Newspaper Page Text
, - - tiUX XJL 1'
Tho Horny Hand.
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fir luilJ4'a ruiiurJ vi.:t :
: all lh bfl el UU,r iiaa
Cm. a (aLm e-iaxii la t.L
T n ij.W-ra, rr.t the dr.jc.es tf evrit
Are worthy of mon ;
1 Vv are ike bki of m.M birth
ilb aaoJa b-gr.unl il4 Lrown.
Aiiil llv-y U-n fm Lk hr f c -
Will m'.a aiul rr U- crn-
I t.e aian a. eer rta iu
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bate hU --U iirarr--'l r.l .--
I ruo al, ill rt-rj IxuJ
All Fkul, Ifr-ti I j O.e h'-tuj hit. J.
.-nl la B..i'ritl ll-.
I tli ( at I'l"- aiiil alail,
Or f :.Jr l!i rUar.i.4 .lw i
Tl. la b -n Ltr wi-ar ll' un
I !ar.iniC ( Dw
I'.t A KHtorof Vr .'n ' '.., irrr'ml A Irrrtl-irr :
I forvrarJ j-u herewith a V.y of 7 Auurrt
fitn t'Lfiimt nifitaininj an article on tmgnr iiiaii
utUi tare that will do ihuht le thoroughly aj.j.rr
ri.iitfJ y our j.Imiter, anl erj ei-inlljr thf who
Jjie t.ii'uuin iftn. It in fru 7A Sugor (Jane,
:i ui nttilj journal lievotl to the iuoerentd of
ru'-ir iiianuraftiirt a Tew ropw only of which
urr r.-vt-neil here. Your, T. i. Tiiki-m.
Boiling Sugar to Grain.
BV M. A. tolt.
Ia the firt place, I will aajr a few wonla on the
ftppurvtiia. It id frrueI of a steam boiler, (or c!oevl
n) tirinountcJ with a doru, into which id fixe. J
the tube of an air-ptiup. Thre coils, one above
aiKiiher, ruch having separate means of supply with
t'"itru, D'I for the return of the contused water,
allow of the heating of the syrup feu far anI in pro
port ioa t its level in the pan
There are two steam-gauges, cue to indicate the
renaure of the etckai as it comet t'runi the boiler, a
necou-J to I.ow the pressure in the apparatus itself;
the flrl id cllfl the Loiier gaue, the net-on. I the
Ttciium gauge. ?uc:e!ive cliargrs are introlucexl
iuto tlie pan hjf a t.ip. Four lune:trs ci"eJ in
. Lmnze allow of the liquor being cetn boiliug in the
n. Lt.tly, a piungi-r, ma-le to slip easily into a
Ii.tig narrow barret, draw-t front thence, when pullej
dot. a aaiuple of th: matte cttite.
H iving descrilI the apparatus, I will divide the
oeratitu into four distinct purt 1st. Concentra
tion of thexyrup; 2iJ. Foriu itious of the crystals;
.'. I. Increa-iin the size of the crystal; 1th. Kor
tjia;iti of the largest quantity puMtble of cry-taU.
I. I'oH'tMTB TI.t Of Tlir TItl'P.
Aft r havin fortiiel a vncuuin in the apparatus
by riiMinH f tlie air-pcrop, the tap ia open!, and,
under the atmipheric prttw-ure. the syrup immedi
ately into the pan. The fi.iw U genenlly
w'v:rA when fie yrup has reucLol the level of the
1-oi.d eye-!a.. 'ihen the principal gteant-tap i?
i;iiied a!;it ntK-..nrth, and thocc of the two lower
cil fully Jret ca- iuu-t be taken in order to
avuid i rapture of t'-e mrtil by sudden and unequal
et par.KUiii. The !yrup is nof hng in Udin;;, us the
n uiperature at thi ptint dejends on the pressure on
its "urf.n.. A the ipeiati.n u carrieil on i'i a
atiuru, the boilin iut may beIowerel from 1IUW
tt. r" fenr. (l-.;!- to 1 1 J" F.) The re-lnction of
ti e temperature vwin to this diminution of pre jure
renders tLe tran-ifurmaficn of cryta;Iiz.ihle suqar
into gl'icme e4.y, anj nllows of the shnrteuing
nf the duration of boiling, from which a considerable
inerease in return of .uar has resuliel.
