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N ATI ' l A L KA I STALL
DOES NATURE SLIGHT LAND IF TREES
HAVE BEEN REMOVED?
A Problem T1ir th Son of rnlumhna
Started Out to Solve -Many - i-t. ot
Viui...,- Countries Hiive (liven the Sub
ject Much Suly.
A tm of Christopher Columbus oncp un
dertook ft task of discovery that proved
lunch more difficult llinn that which his
father had tackled so successfully. In a
tompiunl ively short time Christopher had
the solution of his problem. The answer
which his son, Fernando, set out to Hud Is
still missing. But the younger Columbus
thought he had discovered the true rela
tions of forests to water supplies, and he
announced that t he copious rainfall of Ja
maica wa- pfodtlOed by the island's wealth
of forests anil that the decrease of rain in
the Azores anil ( anai ii's was because of the
renoval of the wooded areas.
For as long perhaps as men have given
any thought tn this matter It has been the
common supposition that forests increase
the rainfall within the area of their sup
posed Inlluence, and in that way and other
ways augment tie How of brooks and riv
ers. The earlier elTorts to determine through
scientific methods whether there Is any
good ground for the supposition were made
with appliances so crude that the margin
for error niust have beet considerably In
excess of t he influence, if any, which the In
vestigatnrs hoped to measure. In later
years ctTorts In the same direction have
been made with great pains, mostly In Eu
ropean countries, but the problem has been
found to have so many factors that, al
though the mass of information collected
Is extremely interesting, the main question
remains practically unanswered. The re
sults of these efforts, together with some
Interesting observations thereon, are set
forth in a bulletin of the forestry division
of the department of agriculture.
Water comes as near being indestructible
as any substance of which we know, Con
sequently the total quantity of it in the
earth and in the earth's atmosphere Is at
ways the same. Only a very small percent
age of It is what one of the writers in this
bulletin terms the circulating part ot the
earth's water capital. The sun makes vapor
of water that is lying at its level oris on
the way to find its level. This vapor is con
densed until it is heavier than the air and
starts again toward its level, and that is
how the circulation goes on. In what way
does the presence of forests influence this
It would be a long story to tell of the
methods employed in 1' ranee, Germany
Bweden, Austria and other countries of Eu
rope- to measure the various influences that
must be considered in determining how and
to what extent the rainfall and the flow of
streams are affected by the presence of for
ests. A very important factor, since heat
Is what starts the movement of the earth's
circulating water capital, is the matter of
temperature, and the results of the Invest!
gations seem to show beyond dispute that
forests reduce the maxima and the minima
of temperature, that they reduce the maxi
uia more than the minima, and that conse
quently their effect is to make the average
teniuerature for the year cooler.
Also, their moderating influence in great
er than their cooling effect. Because the
air above forest regions is slightly cooler
than the strata over treeless tracts, con
densatiou should be more rapid than over
open fields, and the rainfall should he
greater. These cooler bodiea of air, being
blown over adjacent regions that are not
wooded, should also increase somewhat th
nre.tmlstinnther, Tl,ut i- uieory
anu it seems to tie in some degree support
ed by the measurements that have been
Accepting the conclusion that, in general
forests increase slightly the fall of rain
snow and dew, it remains to be determined
how much of this increase is available fo
beneficial purposes. I'art of it is inter
cepted by foliage, anil is returned to th'
atmosphere by evaporation without bavin
reached the ground. The proportion so re
tained varies wit h the nature of the tollajle
the density of the forest and the season o
the year. The retention by evergreen trees
Is less thau by deciduous. It is estimat
that perhaps 81) percent of the precipitation
is thus intercepted and returned to the at
mosphere. Of course this interception and
evaporation go on where the surface
the earth is covered by grass ami other
growing crops. Whether it is sufficiently
greater in the forest than in the field to do
away with the excess of precipitation on
wooded t racts over that on cleared areas
an unsettled question.
