Newspaper Page Text
THURSDAY, APRIL 2, 1857.
Since our last report, busiuess with both importers and re
Ailers ha& been unuaoallv quiet, even for thia season of the
The only arrirala are the barque Gambia, on the 27th of
darch, from London, via Sydney and Tahiti, and. the barque
ihering from Boston. The. latter vsel merely touched here
br water and provisions, being bound to the North.
We learn that the whaleshipB a Kavraihae and Lahaina ex
erlence great difficulty in getting potatoes at the former place,
he natives demand $2.50 per bbl. This is unfortunate. If we
an't raise a few thousand barrels of potatoes for the whale ships
a the Spring, we deserve to have then: Jeave us.
In Island produce there have been no transactions.
SUGAR is held above the views of buyers.
BROOMS. Sales at $4-50.
ADAMANTINE CANDLES. 30c. ib.
LOBSTERS. 2 fi Tins, $4.50 tf' doz.
MANILA CIGARS. Twist 3nds, $15 & M.
The stock of Flour is light, aa. is all ia the hands of the ha
ters. A large quantity is known to be due here in the Yankee.
100 bbls. per month is fully equal to the demand during the
Exports of Sngar, Coffee, Syrup and Molnwct
from the Sandwich Islands, 1845 to 1856.
Years. Sugar, lbs. Coffee, lbs. Molasses, gls. Syrup,gls
1845. 302,000 203
1846. 300,000 10,000
1847. 694,810 26,243
1848. 499,533 58,065
1849. 653,820 28,231
1850. 754.000 210,000
1851. 20,000 25,842
1852. 733,000 117,000
1853. 634,746 60,000
1854. 575,777 87,701
1355. 289,403 77,616
1856. I 554,805 63,532 .
From the above schedule it will
gain In the export of Sugar for 'S3.
i 26.229 12,005
I 48,955 J 9,847
bj Been that there was no
er that of '45: 1850, the
year of high prices In California, took fiom us all the accumu
r lated stock of the preceding year. In ISol the "export of both
; Supar and Coffee was very trifling,
The years marked with A star show no returns of amount of
Molasses and Syrup.
LATEST DATES, received at this Office.
San Francisco - - - Feb. 17
Panama, N. G. - Jan. 31
New York - - - - Jan. 21
London - - . - Dec. 27
Paris - - - .
Hongkong- - .
Sydney, N. S. W.
Tahiti - - -
For San Francisco, per Fanny Mjor, April 4.
For Lahaina, per Kamoi, to-day.
For Hilo, per Maria, to-day (via Kiwaihae).
For Kawaihae, per Manuokawai, to-day.
For Kosa, Hawaii, per Kekaulu- : j, Friday.
PORT OP HO.JOX.TJI.Tj, XX. I.
March 26 Wh sh Jireh Perry, Cannon ; Oood Return, Wing ;
Florida, Fish ; and Brooklyn, Rose, arrived off this
port, and sailed again for the North.
27 Br bark Gambia, Milne, 25 ds fin Tahiti, with mer
chandise to J. T. Waterhouso.
27 Sch Sally, fm Hilo, and Excel, frs Kauai.
28 Am bk Bhering, Morse, 132 day fm Boston sailed
same day for Petropoloski and ether Russian port".
29 Haw sch Kamoi, Chadwick, fiu Lahair-a.
29 Haw sch John Young, fm Koioa.
SO Haw wh sch Pfiel, Suhivenbeck, fm Mp.rguerita Bay.
31 Whaltships Navy, Wood, and Arld, Sarvent,
arrived off the port and sailed again for the North.
Apf il 1 Sch Kekauluohi, Kole, 4 ds fm Kona, Hawaii, with 83
natives.- She brings only a couple thousand of
2 Am wh sh Navigator, Fisher, fm Californio coast.
2 Am wh sh Saratoga, Slocum, 5 mos fm N. Bedford.
2 Lying off and on, Olympia, Ryan.
March 26 Sch Maria, Molteno, for Lahaina.
31 John Young, for llanalei.
April 1 " Mary, Berrill, for Kawaihae.
1 " Excel, for NawiUwUi.
2 Am sh Raduga, Green, for Manila.
HT Several ships and- schooners have been ready for sea
tome days, "waiting a change in the wind, which is from the
. touthwsrd. :: - - :
Lahaina, March 23, 1857 Dear Sir : I enclose herewith, at
he request of Capt. Norton, of ship On ward, a report which he
t'ceived at Tahiti from Capt. Blans, late masler of schooner
Irchimedes. Please insert this report in the Commercial Ad-
ertiser, and oblige ' Yours truly, S. Hoffmkybr.
The three-masted schooner Archimedes, of Sydney, was
.recked on one of the Margaret Islands on the 27th Jan., 1357.
. ill hands were saved, and have arrived safely at this port.