Iu proportion :w lheiyrup be.me conceutratel,
the index of tin; v?uuiu-aUire will at Dist de?-nd
an 1 then :i.-iim. I; and at the end cf ilout an hour it
aj.lt h ie reioh.! the .i u the dial. The index
of the !u!. r tteJui-vfaue w ill, after h-ivio tu!)ikel
tw and tlire? atmopherr, at thU in-itant mark fnur
We may nienti. ii in p.iinc; that the??e steam-gauge
iiideationit are of j;rMt iniportimre, b.vau-e they
'ow the roii.u-fitruioii of th- 5yrup. further,
erit attentii n, Ir-.bir. and experience are neeiierl fr
j;i liiiif of the -t lie ,,( the yrup by a proof, aud the
ind:cution naiiil will serve as a means of control.
In eflecf, the vacuum gtuge indicates the expansion
of tint t-m fli.-engsseil frt.m the ayrup, the other
h pressnre of the t?ara from the boiler Then if
the steam-'. tp i.t net nltered, the expansion of the
ream i dae to the decree of concentration of the
juice. If this U very thin if will nlorb more pteatn,
and o.n-eijtieiifly the sttai.a-gaue will not fhiw a
tfrj hlh prr-jiire; but in proportion a the liquid .
is concer.trited. the rr-nden.tation if the stentu will
diminish, anl the sutm-gaue iuli-' ktloii will
This bf in adniitteI, after uearly an hour's boiling
the prin'pal team-tap which had only leen openeil
iir-1'..urtli is now openel to it full extent. Thin
a klen change of teni-rature will favor the fornn
tioo of gra;n, which will commence in about ten
nioatr. when the vacUH'ii team-gai!ge will mark
e-irly '1. an l the t.!er iteuin-g iuge five atnii s
pbrs. II roRM iTtort r oh ms.
It i- neoh'al to determine whether large or small
grain is required. In the firM case we must form the
grain when the index -t the vacuuui gauge is at 10
and that of temperature shews 4 atmospheres, be
cause the I'hter the proof syrup is nt the moment
vheu the sriin forms the fewer the number of
crystals Then the.- cry-tals being few it will He
eay. as will be seen shortly, by conducting the boil
ing very si w!y to t btain larg? bright crystals.
f form the grain, wbr-n the syrnp hns been boiled
to light pnf for the large, or heavy proof for small
crys'als, the first charge is made by ai ling the
needful quaUity of syrup, sAy 2 per cent, of the total
In practice I have cbeervel that in order to obtain
good results it ia better to cptn the charge tap to the
full extent at each charge, keeping it open only 10
to l- seconds, anil allowing an interval of - or 3
minutes to elapse between each charge. Nevertheless
an intelligent boih r will vary the operation accord
ing to the quality of the syrup, so that it is difficult
to give an invariable rule. For the rest after each
addition of liquid the same point of concentration as
was reached before, must be waited for before a fresh
quantity of syrup is added. This must be continued
until the grain begins to show, which will be to
aV at the oth or Cth charge.
The grain will appear in the form of fine powder
which might be taken for minute bubbles of scum, a
practised eye ia however rarely deceived. There is
no fear of crystallization cot continuing to increase,
it will go on spontaneously ft-r further additions of
j'lice or syrup carefully ma Je; bat it is however im- '
portant never to wait till the proof becomes too
heavy, because this accident will be prejudicial to
the sugar and will modify its faculty of crystallization. .
III. FSLaltfiFMCMT OF THE CBAIX.
When the addition of j-iiee ha been repeated
nearly i!0 time?, the grain will have become large
enough to be seen in the syrup which runs down the
luLettes. Starting from this joint, the boiling may
be conducted at a lower procure; to this end the
charges may be made sel lomer, and with a larger
quantity at once
The fee-ling tap may without dacger be left open '.
for 'S aeconds. and observing the indications of the
steam-ganges. endeavor to keep about 1?) of vacuum
expansion, and at four atmospheres of the boiler, j
Nevertheless in forming large grain, the vacuum
ran re mav be allowed to fall to 18: then the nan will !
oe ieu less oiten. care oeicg uikcn 10 increase
letigtl, of each charge, the crystals will have in this .
way all the time needful for their formation. To;
obtain a fine grain it will on the contrary be needful
to add the juice frequently, and by small quantities, i
ia order to dUtarb the crystallization ftener, this ;
principle ia founded on the different charactersof the i
two modes of crystallization. . j
T'uis operation, which appear sv i-asy. is how-
ever of great iinpoi fanre' ro the manufacturer !
Without vi !;ii," i.d- "... wid.. ii; r.-n know in it.
liif Mxikiuitii iii tv lo"" I i: jr uiri" T i-iui! vT.
