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, j. JAItVES, Editor.
5 l or the Polynesian.
3 nrroi i rrrrinvsi op a MML-vn
ilv thought of thee is oye combin'd
h'ith loveliest things' on earth we find.
Aith living gems of lustre rare.
JVitli flowers, of hues surpassing fair;
Ji'ith snow-wreath of the purest white,
ust tinged with blush of moon's sweet light,
JVith dews of heaven so free from stain
Jt seems just fit for heaven ugain!
y feelings arc as fresh and rife
'ith ore as in the morn of life;
ind still 'mid griefs unpitjing shower
glow with a more celestial power.
3 flowers n sweeter breath diffuse
flien beat to earth with heavy dews,
liy form and features so refined,
tcni a fit garment lor thy mind;
nd all thy face, with feelings fraught,
So changes with each change of thnimht-
w D O
nd with its mind-illumin'd rnvs.
Each movement of thy soul betrays;
fk n i tils ft n lnrlit . . ! 1 A
!uui unc a luuiaiu ll Strums
o wrap yet grace its angel gleam.
Ii! bound in dulness' firmest fold!
ho could that beaming face behold,
sweetly pale so meekly bright,
Could hear those mild, beseeching words,
Sweet as the notes of warblimr biids.
A. C 9
r mark etherial tones at eve
hat through the wind-harp softly breathe,
or leel a gentle influence roll,
lad, yet delightful, o'er his soul
or wish to feel as she has felt
or kneel in prayer, as she has knelt.
Ind feel the balm that breathes from Ifeav'n
Ii those sweet words, " Thou art forgiv'n!"
SATURDAY, JULY 31, 1811.
Vol. 9. Io. S.
From the Chinese Repository for Feb. 1841.
o. I . Circular to Her Majesty's subjects.
The imperial minister and high com
missioner having failed to conclude the
eaty of peace, lately agreed upon by II.
I.'s plenipotentiary, within the allotted
criod, hostilities were resumed yesterday
ftcrnoori. A Chinese force, employed,
nder cover of u masked battery and
trong field-work, in blocking up a chan
el of the river at the back of Anunghoy,
as dislodged, the obstruction effectually
lcared away, the guns in battery and de
sit, amounting to about 80 pieces of va
ious calibre, rendered unservicable, and
he whole of the military materiel destroy
1. This effective service was accom
plished without loss, in two hours, by
-aptain Ileibert, of II. M.'s ship Calliope,
wing under his command the steam ves--'l
Nemesis, and pinnaces of H. M.'s
fups Calliope, bumarang, Herald, and
Alligator. The extent of the enemy's
f'SS has not been ascertained.
Pn board H. M.'s ship Calliope, off South
Wangtong, t cb. .24, 1841.
(Signed) Charlks Elmot, II. M.'s
No. 2To Her Majesty's subjects.
The batteries of the Bocca Tigris have
day fallen to her majesty's forces.
Plerai nundred prisoner s have been cap-
f"vu, uic enemy is in rugni in an airec
10ns, and no loss reported up to this hour
P our side.
H. M. ship Calliope, off North Wang
long, 26th Feb. 3 p. m.
(Signed) Caarles Elmot, H. M.'s
No. 3 Public Xntirft.
r' M.'s shin Wlhshv. at . nnn.hnr nfT
I North Wangtong, 20th Feb. 1841.
p The batteries of the Bocca Tigress hav-
ing this day fallen to her majestv's arms.
nonce is ncreoy given that all British and
foreign merchant vessels are permitted to
repair to that point, and that they will be
allowed to proceed higher, as soon as it is
ascertained that the river is clear of all ob
J. J. G. Bremer, Commander-in-Chief.
This failure to conclude the treaty of
peace, this perfidy icitk interruption of ne
gotiations, can be rightly understood only
when viewed in connection with the whole
course of events since the arrival here of
II. B M.'s expedition last June. Its ob
jects were to obtain redress and indemni
ty for the past, with securities and immu
nities for the future. However; the in
structions to the plenipotentiaries not hav
ing been here published, their import can
only be conjectured from what has trans
pired. It should be carefully borne in
mind, as we proceed, that to make icar on
the Chinese, formed professedly no part of
the objects of the expedition, provided its
ends could be secured by other means ;
consequently a trial of pacific measures
must needs first be made.