'a he Archimedes was bound fr m Valparaiso to Melbourne.
T. Blans, Master.
t Capt. Loper, of the Sarah Sheaf, reports that the cook, Robt.
Poulter, was missed, March 29, about noon. He was seen half-
an-hour previous at the galley. Thejead and a piece of line are
also gone. A boat was lowered immediately, and a man sent to
the mast-head, but nothing could be discovered. The distance
to the shore and the other ship was 6uch that the presumption
Is, he must have drowned himself. His father's name is Mr.
Richard Poulter, of Greenport, Long Island, N. Y.
Quick Despatch. The fine bark Bhering cams into our har
bor on Saturday, the 28th, at 1 o'clock. She received on board
a full supply of water and fresh provisions, and sailed again at
4 P. M., for the North. Capt. Morse reports having made the
run from Boston to Cape Horn in 55 days was becalmed there
several days. Spoke whalcships Hector, Benjamin Rush, and'
Lahaina, March 31. 1S57 : Dear Sir, We hasten to hand
you the following report below : arrived 28th inst ship Charles
Carroll, Parsons, last from the California coast with 100 whale
and 15 sperm, brings' no new report. Arrived 30th inst ship
Tahmaroo, Robinson, 8 months from home via Talcuhuana, 200
sperm and 100 whale j reports at Talcuhuana January 27 th,
report. Corea, Fish, shipped all his oil and hove down for re
pairs. Morning Stat, Cleveland, 1500 sperm, for home with
freight from Julian. Enterprise, Brown, shipping all his oil
for home. Bark Garland, Parsons, to cruise. Bark Richmond,
Manchester, 900 sperm, for home. Bark Cornelia, Crape, 1400
whale, for home. Ship Geo. Howland, Wight, for home, with
freight from Corea. Ship Gazelle, Eastern, 1100 sperm, for
home. Ship Napoleon, Crowell, to cruise. Ship Henry, Bun
ker, to cruise. President, Allen, to cruise. Ship Rajrid, West,
5 months out 10 bbls sperm. Bark Benj. Cum mint, no reiort.
Lahaina, March 31, 1857, and March 28. Charles Carroll,
Parsons, N. L., 100 wh j March 31, ship Tahmaroo. Robinson,
110 sp since leaving Talcahuano 45 days since sent home at T.
80sp,ioowh. . :
Reports, Talcahuano,- January 27, 1857: bk Helen Mar,
Worth, 250 sp sailed to cruise ; bk Keoka, Howland, 700 sp
sailed to cruise j ship Enterprise, Brown, discharging oil , ship
Corea, Fish, had discharged oil, was hove down for repair for
damage received among the ice in Ochotsk sea j sh Geo. How
land, wright, sailed for home with freight, from ship Corea j bk
Richmond, Manchester, sailed for home, 900 Bp ; bk Garland;
Parsons, to cruise ; sh Napoleon, Crowell, to cruise j sh Henry,
Bunker, to cruise; eh President, Allen, to cruise j sh Gazelle,
Easton, 1100 sp, taking freight fm sh Enterprise ; bk Hector,
Smaly, 260 sp, sailed to cruise Feb. 20, sh Julian, Cleveland,
sailed to cruise would touch at the S. Islands ; bk Morning
Star, Cleveland, 1500 sp, for home with freight fm Julian ; bk
Cornelia, Crapo, 1400 bbls, for home with freight from Enter
prise. Yours, &c, Gillman & Co.
Spoken by ship Tahmaroo, on Chili, off Guafo, about 5th
Jan.: Bark Morning Light, Norton, 240 wh, 80 sp ; sh Niger,
Jernigan, 3 months out, 70 sp sh George &r Susan, Jenks, 1100
sp, for home ; bk Nevcburyport, Crandall, 240. sp, and seen
cutting a sp whale afterwards ; Valparaiso, 60 sp ; sh Condor,
Whiteside, off and on j Mary Frazier Rounds, off and on.
Truly yours, Boiaes & Co.
VESSEIiS IN PORT. APRIIj 1.
II. I. M.s corvette Eurydice, M. M. Pichon.
Chilean brig Escape, Collins, repairing.
Am clipper ship Aspasia, Green, waiting the wind. . "
Am bark Fjnny Major, Lawton, to sail soon for San Francis
co. Am sh Raduga, Green, soon for Manila.
Am sch San Dtego.
i . WHALERS. . "'
Ship Huntsvilii, Grant. l Brig Oahtt, Molde, fitting out.
Triton 2i, Whife. ; - Bark Isabella, Lyons.
Coast era in Port.
Brig Emma, Bent, repairing.
- " John Dunlap, Hsdl, for Kona.
Sch Manuokawai, repairing.
" Mary, Berrill, for Kawaihae.
- " Kekauluohi. Knl
1" Kamoi, Chadwick, tq for Lahaina.