. - a ir..il l tli a-4-i ti..n. 1 . a vrry "triU-
i:ijf -xatii'U' : I li.t.l at t'uitu- ttn-- I-iIt. Ui
tri i)K.in. 1 il'iri"" !j ! f !.-t m-i-ioti "o
riT rt-nt. in ! ; if t i
:Lf t:rt jt ; "
fvjtul rl jr ciir.. tt, ttiiri! j-r c-iii
ra.T t' W'l'ill tor thf ililJ.-tt-nc" in tin e 1
k r:ii'-niir v tn: Jcilii v t!j- ci siul.i alr-iily
( rnj'I ai.iv !- r"-l:-'! veil by &Miii t-j l.'i-' i i
i .ir2" a t,'i ttility if lii(i.i') i'i iin-' . irp-. 'I f
ri-ii- thm rip w.l; t'llv r nifl hhsi
yr-nt ilifii- tiiiy u
.i! fi a u, l ii ii :icy t"
!.:! U 'it r - I I i 1 lO ! ' ilfc'il I'.
T M'x'i th"' !.- lit? bo: if r "to'i'.il i-tJin.Hf
Ihf regularly anil wi(b Kri.-ni -: . Il,-hwii!!
ivvr-r c r.rir.- iiimlf to t!i ! or t hr- iri i! (I.y
pr..f 'i'k) wh::h in it ! in- ,-.4rj.
Tl. uiaii.tjr-i L-'iiM b at!- o -i-i n ;n oh-
i'i- in -jii--!t of t!ie imli-t-M t it,.- s:-.i:n-
a i i
w hi'-h if th- oji'T ti iri i- well uhiij-iI w ill
ti-or fall verv -iixvlv w'r.tin -n-r :aki.".z iho!
r;dden .-alta H liivh ilfb .i'.Titiy ileiio'e I,.,i. efV
AMer tivo fcoiirs of fevi'r.j. the juice vkiil. iii an
rdiriary way. eover th coils, the ste.ri in iv ih'-n
be a.huitted iUm the Ihird Coil. It -Aill mw ali
p'bh' U feed Coll till UolJ.ily it i i.-t Wa-heti. a
!! orj:i".fl beCIO- -aier. the tf ynlalliZ itloll
being now vicoro.it and regular.
IV. - rio ' ritK iii::iTt:-i i"j--:r:x av- sr
fur inolher hour's feeding r.f the boiler, in all
thre Lur. a hiher lemperatilre aiay be cotu-ui-nced
and the index ! the v.o-u mi .-lean; gauge
alloweij ! inoiint from 2) 5 to . The aim of
this cotiCefi ration i.t to l-jrui the large-: po.t.-ihle
.lantity of grain ; it will render the process of
crystallization ni'irt active arid more rapid, and the
itifl.i-nc ol greater h at will give the crytaU more
s lidity a:id dryness. Must Loilem, to obtain this
. result, hiit off on-fiurth of the supply of water to
the air-purn;. The vacuum of the apparatus being
thus ditfiiui-hed, the boiling point of the liquid is
AfiT fi'e or x hours the last pr'of should be
tfiken. which ought to he rather strong. The sam
ple taken h i'ild. if held between the index-finger
stnd ihe thumb. fall back on t the latter very slow ly
in farming what the boilers call the l.i-i-i-l : ibis ta.s-
f-l is generally terminated by a thread of very
' clear syrup, ca'ied the stung. In these conditions
a fine hard snar will be prod.iced.
1 1 a v i : i made this I .ml tiijl.it will be well, should
i it be wished to obtain a very whiu; migar. to lower
; the tern per a in r to L7 - C. (131 3 F.). by fully
: ofiening the water supply of the vacuum apparatus
and closing alioilt one-rtlth th principal sleaul ii-
A(riIKNTS TO TIIK IKUI-IMi.
Iii explaining the phenomenon of defecation. I
showed that the soluble organic .salts of lime, which
. are deliquescent and very viscous, especially pre
vent the su?ar from crystallizing.
It oHeii happens in F'rance. at the close of tho
in i:iul jcture. suiut; of the frozen beet roots begiu.
to thaw: the pectose in direct contact with the juice
is transformed into uieiupeciic acid ; lactic ucid is
also formed. Then these acids, with the lime, will
consequently, with the heavy yriips. form some
viscous compounds, which may not be extracted
before the time of boiling. In this cae a process
given by MM. Ix-play aud CuiMTiior may be prac
ticed, which I have used at Caincy. It consists in
the en.ploTmetii of carbonate of soda alter satura-
' tlon. because the carbonic acid of the carbonate ol
soda v. ill combine with the lime of the metapect.tte
and lactate of lime, and insoluble carbonate ifl
lime, and met ipectate and lactate of soda are
formed : some s.milar reactions will take place with
aspartate, citrate, or malateuf liui.. The new salts
formed are not more viscous, and are less preven
tive ol crystallization.
la-fore having recourse to this means it will be
well to try another which has been given by M.