Of the 70 per cent of rainfall which, it
estimated, reaches the ground in forests,
part is very quickly returned to the atmos
nhere by evaporation, uut here tne loss
considerably less than in the open field
Under certain conditions it is not more thau
18 per cent of what it would be on bare soil
but the conditions are so various that It
difficult to arrive at an average. Again, out
of this 70 per cent of precipitation which
reaches the ground in wooded areas must
be deducted the loss by transpiration, "the
process by which the plant gets rid of the
surplus water after having drawn it from
the soil in order to extiact from it the
nutriment which Is present In only a very
highly attenuated solution." various in
genu uis methods have been resorted to for
determining the amount of moisture used
In this way, but because of the many fac
tors having to do with it, the amount for
the various kinds of vegetation can be in
dlcated only with a wide margin for varia
While as it stands now nobody can say,
as a result of scientific investigation,
whether forests increase the fall of rain,
hiii i w or dew to an appreciable extent , there
Is no room for doubt that wooded areas are
valuable conservators of moisture. In this
way they make the flow of streams more
even, and they preserve the constancy of
springs. In wooded areas there is a loss by
Interception and evaporation in the foliage
and by transpiration, and there is a consid
erable, gaia in the protection from evapora
tion from the surface of the ground. It is
not probable that this conservation of the
water supply comes anywhere near the
mark drawn by those who hold that the
preservation of woodland insures an abun
dance of water supply, but the benefits re
sulting from it are sufficient to be consid
ered among the other excellent reasons for
looking well to the preservation of forests.
New York Sun.
A Mimical Canine Critic.
A wonderful story of u French musical
critic is related by persous who profeas to
have been acqunlnted with him and to have
seen him in attendance on musical per
formances. He was a dou, and his name
In public was Parade. Whether he had a
different name at home was never known.
At the beginning of the French revolution
he went every day to the military parade in
front of the Tuileries palace. He marched
with the musicians, halted with them, lis
tened knowingly to their performances,
and after the parade disappeared, U return
promptly at parade lime the next day.
Gradually the musicians bcciime attached
to this devoted listener. They named him
Parade, and one or another of them always
Invited him to dinner. He accepted the In
vitations and was a pleasant gueBt. It
was discovered that after dinner lie always
attended the theater, where he seated him
self calmly In a corner of the orchestra and
listened critically to the music.
If a new piece was played, he noticed it
instantly aud paid the strictest attention.
If the piece had tine, melodious passages,
he showed his joy to the best of his doggish
ability, but if the piece was ordinary and
uninteresting he yawned, stared about the
theater aud unmistakably expressed his
disapproval. Youth's Companion.
and Ice Chests,
CHOPPING TRAYS, BROOMS,
MOUSE AND RAT TRAPS,
WIRE CLOTH AND NETTING, ETC.
129 6 If
THOS. G. THRUM'S
I 06 Fort Street.
till keeps un hantl B varied slock ut Office
Commercial and Fashionable Stationery, con
si sling in part of Enirossint and Legal papers
and wrappers, Hat and folded Cap, broad and
narrow bill. Statement, Journal and Jbfdge
papers; Linen and other letter and note paper:
lOKl or tablet form, with or without en
lones; Island View Letter paper and View-
Note Papelcries; Correspondence, Menu, Uall
and Visiting Cards, etc., etc., replenishing the
same from lime to time anu1 adding novelties
as they appear.
Books Besides a full line of Blank
Hooks, in the various sizes and bindings Time
Books, Log Books, Agents and Notane:
Records, Receipts, xsotc and other form book;
Memo, and Pass Books, the variety o( Miscel
laneous Works, Teachers' and other Bibles.
Children's books, Linen and other Toy Book
. . etc., invites attention.
Special Import Orders for
Books, Music, etc.,
mauc up m vniiii j(
Nyy M The News Department has care
ful attention for prompt forwardance of all
periodicals. Subscriptions entered at any time
and periodicals nol regularly received will In
ordered as desired.
All Subscriptions Payable
A large stockol Seaside and other uhraneson
hand, and new Novels received by every mail
Artists' Drawing Materials, and a full supply
01 WinSOI cc Newton S Oil colors, brush
canvas, stretchers, etc., kept on hand or pro
cured on short notice.
Albums in 'I'll several kinds, Work
Boxes and Baskets, Toilet and Manicure sets
Vases, Card Receivers, Leather (Joods, Pari
games and Toys in variety, Dolls and Doll
Base Balls. Bats. Masks
For all aspiring enthusiasts in the profession
Bindine The Book Binding and Pane
Ruling Department still tills all orders entrust
ed to it in the manufacture of special work
reuinoing, plain and intricate ruling, mar
mounting, paper cutting and blocking, etc
Music bound with care.
