning perceived a crowd in the
house and about the door. On entering
I had not time to learn the cause which
had drawn them together, when I saw
three men, of the general appearance of
the Chinese, but more tawny, sitting bc
for me, apparently in a humble posture,
and bowing still more humbly; each, at
every bow, carrying both hands over his
knees till he touched his feet. These
bows wane often repeated Who are
these visitors? I enquired; and was soon
informed by Capt. Cathcart of the whale
ship James Loper, who was present, that
they were three of seven Japanese, whom
he had taken from the wreck of a large
junk of perhaps 150 or 200 tons, on the
(ithof June. The other four had been
disposed of on board other whaleships
which were to land them at Oahu. Capt.
Cathcart had kindly taken care of these
and supplied all their wants for f0Ur
months and a half, and now wished to
leave them at this place.
From the log book of the Obcd Mitch
ell, a ship which was near when the
James Loper fell in with the unfortunate
wreck, by the kindness of Capt. Ray, I
learned more definitely the place where
they met with them. It was in north
latitude J30 degrees, and east long. 174
degrees; about half way between the Is.
laud of Japan and the Sandwich Islands.
When all their moveable property was
transferred to the whaleship, the junk
was set on fire ; and it is due to the kind,
ness and generosity of Cant. C. a wur.
osity often met with among seafaring nun
to state, that not. only were these sufferers
provided with food and necessary cloth
ing, but so far as I could learn, were land,
cd here, with all the moveable property
they had saved, including a considerable
amount of money, gold and silver, coined
in shape of parallelograms, all which, on
their escaping the wreck, was put into
the care of Capt. C, but none was re
served by way of compensation.
I had never before seen a Japanese.
Such was the case with most who were
present. Of course the sight of these men
awakened no little curiosity. We wished
to know what strange events had befallen
them ; and to learn some thing about their
country from which the people of all
other nations were effectually excluded.
I addressed them in English ; but though
they had been four and a half months on
board the ship, they had picked up but
little of our tongue. Others spoke to
them in Hawaiian the first time, of
course, that they had heard such sounds;
others talked louvi that they might over
come what seemed like deafness. Hav
ing understood, however, that the written
languages of the Chinese and Japanese
weie the same, we called in the aid of a
chinaman, who could speak some English,
and who carried on conversation with
tin an, with as profound silence as the deaf
and dumb do their intercourse. lie wrote
our interrogatories, which the oldest of
the Japanese read carefully, and occasion
ally with much hesitation, "and then wrote
his reply. Many of the written charac
ters are the same in both nations ; and
each nation has many that arc peculiar
to itself. Still each may perhaps under
stand some of the characters peculiar to
the other. The Japanese and Chii e?e,
like the Hebrews, in their writing and
printing, begin at the last end of the book,
and turn hack to what an Englishman
would call the beginning. The Hebrews
however, write their lines horizontally,
while the Chinese and Japanese proceed in
perpendicular lines from the top to the
bottom. The amount of information, how
ever, gained during this interview, res
pecting these men, was small. I learned
more by incidental and repeated conver
The oldest of these men, by the name
of Heshero, was called among them, "the
old man." He might be fifty years of
age. was of a spare habit, and rather small
in stature. He was bv far the most man
ly character among them, and appeared to
be very kind and conscientious. He had
attended most to the schools of tl ieir coun
try, was probably the most skilled in their
y nuen language, and was always employed
in writing with a brush and India ink,
except when he could do something to
make himself useful to ns. He had,
doubtless, been a model of industry. He
r.' cuieci aiso to he the most devoted to
the idolatry of his country had an idol,
which was nothing more than a gilded
human figure on a cloth like velvet. This
w.:.s rolled up and enclosed, with a string
of beads, in a wooden box, which was
sometimes hung up in the apartment they
occupiedsometimes in our house; and
from its being missing at certain seasons,