Leze. chemist, of Ioimi ; it is MU.ply to feed the
vacuum pan for one hour with water only (instead
The difficult boilings may also proceed from too
large excess oi lime, a certain means ol ascertain
ing this is to use rvj-c'oei paper (this paper which
is used in the whole of (lertnar.v and the north of
France ditf-rs fruta litmus paper with whi-.-li such
feeble and inconstant colors are produced that it
will not serve to test the juice.) The carciimit pa
per on the contrary will become of a very deep
color : ii will be mllicieiit (if this excess of lime is
shown) to fn d with some portion of syrup which
has been submitted to a double liltr itijn through
la conclusion I do not hesiutc to protest against
that lepl'i able practice wh:ch conits in the ol
taining of 1 1 e irt airi by otily partially emptying
the first boiling and le-comtiieiiciiiK a second by
e.-,liug the crystals aiic-.nly foimed. Those who
thus act know however tiiai a considerable p:irt of
the eiys'.iliii-d ui.ir is by this means cbai!jd iu
to gl. iconic prii acts. ' it H'jur (;(.
T'en Days Later!
The clipper ship (!tt. tirren, en route for the
Guano Lsl.iiids, arrived Monday afternoon, lti days
from Stu Fraiioisiv). Uy the politeness of Mr. C ,.
Williams we are iu receipt of pi pen to the l'Jth inst.
The bark Comet arrive 1 over on the oth, and
Would leavj agaiu uu the 1 lib. The I Liho was a 1
vertised to Sail on the 1 1th.
There Is uo change rvjsjrted hi prices of Island
The papers at hand are mostly OvVupicd with jo
lilical matters in the States. Tlie election in North
Cirolina, ujoii wh ch the Greeley patty hid biscl
great txpixtatious, had gone ! publican by 2,1".)
The approaching meeting of t Ii - - llus-iaii. Austrian
and Jeii:ia:i iitnj-eiois at I ! : ii . milit ate- tb.lt
I tree of ti.e four chief Coniiu.-i.tai powt-is arc Uis-pos.-d
t maintain friendly r.-ialious with one
another, and implies a guarantee of thi peace of
Kiitope. The oiber powers would ili-l:uc very
inuca to rua counter to ihe policy o.' these three iu
iilliance: aad none of l!ie o-lu is is iu condl'ion to
mike war lo advauttgi. Prance and Italy are
overburdened wi'.li deb' : Spain arid Turkey have
internal 'ro'ioles that require all their uUcnliou ;
t,ieal lo it i'ui is anxious tu let and lo be letalo le :
and Scaiuiiuavia. lioliatld. I'.elgiinu. Portugal aud
t'reece. have littb prospect of gaining anyihing
Mat'triu. Aug. 7. Tl.e Cabinet ha.- subiuttled to
the K iug a set ies of i eg ill at "tons tor i.bollt ion ot
slavery in the .--paiii-h dutilliliotlS.
l.oMo. Aui. 7. Mullet, editor of the .l...'o
A tuti u t. filler lain -i Stanley, ihe Allicau e.
plorer. a a dinner at the Junior I'niled Service
Club t'Miig'jl. (General Slierinau. Minister Curtiu.
Moiati. ."secretary o! the American Legation, and
many representatives weie present.
l.osiinN. Aug. b. t$ a. m. Sir tieury liaw lin-ou,
Ptesidelil ot the iioyal Geographical S.iciely. hai
written to Stanley, thanking him lor conrnuiiicat
ing the intelligence in regard to lr. Livingstone,
and ifterutrg lo his euicrpi ise iu tcllns ol gieat
iKv. Aug. S. The Hi anl of Arbitration held
a two and a ha.f hours' session to day and aiijoiirned
to Wednesday next. Several at b.lraloi s and coun
sel arc in.Ii-posed by excessive toil and lue disa
greeable weather. The object of the Court in ad
journing for so long a pei loil is il at it gives the
members time lot special suidy of a number of ihe
points involved in the cases whch have come before
tueiu. It is confidently hoped that the labors of the
Tribunal w ill be brought t a satisfactory Conclu
sion by September.