From London via Sydney pey Gambia 269 cs bottled beer,
13 qr-casks wine, 2 qr-casks bramlyj 38 cs Spanish white wine,
1 cs colored beads, 678 cs merchandise, 5 bales do, 9 cs sheetings
1 case straw hats, 1 cs d? apery, 4? r Haw's candles, 25 cs yel
For New Yobk per Aspasia: 63,474 gals whale oil, ex Mont'
pelier. 27 bbls slush, and 2 chronometers, D. C. Waterman, 9663
Co, 145,000 fis guano, G. P. Judd, 16,582 lbs bone, Melchers &
gl3 cocoanut oil, W. 8tott, 3625 gls cocoanut oil, R. Coady & Co.,
16,152 lbs bone, 24,334 gals whale oil, 6822 sperm oil F. E. Stan
burg, 7497 gals whale oil, James M. Green, 1774 gals whale
oil, 5O10"gals sperm oil, 490 lbs bone, Gilman & Co., 2647 lbs
bone, Krull & Moll, lot of old iron and 85 iron knees, D. M. Wes
ton, 1 chest clothing and 1 box merchandise, J. Macomber, 2
bxs arrowroot and coffee, Castle & Cook, 1 cask old copper,
D. M. Weston, 2 bxs mdse C. P. Wilson, 4 cs mdse, 17,870 lbs
walrus teeth, 6489 lbs bone, 60 bullock hides, 6 bales Manila
hemp, 9 bbls tallow, Iloffschlager & Stapenhorst, 8314 lbs bone,
ex Counter ; 16,152 lbs bn, T. E. Stranburg ; 5,194 gals sp oil,
Capt. Caswell j 5 cs shells and corals, I. Bartlett ; 1 bbl mo
lasses, P. Folger ; 420 hides, 1000 kid-skins, 13 calf-skins, 6 pes
cable, 60 bales goat-skins J. C. Spalding, 2 cases mdse, R. C.
Janion ; 4 cs md3c, Yon Holt & Heuck ; 16 casks tallow, C.
Brewer 2d ; 23 bbls slush, 3 casks hemp, 8 bbls old copper, 10
casks canvas, 12 bbls old iron, Thos. Spencer ; 10,053 lbs bone,
Tor Manila per Raduga 10 pkgs old copper, 3 cs pianos,
31 bales wool, 2 cs watches, 5 pkgs mdse, 30 bbls beef, 12 bags
Per sch Maria from Honolulu to Kawaihae via Lahaina,
March 26 100 bbls salt, 3 bags flour, 4 horses, 25 bbls salmon,
150 boxes soap, 3J00 feet lumber, 6 tons dry goods, 50 bbls
shooks, 3000 gals empty casks, 23 gals spirits, 1 box wool screws
6 casks Manila horse rope.
Per Kamoi from Lahaina 5 casks and 15 bbls oil.
Per Excel for Kauai 100 empty molasses barrels, 300 pkgs
staves, 1000 shingles, 1000 lumber, 2 horses, 1 imported bull.
For Manila per Raduga W. P. Fessenden, J. C. Pfluger,
J. J. Bischoff, F. Zenke and ady, Mr. SneU, Mr. Cerstu, Frank
For New York per Aspasia Wm. Henry Dimond.
From Sydney per Gambia Mrs. Milne, (Capt.s wife) and
3 children, Mrs. Keyte and child, Jl. R. JUacfarlane.
" ForXAHAiSA per Maria, March 26 Mr. Unna, Akana, and
au uairves. . .
From Lahaina per Kamoi J. Cook ant? 15 deck passengers.
From Kacai per Excel John xoung, W. II. Rice, Geo. F.
Pfluger,' Mr. Fredenburg, Mr. Gallagher. '
At Hamakua, Hawaii, 14th ult., by Rev. L. Lyons, Mr. John
S. Low, of Gloucester, Mass., to Martha IV Fcllkr, grand
daughter or John 1. Parker, JSsq.
Dec. 5ih, 1856, at the house of the Rev. G. B. Rowell, Walmea,
Kauai, M k. Banta, late from California.
On board whaleship Honda, eb. 8, WM. .Meldrcm belong
ing to New York city. The . vessel was cruising south lat. 15 ,
and west Ion. 110 . Reported by Capt. Eish.
At United States Hospital, in Honolulu, Feb. 9, Lons Rebol
LZRO, belonging to Peru, S. A., and discharged from bark Cath
erine. 3arch 4, Christian Decftch, a German, belonging to
Philadelphia, and discharged from ship Florida. .March 13,
Joseph Atwell, belonging to Connecticut, near New London,
and discharged from ship Janus. M arch 26, George Russell,
belonging to New Bedford.
PORT OP LAHAIUA, lyTJElTJI.