Printing Brinting orders of all kinds
executed m hrst class manner.
In all the ahovtj lines in which T. G. T. ha
been for over twenty years idenlilied in this
city, he invites correspondence, and guarantee:
prompt and careful attention to all orders en
In making up an order, see that it includes
subscription tor yourscll anu lor one or more
relatives or friends abroad to "Tun Fkieni
the oldest paper published in the Pacific, Re
S. E. Hishop, EuitOfJ published monthly,
$2 per annum, devoted to the religious and
educational interests of these islands, as al
a recorder of political and other current events,
Sample copies mailed to any address.
limited number of advertisements inserted at
I he Hawaiian Annua
its Nineteenth year, and acknowledged
only as the best authority on all information
pertaining to the islands that residents shoul
know and strangers invariably ask, but th
only reference book of Hawaiian statistics
and annual recorder of current and rcmini
cent events. There are homes probably i
this land in which it is unknown, except t
name, and there are nntnerous friends abroad
to whom this publication would afford unt
satisfaction for the fund of reliable information
it imparts in its one hundred and fifty or more
pages, with nothing of the "Gtlidl Book" gush
about it. Price per copy to any address in
these islands, 75 cents; or mailed to any
address in the Postal Union for 85 cents each.
Call in ami examine the
NEW BUTTONHOLE MACHINE
And our new stuck uf
Fine Singer Sewing Machines.
Bethel Street, Honolulu, Damon Mock.
HONOLULU IRON WORKS,
Steam Km. inks Shcak Mu.i.s, BOILIKI
t'001 krs. Ikon, Hkass, ani Lead
Machinery of Kvery Description Made to
Order, l'ailicular attention paid to Ships'
lllui iksnUhiag, Job work executed al Short
402 and 404
We are Still Importing
Among other things the
y - It 4lfH ill 1
Dark (j. in. vyucox Droucrnt
is the following:
Hubbuck's Genuine, No.
1 and No. .'J White Lead, in 25,
50 or 100 lb. iron kegs.
Hubbuck's White Zinc
ed Lead, pale boiled and raw
Oil. Stockholm and Coal Tar,
n barrels or drums. Castile
Soap, Shot. BB to No. 10,
unched Horse Shoes, Sal
Soda, galv'd Anchors, brush
Door Mats, flexible steel and
ronWire Rope, Seine I wine
Iarns Harness Liquid, Da
& Martin Blacking, galvanized
Buckets and Tubs, Chain, blk.
and galv'd y to 5s; galv'd
Sheet Iron, No. 16 to 26;
Finned Wire, Copper Wire,
No. 10 to 20, black and galv'd
Fence Wire, Nos. 4, 5 and 6,
Blue Mottled Soap, Anvils,
70 to 200 lbs.; Blacksmiths
Vises, all sizes; a large assmt.
f Bar Iron, kegs Dry Vene
tian Red, Y ellow Ochre, Pans
low, Burnt timbre, Ult.
Blue, Paris Green, Metalic
Also, received ex Australia,
2000 asstd Elect. Lamps,
Hose, Butcher knives, Carv
ers, Carriage Gloss Paint, Sul
jhur Bellows, Scissors, Shoe,
Paint and Varnish Brushes;
Buckles, Picture .Cord, Furni
ture IN ails, 1 ape Measures,
Jennings Bits, Yale Padlocks,
Oilers, galv d Swivels, White
Shellac, Gold Leaf, Leather
Washers, and at last our fine
assmt. ot VVostenholm focket
Knives and Razors has got
We were almost out of those
fine swing Razor Strops, but
have a new lot this steamer.
We have a full line of Elec
trical Goods, and can wire
houses for Electric Lights on
short notice. Now is the time
to leave your order for wiring,
as in a tew months the current
for liorhtS can be furnished and
then everyone will want lights
it once, and those whose hous
es are wired will ol course get
E. 0. HALL k SON.
Fort & Kino
John Wieland Brewing Co.
K X T H A.
Pale Lager Beer
Fresh Invoice 01 Califor
Oyster Cocktails a Specialty.
L H DEE, Pro)'r.