Nlw Y?bk, Aug. C. A special from Geneva says :
that as the arbitration progresses the probabilities of
an increase of the verdict seem to be ag iiust England;
that it will be iu the form of a declaration of her ;
general responsibility for the acts of Confederate j
cruisers, and award the gross amount of dam ages.
The American counsel are endeavoring to secure this ;
result, obviuiug a rest-rt to a Bovrd of Assessors in- t
stead of a detail award of the judgment of the Court '
on each particular ship. It is, therefore, of less co n
sequence than it otherwise would have been. j
From New Zealand and Australia.
ARRIVAL OF THE "NEBRASKA."
, The U. s.. N. Z. tV A. steam ship y-lraska. ('apt. '
Harding, arrived this port on Tuesday forenoon, .
16 days from Auckland. We are iudch!cd to Mr.
Laine. the obliging purser, for full files of colonial j
The torv bv a previous arrival to the effect that i
the rtuall po.x was raging extensively in the cities i
of Australia and New Zealand, appears to have been J
an exaggeration, as ihe t'overnor of the latter col
ony in his opening address to the Legislature ob- :
serves that a few cases of the disease had appeared
in the seaports. ' Says the Nu.'.'.c (Vox, of Au- i
gust 9 : '
The A''r-iir, mail steamer, arrived from Hon-
olulu on the 20ib July. Ureal anxiety had arisen
relative to ibis vessel, seeing that it w as on her pre- :
vious 'rn that she bad beeu the means of introduc- J
ing small-pox into this, and hence into the neigh- i
boring colonics, tin her arrival she was visited by i
the health o-tcer.and received aclean bill of health,
Mails were fumigated, and the vessel allowed to'
come to her usual anchorage. At Wellington, how-
ever, frhe was quarantined during tliewhole time of
her -lay. Wiii reference to the disease which has
tiS-rtu n.i ! y in ob- it- appearance here, th-re !nve
been three f.-'-sh CJ-es -iln e the depart nre i f the i
Ati-o.f.i l.t.-t liiol.th. two of u ti.i ! at I i oin n'.r-- .
CiTit. but no dentli-. I'rt.tn what we bear fimn
Sydney ami MeU.onrne, il.e pr-caii!io!is laki-n by ;
th." authorities in lhoe plar 'in t have WtiMi '
erT' Ct'! il iu prt-V'-nUng tt;e .'pread of the Urease.
The r.. a lavoiite sieniii'T between t!.ip-rt mid
dney. Lad a cae ol stnall-pox on board on h-r ;
la-t trip, traceable to the firt csm- here. LicLa:w
einli-,1 taiully. 1 he vi -e vt a- quarantined, and by ;
mr la' i a-U it es w a.- s:i.l i in-n a moil i h a : id over .
'.-.i t ir.i itine. though no otuer ta.-f had 'Cfirr-d. j
T. O 'icr that lor it U-Mnis oi IIt-a!'.h iti il.is colony
lo.gi.t have more powei loan Lu ietofoie. orders in
'oiiocil tiave been i-y;ied i-Ulpoerilig these bodies
t' q tarantiae ve-s-is liom liotiolul.t or el.--w la-re .
whether !h'-j have to tctied at any other port ill
e Zealand or Lot.
"apt. Harding ol the r i. A 't was before the
Courts u a charge of having introduced the dis-i-jv.
-ana, suvs the paper. ihe ca-e was disini-sed.
I).. I'Liison y i- present during the whole trial.
'pinion regarding the source froui w hich sinail-pox
via- introduced here is much divided. The iei-litig
appeals to be increasing among-t all classes that
the disease is directiy tfaCeable lo the s;p H .j'lii.d.
her passeligelH. or Cargo."'
Uu the ret u: II of the eliip, says the .Vos ."
l:i the arrival of the Xcfjra&k yesterday fnm
W'eiiingion aud Napier, .-he was vi-iled by iJr.
l'hilson. the Health i flicer. who after inspecting the
ves.-el pronounced hei to be free from all disease,
and she was allowed to come up barb-r to an uncb
oraire. Mr. (Jlsborne slated in the Hon- of Representa
tives that lr. Johnstone's enquiries on board the
.V-orosAa prove that three or four cases of undoubt
ed .-ui all-pox itccurred aboard her dining her j
voyage from Auckland to Honolulu.