March 26 Am sh Onward, Norton, fm Society Islands, 200 sp.
220 wh, 17000 bone.
28 Am sh John Howland, Taylor, fm Society Islands.
March 26 Bk Prudent, Hamilton, for North.
27 C. W. Morgan, Fisher, to cruise.
23 Bk Sarah Sheaf, Loper for North.
Capt. Norton " reports having spoken, on 10th of Jan., ship
New England, 5 whales, bound to Bay of Islands for provisions,
from thence home. On 17th, bk Mil wood, Sylva, 3 whales.
On 26th 8hir4Aonf mmwuj, Tinker.bound soon to River La Platte,
1 whale. Also, sch.'rcAimttes was lost, Jan. 27, on Margaret
Islan ds, with cargo of flour and hats from Valparaiso, bound to
Australia. The Capt. and crew arrived at Tahiti in a whaleboat.
Schooner and cargo sold at Tahiti as she lay for $300.
Respectfully yours, C. b. Bartow.
PORT OP HILO, HAWAII.
March 1 Jireh Perry, Cannon, fm home, 150 sp. "
i o- Condor; V l)itsideT fra lhame.
8 Reindeer, Ashley, fin Lome, 30 sp.
9 Florida, Fish, from home, 30 sp.
10 Good Return, Wing, fm cruise, 70 sp.
12 Callao, Howland, fm cruise, 85 sp.
12 J. D. Thompson, Waterman, fm Bhering Sea and
Arctic, 100 sp.
13 Mary Frazier, Rounds, fm home.
14 Navy, Wood, from cruise.
17 Sh Lydia, Leonard, fm cruise, 00 sp.
19 Baltic, Brownson, fm cruise, 35 sp, 235 wh.
21 Daniel Wood, Morrison, fm home, 35 sp had lost a
21 Rambler, Willis, fm home j Cspt. W. brings his wife
and family, all well, to remain here during his
22 Indian Chief, Huntley, fm home, clean.
THURSDAY; APRIL 2.
Agriculture of the Hawaiian Islands. Xo 1.
It is the province of a newspaper to collect and
disseminate useful and interesting information on all
subjects that affect the public welfare. On none is
it more difficult to procure reliable information than
on our agriculture. Mere theories when "brought to
the test of practice have too often been found like ob
jects in a mirage, pretty to look at, but very diffi
cult if not impossible to reach or carry out. The
truth is this, we want here the actual experience of
the few who have been our agriculturists, and who,
from that experience are able to separate impractica
ble theories from what is possible. Nowhere in the
world is there a better field for the investment of cap
ital in agriculture than here in this group rland is
abundant at reasonable rates, labor is comparatively
cheap, and good markets at remunerating prices are
at hand for most if not all our agricultural products.
The principal want is capital. To commence a sugar,
coffee, orange, or cotton plantation requires capital
enough to carry on the estate for three to five years
at the least, before returns can be looked for.
To encourage the introduction of capital from
abroad, as well as to awaken a greater interest in the
subject in our kingdom, we shall publish" articles on'
the agriculture of our group, which will be prepared,
so far as their assistance can "be procured by, persons
who are familiar with the subjects on which they
write. And while we hope to avoid making them
tedious to any by only inserting the articles oc
casionally, we trust to be able to interest all our
readers both here and abroad. Nor will the subjects
treated be confined solely to such productions as have,
been already introduced and successfully cultivated,
but will embrace some that have not yet been found
productive. Among these are cotton, the grape,
lemons, and some of the cereals, all of whicltf must
in time become staple productions ot ourkinmiom
The first attempt at the culture of cane in the
Hawaiian Islands, of . which there is any record or
tradition, was made in Manoa Valley, on Oahu, four
miles distant from Honolulu, in 1825. One hundred
acres of cane were put under cultivation by the - na
tive oo, the only agricultural implement then in use
on the Islands. There was an attempt to manuf.icture
the crop into sugar, but whether successful or not,
does not appear. The only record of this enterprise
is in the reports of .the R. H. Agricultural Society :
After the first cutting, the plantation dilapidated
and wasted away for want of protection.' ' The next
enterprise of the kind was undertaken by Messrs.
Ladd & Co., atKoloa, Island of Kauai, in 1835. Since
that period the Koloa plantation has continued in
operation, with Varied- success. The land .was first
broken on this estate by a plow drawn by natives.
There are now employed on it one hundred and thirty
native laborers. It embraces about 4000 acres of
cane and pasture land-has 1000 head of cattle, in
cluding 200 working oxen. It is capable of pro
ducing 200 to 350 tons of sugar per annum. Present
stimated valuation $100,000.