A FEW OF OUR SPECIALTIES.
Complete Assortment of
Stoves and Ranges
" EURKK.A" RANGES,
"CLIPPER " CABOOSES,
set in brick.
AGATE IRON WARE,
and TIN WARE,
'COLUMBUS' WROUGHT STEEL
SINES, Galvanized and White
CAL. LAWN SPRINKLERS.
Abtcl Metal (loods in Tin, Copper or Gal
vanized Iron on hand or made to order.
l;ul) line of Sanitary Goods, bath Tubs,
Lavatories, Water Closets, Pipe and Fittings.
We are quipped for work of all kinds in
the Sheet Metal and I'lumbing Trade, and can
guarantee thomueh workmanship aud first
cl.i materials in these lines.
We solicit ytiur patronage.
J. Emmeluth & Co.
No. 6 Nuuanu st., and 104 Merchant st.
Old Kona Coffee
Fok Sale at
J. T. WATERHOUSE'S
Queen Street Stores
NEWSPAPER IS A NECESSITY to
every person in the community man,
woman or child -who is able to read and
who desires to keep in touch with the spirit of this
progressive age and wishes to be posted as to events
of interest which are continually happening at home
and abroad, on land and sea."
The Star is a new paper and has introduced
Californian methods of journalism into Hawaii, where,
before its advent, the Massachusetts newspaper tra
ditions of 1824 held sway. It has three prime objects:
To support the cause of Annexation of Hawaii
to the United States and assist all other movements,
political, social or religious, which are of benefit to
these Islands and their people.
To print all the news of its parish without fear
or favor, telling what goes on with freshness and
suppressing nothing which the public has
To make itself indispensable to the family circle
by a wise selection of miscellaneous reading matter.
As a commentator the. Star has never been
accused of unworthy motives.
As a reporter the Stau has left no field of local
As a friend of good government the Star has
been instant in service and quick to reach results.
As an advertising medium the Star, from the
week of its birth, has been able to reach the best
classes of people on all the Islands.
Compare the daily table of contents with that
of any other evening journal in Honolulu
" STAR !
HARDWARE, Builders and General,
always up to the times in tJtttUty, styles and pruts.
a full assortment to suit the various demands.
made expressly for Island work with extra parts.
CULTIVATORS' CANE KNIVES.
l es, Shovels, Mattocks, etc,, etc.
and Machinists' Tools,
Screw Plates, Taps and Dies, Twist Drills,
Paints and Oils, Brushes, Glass,
Asbestos Hair Felt and Felt Mixture.
Blakes' Steam Pumps,
Wilcox & Gibbs, and Remington.
Lubricating Oils, in qua,i,y XtST""
it is not possibie to list everything we have; if there is anything
you want, come and ask for it, you will be politely treated.
No trouble to show j;oods.
HENRY DAVIS & Co.,
52 Fort Street, Honolulu, H. I.
GROCERS AND PROVISION DEALERS !
Purveyors to the United States Navy and Provisioned of War Vessels.
FAMILY GROCERIES. TABLE LUXURIES. ICE HOUSE DELICACIES.
Coffee Roasters and Tea Dealers.
Island Produce a Specialty
FRESH BUTTER ani EGGS,
We are Agents and First Handlers of Maui Potatoes,
AND SELL At LOWEST MARKET KATES.
P. O. Box 505. Both Telephone! Number 130.
Nature's Grandest Wonder.
The Popular and Scenic Route
Wilder's Steamship Company's
Al STEAMER KINAU,
Fitted with Electric Light, Electric Bells, Courteous and Attentive Service
"V I -A. HILO:
Die Kinau Leaves Honolulu Every 10 Day,
TUESDAYS ANU KK I DAYS,
Arriving at Hilo Thursday and Sunday Mornings
From Kilo to the Volcano 30 Miles,
Passengers are Conveyed in Carriages,
Over :i SPLENDID Ma ADAMIZED ROAD, running most of the
way thrOUgb a Dense T topical Forest - a ride alone worth the
trip. The balance ot the road on horseback.
ABSENT FROM HONOLULU 7 DAYS!
rr TICKET S,d
Including All Expenses,
For the Round Trip, : : Fifly Dollars.
For Further Iniormation, Call at tiu Opfick,
Comer Foil and Om en Streets.