The first question with the plenipoten
tiaries was (or appears to have been)
whether the forts at the Bogue should be
demolished or left standing, while they
with the naval and milita.y force should
move northward. The feeling of the
British and foreign community here was
almost unanimous in favor of the first
measure ; they chose the latter, and wisely
at least so we are inclined to think.
It having been determined on we pre
sume in accordance with instructions from
the queen's government at home to take
immediate possession of Chusan, an ad
vanced forco under Commodore Bremer
moved forward for that purpose. The
plenipotentiaries, with the remainder of
the expedition, followed soon after.
When off the coast of Fuhkeen, one of
the vessels, bearing a flag of truce, was
sent with a despatch to the port of Amoy.
The ship was fired on, and the communi
cation refused. As Chinese policy for
bade the reception of this despatch, it
would have been wise, perhaps, not to
have given opportunity for the committal
of such an outrage.
As to the right and expediency of oc
cupying Tinghae which fell on the 5th
of July, we have been in doubt. Indeed,
the occupation of any insular position has
always seemed to us objectionable. There
may have been reasons for, and advanta
ges resulting from, taking Chusan, ot
which we are ignorant ; but judging from
what we know, it would have been better
to have rendezvoused at some small island
(of the size of Shachow in this vicinity).
This would have prevented the long de
tention of the expedition at Chusan, and
would have allowed the entire force to
have gone up a part upon the Yangtszc
keang, and a part to the mouth of the
Pei ho, early in July ; and at these two
positions the nearest to the court that it
was possible for them to reach the forces
should have remained until all questions
at issue were settled. " Let us a great
desideratum " says Mr Warren, " pene
trate to Peking, and learn what is the real
state of things there ; and let us cheerful
ly yield to what we shall find to be the
reasonable and just wishes of the empe
ror." So we have always argued; and
accordingly would have abstained from
attacking Chusan, and from every other
hostile act, save only to lay on a blockade.
A different course was resolved on. arid it
may have been the right one. With its
principal details, our readers are familiar
After a month's delay, and the rejection
of Lord Pahnerston's communicati n by
the provincial authorities, the plenipoten
tiaries proceeded north, and arrived off
the mouth of the Pei ho, August 9lh.
The presence of so largo a squadron,
(though not the half it might have been)
so near the capital, had no small effect.
The tone of the imperial govcrment was
changed, and in correspondence it became
respectful and courteous and pacific. No
doubt the blow on Chusa'n helped io pro
duce this effect ; and perhaps it may on
this account be justified. Negotiations
soon commenced between the plenipoteii
liati.s and the imperial minister Kcshen.
The twice rejected letter was at once re
ceived ; a long interview was held ; and
at length it was agreed, that Kesheu should
meet the plenipotentiaries at Canton, that
half the forces should immediately with
draw from Chusan, and hostilities cease
all ;ilong the coast.
.The emperor's participation in this
agreement, is fully attested by II I. M.'s
own edict, dated September 17th at Pe
king, appointing Keshen high commis
sioner, and ordering his officers in tl.c
provinces to observe the armistice.
The accepting of this agreement was
an act of great generosity on the part of
the plenipotentiaries', who, at the moment
the edict above alluded to was being is
sued, were on their return with the squad
ron to Chusan Them they found that
the Kite had been lost, and that her crew,
with others, had fallen into the hands of
the Chinese Unwilling to do aught that
could infringe the agreement with the
emperor, the prisoners were left at Ning
po, while they with half their forces re
turned to Canton. Tiiey arrived here
November 20th, Kcshen soon after, and
negotiations were resumed.
The armistice agreed on with the em
peror, it should be remarked here en pas
sant, was of a somewhat doubtful nature ;
doubtful, we say, because it became ne
cessary for the plenipotentiaries to obtain
a new one for Chusan before leaving that
neighborhood ; because, immediately up
on their arrival here, one of their vessels
was fired on from the Chinese guns at
Chuenpe : and because the blockade was
not raised. For firing on the flag ofl
truce, ample apology was made, and ne
gotiations went on.