On the same Island, at Lihue, a plantation on a
similar scale was commenced in 1850, with an esti
mated capital of about $100,000. It embraces 2000
acres of cane and pasture land; but, unfortunately,
it is located in a district exposed to droughts, and has
not yet been remunerative. Within the last year the
proprietors have had recourse to irrigation, at an
outlay of some $7000, with every prospect of ultimate
success. The motive power on these two estates is
water. On the Lihue plantation, steam is employed
as an auxiliary.
On the Island of Maui, there are two sugar mills, !
worked by mule power. Each plantation has about
1200 acres of cane and pasture land. Original cost
of each about $50,000. Each estate employs a field
gang of forty to fifty natives, and with this force is
capable of producing. 150 tons of sugar annually.
The East Maui plantation produced the past season
about 170 tons.
On Hawaii, near Hilo, there is a sugar plantation
conducted by Chinese, which has been producing
about 100 tons per annum. The above five planta
tions, including that at Hilo, compose the entire
sugar interest of the Hawaiian Islands.
Since 1835, some eight or ten small estates have
been commenced on; different Islands with a too lim
ited capital, whose operations were suspended, owing
to the low price of sugar occasioned by our over- '
stooked markets, during the years of 1851, '2 and '3. '
There are five -varieties of sucrar cane. whiMi mn.v i
be considered indigenous to the Hawaiian Islands, as
they have been known to the natives from time im
memorial, or as far back as their tradations extend.
1st. The white cane, inclining to a straw color,
which is very watery, considered inferior, and but
- 2d. The yellow or straw color, not readily distin
guished from a variety imported from Tahiti, is a
rich cane, and is the kind most generally cultivated,
at moderate elevations above the sea.
3d. Purple -rind dark purple, very hard, with a
white celular structure, and rich juice bjootkmabl
on account of the hardness of the rind and joints,
requiring more power for the perfect expression of
4 th. Purple not distinguishable from the former,
except by the purple tinge, extending to the interior
tissues of the cane. .
. 6th. The green and purple ribbon, or striped,
with softer rind and joints than the purple; very rich
and juicy, and generally considered the best variety,
especially upon the high table lands.
The three last varieties have a foliage less droop
ing, and of a deeper green than the white or yellow
canes; are more hardy, and on this account, are
much preferred on land considerably elevated above the
sea"; being less liable to injury from the cold nights
AH these varieties of cane are found growing natu
rally or in a wild state, throughout the Hawaiian
group, at various elevations, from, that a little above
the level of the sea to an altitude of thirty-five hun
dred, feet. Below the elevation of seventeen hundred
feet, the cane is eight to seventeen months, according
vo the the time of planting or cropping, in arriving
at maturity. It arrows (if not less than six or seven
months old) about the 20th of November. Planted
at any time after e..tvqfTuxieJ, itfqiils Jtom develop
the arrow at the usual ensuing season, and a growth
of seventeen months may be thereby secured from
the first planting. If planted much before June, it
arrows the fol lowing November or December, but the
yield is comparatively light. Above the altitude of
seventeen hundred feet, the cane seldom arrows, and
it is twenty to thirty months, according to elevation,
in maturing; but as a compensation for its slow
growth on the high table lands, it may be planted
any month in the year, and the crop may be allowed
to remain on the ground six or seven months after
its maturity, without material deterioration.
Another advantage consists in the superior quality
of the juice, having, an average density of 12
Bcaume, with much less admixture (owing to the
harder and more fibrous texture of cane of slow
growth) of foreign matters, as indicated by a larger
per centage of sugar, as well as by its superior qual
ity. The bagasse is found, in ordinary seasons, to be
ample for purposes of fuel; and in very dry seasons,
it accumulates beyond the wants of the furnace.
The better quality of Island sugar compares favor
ably with that of New Orleans, and (with the ex
ception of the latter) has the preference over all other
raw sugars, which find their way into the California
and Oregon markets.
If the density of juice be any test of its quality,
the cane of the Hawaiian Islands is unsurpassed by
any in the world. In the West Indies 10 Beaume
is considered a high average density. In Louisiana
the average density is about 7. Cane of so low a
quality at the Hawaiian Islands might be manufac
tured into molasses; but no one would think of
making sugar from it. The average density of the
uice of ripe cane of these Islands is 10 to 12j ac
ording to its maturity, and the season of grinding.
Txmisiana is indebted for the superior quality of her
ugars to her improved process of manufacture, in
.team trains and . vacuum pans. At the Hawaiian
Elands, the moie primitive method of manufacture
Uas been the only available tme, in open kettles over
rhe open fire. 2000 gallons of juice yield upon an
average 2000 lbs. sugar. By retailing the molas
ses, 2300 to 2500 lbs. of sugar, with 90 gallons , mo--es
are obtained from the same quantity. The mills
m operation on the Islands are found to give about
0 per cent of juice. Seventeen cart loads of cane,
weighing something over' one ton each, is about the
average quantity of canes required for one ton of
iugar. A cart load of cane is formed by piling one
length of canes, average length ;seven feet, four feet
wide and eight feet high.