Caplaiu Haidiug. of the A"'riJAu. has written a !
letter to the Press, in which he says : ' I am made I
to say that there was no finall-pox at Honolulu. '
"u'u.,ul"J '.ua "y lu,'r,? w;ts uo feII,a"-
pux ia be city, but there were twenty-s.x ca-es
among he natives at the bosp.ial on the reef, a
m.le and a half to leeward ol the city. 1 assert pos-
itively there has been no case of small-pox on board
the .Srjt a.tkit. 1 say so on the authority of my own i
burgeon, and thalot a surgeon w ho was a passenger 1
,.r i , 1 .rt 9j. Il.n.ltil.l n n . I I . . . . L- . ..I n v i.r
Ullll Ul V. IIUIIUIIIJU UIIU UlllA Uldll Ol ' A PI 1 1
...... r ,... . h
UA. aa i va ii i at via av via, v iiiv iu t t tt taa v n i tno-
nitals in New South Wales. What you.- leatned Ir.
Johnson called small-pox on b.ntrd the .Wbro.ska
occurred during the previous voyage. There has
not been a vestige seen of small-pox except by those
who determined to see small-pox iu every pimple.
From the "th of June hundreds of persons, passen
gers and laborers, have been on the ship, yet nt a
, single case has occurred among them. I am sorry
' to be forced to state this, but my conviction is that
the Stbr'tska is being made the victim of provincial
j Ir. A. J. Younger, surgeon of the Xzbraska, ad
i dressed a lengthy letter to the Wellington Inde
jifHihid. in which he says :
I was very much surprised to hear, on our ar
rival in Auckland, that we had been carrying with
us such an eminently Contagious disease as small
pox, and that 1 had knowingly concealed the fact
of its existence on board the ship at the instigation
of the captain.
The atrocity of uiy conduct has been largely com
The litest advices from Australia bear evidence
that the small pox has existed there for some months
past, aud the evidence is fast accumulating which
serves to free the JWbratka from the unenviable dis
tinction of having introduced email pox into New
I am content to let the subject rest at this stage,
kuowiug that time will verily my assertion that the
small pox does not and has not existed on board the
JWLratka during my official existence as surgeon of
said vessel, and that the people of .New Zealand will
have to look for some other source from whence to
' protect themselves from the inroads of that dread
Fully possessed with the conviction that time will
vindicate me from the accusations which have been
showered on me with such distressing liberality, I J state 0f ebullition and sends up a column of water
await and console myself with the reflection that j tWo to four feet. It has a basin about 15 feet in
truth is mighty, and will prevail." i diameter and gives forth a huge column of steam.
In regard to the California mail route, the Auck- ' T1,e Tiact lYia BPr5nf i3 a 'el of beauty, being
, regularly scolloped and covered with the most beau
land llerulJ says : , ti fully tinted bead work. The most interesting
New Zealand has taken a forward step in this objects here are the sand springs, which are of every
matter. It has established a new mail service, open- ' size from one inch to 20 feet in diameter. One of
iug up new avenues of trade; and although it may ', the largest is filled with fine, light brown mud,
not now bear fruit, in the shaie of a money profit, which is in constant agitation, its surface covered all
there is reason to hope that it will ultimately repsy
us for the expenditure. Dut having sai I this, we
cauuot refrain from expressing our opinion that the
permanence of the Califoruian service is imperiled
uy the unsatisfactory manner iu which it has been
performed. There is uo blinking the tact. The
truth cuniiot be hid. Whatever this community may
tiiink or say; whatever the Colony even may think
or S iy ou the subject, it is patent to the whole com
mercial world that Webb's line is a failure, and that
Webb's, boats are not iu tlie least degree suited for
such long voy:igi.s as they are required to perform.
With regard to the mail contract, the -Melbourne
correspondent of the Ultigo 77 its says : " It ap
pears to me, from what 1 see of the New Zealand
pqiers, that it is the fashion of many of them to at
tribute the rejection by this Colony of the Duily
Yogel mail contract to jiolitical aud party feeling.
Let me assure you that this is a mistaken view. The
Contract required nothing of this kind to effect its
destruction. It was ridiculed to death directly its
terms were made known. There was but one view
taken of it, and in that all shared, irrespective of
party differences. Aud that was, the contract was
au niisurdly extravagant one, aud tint it was mon
strously disproportionate to any advantage that we
Could hope to derive from it, and that its ratification
was out of the question. Now, of course, this miy
have been a curious opinion on our parts. Bat I can
ussure your readers that it is universal here, and that
j-oliiicai or parry purposes have nothing whatever to
do with it. The Colony was willing to piiy a reasona
ble price for the Caliioruiau mail service, but it
believed that the sum fixed by Mr. Duffy and .Mr.