At this early period, apparently there
was but one sentiment prevailing on all
sides The troops at Ningpo were being
disbanded; the people began to return to
the city of Tinghae; and Keshen, in a
very generous manner, released Mr Stan
ton and others who had been' prisoners at
Canton. Such were the friendly appear
ances early in December.
His excellency governor Lin, the prin
cipal agent in. the offensive nets complain
ed of, had already been displaced and cen
sured by his master. Filled with chagrin,
this true son of Han and strong supporter
of all the objectionable principles of his
country's policy, just before delivering up
the seals of his office,. addressed a long
and very passionato memorial to the
throne, urging hostilities. This, which he
circulated widely among his friends in va
rious parts of the country, was quickly
followed by others of similar spirit. - They
took effect. The mild sovereign paused ;
vaccilluted ; and then changed his purpo
ses so, at hast, we are constrained to
think. The first indication of this change
which came under our observation was
" An imperial edict issued on the Mth
day of the 12th month of the 20th year, of
Taoukwang (January 6th, 1811).
To-day Lew Yunho has reported by
memorial, that having gone in person to
Chinhae, be made faithful inquiry con
cerning the dispositions of foreigners,
&c. Keslicn has also reported., concern
ing the dispositions of the foreigners at
Canton that they appear more tihlunt and
overbearing. Already our instructions
have been given to all" the generals, gov
ernors, and lieut. governors to increase the
strength of their defences, and to be time
ly prepared for sudden attack. The pro
vincial city of Clicking is a place of
much importance; whatever measures are
requisite for Tinghae, lot Lew Yunho in
concert with Elepon faithfully deliberate
upon ni:d draw out, and then'immediatc
!y relurn to the provincial city, and in
struct the civil and military officers there
o maintain strong defences. If the said
roreiirrcrs come again to present nnv pe
titions, le t them all be utterly rejected ;
should any of their ships sail near the
port on the coast, at once let matchlocks
and artillery be opened, and the thunder
ing attack be made dreadful. Thero
must be no wavering, so as to exhibit the
slightest degree of awe or fear. Respect
Such was the mipeiial pleasure on the
Gth of January. It virtually nullified the
armistice; announced in his edict of Nov.
17th. At Chman, under the administra
tion of Lew Yunho, the new lieut. gover
nor, affairs had already changed for .the
worse, and the people' of Tinghae were
abandoning the city and carrying off their
effects. Here Kcshen according to his
etimalior. ! aving " with a liberal hand
fja.ittd a measure of what was desired,"
faltered. The action of the 7th follow
ed ; and the cession of Hongkong, an in
demnity of six millions of dollars, direct
official intercourse upon terms of equally
in favor of the English, the restoration of
Chuenpe and Chusan to the Chinese, their
return of prisoners, tfcc, were agreed on,
in due form. The squadron immediately
withdrew from the Bogue, which was to
have been attacked on the 6th, and the
two captured foils we re restored. Dis
patches were hastened up for the speedy
evacuation of Chusan. Formal posses
was taken of Hongkong. Trade with
Canton was opened on or before the 1st
of Februrury, and a treaty signed on or
before the 20th of the same month.
From tho Chinese Kepository for March, 1841.
Referring the reader to the preceding
article for ah account of the progress of
the war, we will here briefly describe the
situation of the expedition as we now find
it. nine months after its arrival. Though
no one of its great objects has yet been
gained, it does not follow of course that
it has been badly conducted, or that no
advantages have been secured. By pur
suing a pacific line of aclion, and reduc
ing the demands to the lowest point, an
experiment of great value has been made :
before all nations the Chinese have now
proved themselves to be what long ago
many believed they were false, faithless,
impotent, merciless, hostile to .all the
world, in a degree far beyond what has
generally been supposed. It is now clear,
clear as the sun that the Chinese gov
ernment will yield nothing to, nor keep
any faith with, foreign states, except by
constraint. Happily this constraint they
already begin to feel; and it is devoutly
to be wished, that this may be continued
on them until they are well established in
their riht position among the great ra
tions of the earth. We admire the mod
eration and generosity that have been dis
played by the commander-in-chief and