The total annual product of the Islands has never
yet exceeded 700, or at mst 800 tons; and about
one-third of this amount finds a ready sale, for home
consumption. The custom house returns show the
largest export from the Islands to .be that of 1850,
which was 750,238 lbs.
To say that these Islands are destined to become
the West Indies" of the North Pacific," would be
overrating their capacity for tropical products. The
total area of the eight inhabited Islands is said to be
C090 square miles, or 3,897,600 acres, a trifle less
than that of the Island of Jamaica. One-eighth of
the entire area, or in round numbers, 500,000 acres,
i . . . .... . ...
ii uas oeen estimated, is suitable lor tillage. And of
this, 50,000 acres is a high estimata of the amount
aesiraDie ior tne culture of cane. And if we take
into account the absence of roads through volcanic
and mountainous districts, and the ' want of harbors
accessible to sailing vessels, the total amount of sugar
1 m v s3 e Z v wi wY a Jt m1 1 !! a a .
AtMiuo, Auiiiiwiawcijr avauaDie, wui not exceed 2o,000
acres. Une-half of this amount is the most that can
economically b put 'under cultivation in any one
year. And although plant canes, on choice bottom
! inds have been found to yield, under favorable cir-
mcfonK, 4000rxunds, and in some -cases 5000
, ounds per acre, 2000 pounds per acre is the highest
verage yield for a series of years, which can be relied
' Upon this calculation 12,500 tons is the highest
otal yield, of which the Hawaiian Islands are capa-
le. This amount would supply a population of about
00,000, allowing the consumption to be 30 lbs. per
nnum per capitum. To realise such a result would
equire an invested capital of at least $3,000,000,
nd 8,000 laborers; and the gross income to the Islands
vnnld be about SI. 500,000. The product of all the
lantations, now in operation on the Hawaiian Islands
vorked to their utmost capabilities, will not exceed
00 to 1000 tons, which is about a sixteenth of their
The best soils for cane are found to be the rich, black,
ravelly loam or mould, of the bottom or table lands.
4de hills or plains with considerable inclination,
cashed by the heavy rains, which fall during the
vinter season, are unproductive. A large propor-
ion of the soil of the Islands is a stiff clay with a
wMfv nf vegetable mould easily pulverised by the
i ;,Q hPmino- Terv compact and
tfc- Wv rams and hot sun of summer,
Unfavorable seasons, such soils yield a fair crop of
lant canes; but a first or second crop of ratoons can
eldom be obtained from them. The poorest soils for
on p.nnsishs of a red clav. supposed to owe their
olor to the peroxide of iron. Cane grown upon such
oils. is not renumerative, as the yield is' very light,
ri Vio-snirnr alwavs of an inferior auality. It is
' .robable that such soils might be improved by mixing
vith them sand, which is found in great abundance
. .ear the seaboard, and wmcn consists oi croonate oi
ime. it wouia renuer WVm more puivm., uu f-
vaps neutralize the oxides of iron. Lime is regarded
n all countries as one of the best manures for cane.
There is no crop which requires higher cultivation
kill of the manufacturer can make a good quality of
ugar. It is a common remark, that the manufacture
f sugar should commence in the field. After the
.round is thoroughly prepared, the cane is usually
T-lanted in drills, formed by the plow, as deep as the
. oil will admit of. The drills are usually seven to
ight feet apart, and two slips of cane of about
ighteen inches in length are laid side by side in the
ill, and covered to the depth of two to four inches.
he hills beine about four feet apart. Five acres of
vir cane will replant one hundred acres. In Louisi
na twenty acres of best cane : are required to plant
ne hundred acres. At these islands wild canes are
ometimes taken for plants; but more generally, the
lahts are taken from the cane-fields, which have been
The comparatively large
uantity oiseeu required in ixmisiana, is owing to tne
aneoemg longer jointeu,anu to me i.npencc ue-
i i ...j t a. it r r . a. ji
elopments of the buds, fcnort jointed canes with
veil developed buds, have been found to be the best
The process of manufacture does not differ from
'iat pursued in the West Indies. The mills in opera
on have iron rolls, generally four feet in length and
vo feet in diameter, The juice is received into
blong iron clarifiers, where it is heated to the boiling
oint, limed, and afterwards evaporated in open ket-
ies. instead or hogsheads, the centniusral separa-
rs, recently introduced, are preferred for draining
he sugars. At the present price of labor, and allow-
. . . . .... .... .lal
ost of production does not vary much from 4 cents
With suitable localities, experienced superinten
ents and the requisite capital, and with the present
rospect of fair prices for some years to come, there
an be no safer, or in the long run, better paying
usiness, than sugar growing . at the Hawaiian
NOTES OF THE WEEK,
Another Guano Expedition. When the last let
. it from the foreign office appeared in print on Satur
ay, informing all the world that the Hawaiian realm
as been extended one hundred miles farther west
han any previous accounts made it, everybody looked
'or something ahead. ; It turns out now that an ex
;edition is to be sent out to explore the newly annexed
lomain, at present supposed to be inhabited only by
lifferent kinds of birds. The schooner Jlfanuokawai,
mder command of Capt. John Paty, fully equipped,
nd perhaps armed, for tho expedition, will sail in
ibout ten days. Should no guano be found, we would
recommend Capt. Paty to fill the vessel with a cargo
df eggs, which migjit prove as profitable as the guano.