Yogel was a must uiiicasoiiabic one. It was mortify
ing not only to Mr. Putty's friends, but to the Colony
generally, that he proved so incompetent in the ne
gotiation, ii lul allowed himself to be outwitted so
completely by the shrewd gentleman with whom he
did business. But if Mr. Pully failed, Mr. Yogel
alao failed. Mi. Puffy allowed himself to be over
reached, but the over-reacher takes no profit for the
transaction. If Mr. Yogel had been contented with
equitable terms, the contract might be iu force. He
tried lor too much, aud lost everything.'
A New Zealand ij-iztUe cutuins an order iu '
Council liniuing tt-gulations giving power to the
Health tJiiicer at any port to quarantine vessels;
from Honolulu, whether or noi such vssrl Ins :
touched at any other port in New Zealand. '1 he
Health Obicer is to report to ttie Lo.ud ol Health,
who have power lo detain tne vessel, clew, and
passengers until she is pronounced cb-uu.
'1 lie return tioni the Illumes aud Coiomandel j
goldli-.-lds are in excess of those ot last iiioiilh by :
llea.ly .OOOoZ. 'i'hey are l.i.l l.'.u.. gold li oiu
7,a; ions siouc crushed.
vn.sKv, .vug. .-' i.iri'oiing is becoming quae
COtn. noli in Sydney. A weii-known trade.-mau
was crossing Hyde Park about 11 o'clock on Suu
day uighl. aud when near ihe central avenue two
m-n rushed out from behind an enclosure shaded
Uy some trees, and as.-uillted him. tne of the men
caught hiin horn behind, pressed bis two hands
against h:s windpipe, so as to render Liai niiCo.i-sciou-.
V iit-ii he recovered consciousness be loiind
thai he was miuus a stiver watch and hair guard, a
purse containing a sina.l sum ot money, a,ud a
check, while he missed Iroin one ol his lingers u
va.uable gold ring ot a particular l.u-hioii. An
other case iu the same locality was interrupted by
the suddeu appearance of the police. Il is also
rumored that withiu lite last few days a man was
garroted near the Austruliaii .Museum, uud there
robbed of a w atch.
Iu the Sydney Morning JJerd'J, f the 2d inst.,
' we find the following telegiam;
" Mkuhht.nk. Aug. 1. A communication has
J been received from the Agent (ieneial staling that
1 the imperial 'overtime nt approved of the Cali
fornia Mail Contract, and would grant a subsidy
The agents of the Webb line at Melbourne had re
ceived a telegram from Mr. V ebb, stating that the
j Dacota, would leave New York for Melbourne direct,
ou the lUth ot August,
i The case against Capt. DIethen of the .Xtcada, for
running down the bark .1. T. Badger at sea, last
j March, had been concluded iu the Sydney Courts,
I and judgment reserved.
Kevenve or the Church ok Knuland. The ;
annual revenue of the Church of England, it has
been ascertained, amounts to 50,770,700, of
which 0,740,OJJ are derived lrom ancient en- .
dowments. and 11, 255, 255 from endowment
since the Reformation. The sum of 27.220,400
is raised every year by voluntary contributions,
and the .State gives 2.542VJ93 in aid of the
education of the por. The London Church So- ;
cieties contribute 2,000,000 a year. The taxes
on the endowments of the clergy amount to
3.570,215 a year. The Church schools cost an- .
nually 15,257,355, of which the State gives !
2,542,'J'J5 ; the payment of parents amount to I
.Vvl.814,490. leaviug i,ytK,iv0 to be raised by i
voluntary contributions. Every year 2,000,000
are given for the relief of the poor. 2,500,000 '
for foreign missions, nd 3,250.000 f r the '
building and rest. . rati m of churches. .' 1
The Yellowstone Park.
Kr sii th isrir.f.--U R. jHiW.i an 1
Tbi Wotiderful regi.-n, until recently entir-ly un
kuowu H- the outside w- rll, which rijress b.u- the
pa-t winter sel ajiart as a Great Nativiial i'trk or
Hva-ure Ground, is attractitg wide atteutiou ou
aovunt of its natural curisitie, its remarkable
scenery, its varied phenomena of scientific interest
as well as of artistic beauty. I; Is a tract f land,
c. nt I'.iiin more than twenty-five hundred square
n.i'c. situated about the s- u roes vf the Missouri an 1
Columbia river-s, in Wyoming anl Montana territo
ries. The entire area comprised within the limits of '
the reservation ia over C,.M feet above the sest level,
anl is henarned in by ranges of mouataius tht rL-s
to the height of 1."0 feet and are covered with
snow all the year. luring the summer, the cliiaate .
is pure and most invigorating, with scarcely aDy
raiu or sionus of any kind; but the thermometer fre- .