. New PREss.-AfPerhaps as interesting an item of
news as any during the past week is the importation
of one of Adams' power-presses, received by the Ra
duga from Boston, which was successfully put into
operation in our office on Friday last, just ten days
after being lauded from the ship. This Commercial
Advertiser, and also the last number of the Friend,
have been printed on it. A circumstance worth
noting is, that the composition rollers on the press
were cast in Boston, and must be ten or twelve months
old, yet they work nearly as good as new. We found
no machinist in the place who knew anything about
this press, but obtained the aid of Mr. Wm. Hughes,
who has charge of the dredge. In two days Mr. H. put
the entire press together, a task requiring no small
amount of mechanical skill, and which has proved hjm
to be fully acquainted with his business. We
are thoroughly convinced that the government has at
least one man, who understands his trade, and is
capable of performing anything he may be required
to undertake. This new press will enable us to en
large the paperirith the commencement of the second
volume onth 1st of July. -
Wheai-Wo were quite surprised to find a field of
wheat so near the town as on Waikiki plains. The
lot is that on which Mr. Vida built a house some years
ago, and is now owned by Mr. Piikoi, who planted
the wheat. The late rains have given it a fine start,
it being some fifteen inches high, and promising to
head out well. .
Earthquake. A line from Mr. Parker of Hama
kua, Hawaii, informs us, that the severest earthquake
ever yet felt on that island occurred on the 24th of
March, at 20 minutes past 12 M.
" T. S.' ' Again. A boat's crew of natives fastened
to a humpback-whale off Lahaina on the 26th ; but as
the whale started to run, heading direct for Honolulu.
he was supposed to be one of those with T. s!" on the
flukes that belongs to the "loud ones" of this place,
and rather hard to take. The boat's crew were una
ble to bring him too, and were obliged to cut"
Inter-Island Trade. We shall hereafter report,
in addition to the arrivals of coasters, their cargoes
aw piociigers, noin inward and outward, llns is
a feature of marine news never yet undertaken . in
our papers, and will require no small amount tof
labor; but we hope to be able to carry it out so es to
be of use to our roaderu.
Piiobable Mukdeb. We learn that during the
past week, a crazy native man was wilfully drowned
in a taro patch in Nuuanu Valley. The facts as near
as we can ascertain them are these. He had been
confined some time in the fort, to guard against his
fog any harm, when his relatives requested the
authorities to be allowed to take care of him, and he
was giTen up to the care of his friends, but his hands
jgft manacled. A native physician was called in by
nj8 friends to advise as to' the best mode of curing,
jje advised them to put him in a pond, and pour
waterover him. They did so, tying his arms out-
stretched and also his feet, and so left him. During
tne njgnt it mined hard, and the water in the pond
higher than usual. The crazy man cried most
piteously to be released, and in the morning was
found dead with his head under water, and taken
jnto tue nouse 0f nig friends. Another account says
ne died in the house. The parties concerned in
the affair, we trust, will be most summarily dealt
th. The native physician who advised the treat-
ment is probably most to blame. An examination is
bemg had in the case at the Police Court.
Resebvoibs. We notice that Mr. Lewers is pro-
vidmg his lumber yard with a capacious reservoir,
nearly the size of those of the goverment. His exam-
pie is worthy of being followed by others of our resi
g" The Polynesian regrets that the cocoanut
trees on Christmas Island are being cut down. If
its regrets were expressed for the trees in our king
dom instead of that barren island, they might be to
v ? a. l a.
some purpose, scarcely a weeK passes wuiioul cocoa-
nut-trees being cut down at Waikiki, and used for
no purpose than fence pogta, &TKd at the rate
they have been cut down for the last tweive months,
there wiu be fewer twenty years hence at Waikiki
than ftt present on Christmas Island.
I sr5S- P-anf Penhaliow has sent us a noble fowl, a
genuine Cochin China cock, the only one of the kind
on the Islands. He
is of a bright red color and
weighs six pounds.
EST Answer to last weeks conundrum " More
than kin and less than kind." Hamlet, Act I. Sc. 2.
In our drawer we also finds the following :
E E E x x x Marriage t t t e e what old
bachelors say of matrimony. "
Relating to the Expulsion of Alexander
Campbell, Esq., from the Honolulu bar. .
To the Editor of the P. 'C. Advertiser
Sir. I herewith submit to you for publication the
fcllowing correspondence and order of Court without
remark except that the session of the Court was
. gecret and that x had nQ notice whatever of its
proceedi ngs untii I receieved a certified copy of them
from the Clerk. Your obedient servant,
April 1st 1857, Alexander Campbell.
Honolulu, 16th March, 1857. S
jam, circumstances which nave come to my
knowledge since the January Term of the Supreme
Court, have led me to suspect that a misrepresenta
tion was made to the aerk of the Court, in reiram
to the nationality of Louis Franconi, with a view to
btain in his case a JUI7 Proposed by the Consul of
Mp Barnard informs moth at. on ninlrSn
.trencn suojeci, and u so, wneiner ne intended as
"WW 1 . J f 1 1 . -V -a
such to avail himself of his privilege ; under the
treaty, he understood you distinctly to answer- both
questions in the affirmative.
It now appears that Mr. Franconi is not a French
subject, but that he solicited the intervention of the
Consul of France, as a Swiss citizen, in the absence
of a Consul of his own nation. Had the Clerk of the
Court been apprised by you of the real state of the
case, it would have. been his duty to refuse the privi
lege claimed for Mr. Franconi, but, relying upon
your representation that Mr. Franconi was a French
Bubject, he admitted the right, with my approval.
It would therefore appear that while you claimed
from the Officer of the Court the recognition of Mr.
Franconi as a French subject, you must have been
aware that he was in fact a Swiss citizen, and not
a French subject, If this be so, then we have been
misled by your misrepresentation i and the matter
seems to call for explanation at your hands. I trust
you will be able to afford such explanations as will
obviate the necessity of my submitting the subject to
my brethren. Your obedient servant,
. " G. M. Robertson,
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court.
Alex. Campbell, Esqr., Counsellor at Law.
Honolulu, March 25, 1857.
Sir, Your communication of the 16th inst. was
received by me yesterday. I state in reply to it, that
never did say to Mr. Uarnard that Mr. Fran
coni was a French subject. All that passed between
that gentleman and myself I proceed to relate:
bhortly alter the appeals were taken in the cases
of Booth and Franconi. the latter wroto in "Uotik.
Perrin, the French Commissioner, to obtain what ho '
considered to be his right, viz: a Consular jury. I
did not see his letter at the time, nor were its rnn.
tents known to me or my associates, and I do not re
member seeing it at all until after the receipt of your
communication. M. Perrin havinjr replied personall v
to the letter of Mr. Franconi, it became generally
known that both of the defendants claimed a Con
sular jury. The appeal papers having been sent up,
Mr. Barnard asked me whether we intended to claim
the privilege in both cases. I replied that we did.
He then asked me whether Franconi was a French
man. I answered that he was. born in France, of
Swiss parents. He then stated that under the Stat
ute it was necessary for the clerk to send a notice to
the English and French Consuls or Commissioners,
and requested me to' prepare aTTorln.' 1 promised .to -do
so, and on the same or following day fulfilled my
promise and called on Mr. Barnard, for .the pur
pose of giving him the form. He. was not at the
time in. his office. As it was not .necessary to send
the notice for some ten or twelve days, I did not call
again on him for 2 or 3 days. At tho expiration of
that time I either called on, or met him, having the
paper so prepared in my pocket, I told him that I
had prepared the form as requested by him, and was
about t'o hand it to him, when. he replied that he had
already sent - notices to the representatives of both
countries. This, of course, obviated the necessity of
delivering the paper. I took it home and placed it
among some old papers which I regarded as of little
or no value. On examining them this morning, I
found it. I herewith transmit a copy of that form;
the original is open to any person who may desire to
see it. On its face it draws the distinction between
Joseph Booth, a- British subject," and "Louis
Franconi, born in France, of Swiss parents.'' I
was careful in stating both verbally -to Mr. Barnard,
and on the face of the form which I prepared for
him, the precise facts as to the birth and parentage
of Mr. Franconi, because.it was expected by my as
sociates and myself that the question as to his nation
ality, which you have so summarily undertaken to
decide out of court, in your communication to me,
would become the subject of discussion in court, aau
we were prepared to argue it I will not discuss it
here. The case has not yet been disposed of i
stands upon the calendar still. ' How far you may
be able to reconcile this extempore decision of points .
in a case before the tribunal of which you are
member, with your sense of judicial duty, is a ques
tion which I shall not consider at present. 1? rom
first to last, every statement made by me in relation
to ViV mm tt H.T.. Fmnun! 10 li.'frallv and strictly
mat vuijv vr A. . xA ,K4uJlViVUl w y
And now, air, having stated all the facts connected
with the matter; permit me to say that the insulting
tone and character of your communication ars soxa