queutly sinks ia summer as low as 2C degrees, au i
trost falls every month ia the year. Consequently ;
the land is not susceptible of cultivation with any
degree of certainty, and the winters are too severe
for sii: r-tsing The Park ubousls in marvels of
the most novel and stupendous character; fountains
of variously tinted waters of every conceivable form
and of astounding height and volume; huge moun-
i tains of sulphur, volcanoes of mud, spouts and jvts
I of steam, mineral spring3 of all tenipe.-aturea ia
short, all the phenomena, ou the most elaborate and
extended scale, of subsiding volcanic energy. The
hot springs and geysers represent the last stages
the vents or escape pipes ol these remarkable man
ifestations of internal force. The geysers of Iceland,
which have long been objects of interest for the
ecientitic men and travelers of the entire world, sink ,
into insignificance in comparison with the displays
of the Yellowstone and Madison basins. The most :
practicable approach to the Park U from Fort tllis,
througn tne uozeniau raa; trom mere
nex -1.. A-ia onivflt till trSa rrtiito stvnl-oa tht VaaHriir
stot.e river, aud continues along near the bank of
, ' u h wilJest infanable nery of
. k j mountaia.
, bouT twenty-five miles from the entrance of the
, , , ,. . . . , ,,. i. OJ
the "Devil's fslide." It consists of two parallel
vertical walls of rock, projecting fr m the side of a
, . , , . .
mountain to the height of one hundred and twenty
. . i
! fi'e an.J traversing the mountain from ba3e to
The sides are as
eveu as if they had been worked by line and plumb
the whole tpace on either side of them having
been completely eroded and washed away. These .
walls do uot exceed thirty feet in width, and their '
tops for the'whole length are crowned with a growth
Near the mouth of Gardiner's river, which comes ;
in from the southwest and joins the Yellowstone a ;
few miles further on, occurs the first noteworthy !
group of hot springs. Out of the hills pours a boil-
iug hot torrent ol water, six feet wide and a foot or :
two in depth, perfectly clear though steaming hot. ;
This is probably the outlet of a vast subterranean !
reservoir of hot water which supplies the large
system of boiling springs upon the mountain's side ;
above. Near this hot brook are several warm
mineral springs, beside which a few invalids have ;
formed a camp, and whose curative properties they ;
loudly praise. i
Five miles beyond this camp on the left bank of
Gardiner's river is a system of hot springs of great
beauty, flowing from the top and sides of a hill of
calcareous deposit, called "Soda Mountain." The,
side of the hill down which the waters of the hot ,
springs fiow, have become terraced into steps of
various heights and widths, some being twelve inches
in diameter, while others are as many feet. In each
terrace there is generally a pool of water, standing ;
in a scolloped basin of gypsum, whose sides are 1
being constantly raised by a deposit from the water j
as it becomes cooler. These basins are often tinged
with pink, gray and yellow colors, giving to the '
whole a very beautiful effect. I
lO 111C 1C31 Oi tut? Sl'l IUK3 1!3 a XJIUU. ICU IOLIOvTU
. - .v,;r, ii,. vn,f ,-i, .o i2,i7Z
mountain, near wnicn 3Ir. tvarts, who was lost in
To the west of the springs is a high, red topped
the leuowsione uasin in ine summer oi low, was i
picked up, and which bears his name. The principal j
.. . - ,, . a - . . i r . , , w .
boiling spring at the base ot the nul is in a constant
I over with puffs like hasty pudding. Ihe bubbles,
often two feet high, explode with a report, and
emitting a villainous smell.
A little further up, in another cluster of hot
springs, is a most singular phenomenon, called the
muddy geyser. It presents a funnel shaped orifice,
i in the midst of a basin 150 feet in diameter, with
: sloping sides of clay and sand. The orifice at the
i summit is SO by 50 feet in diameter. It tapers quite
I uniformly to the depth of 80 feet, where the water
; may be seen when the geyser is in repose. The flow
I of the geyser is regular every six hours. The water
rises gradually, commencing to boil when about half
way te the surface, and occasionally breaking forth
in great violence. When the crater is filled, it is
expelled from it in splashing, scattering mass. 10 or
15 feet in thickness, to the height of 40 feet- During
this period the waves dash against the sides of the
basin, vast clouds of steam escape, and a noise like
the rumbling of an earthquake is heard. Suddenly,
after about lo minutes of this commotion, the waves
recede and the waters sink again to their lowest limit.
At the head of u .small ravine still farther to the
Northward, is a cavern extending fifteen feet into
the side ol the hill, and about ix feet across at the
opening. Put the great geyser district lies about'
the head waters of the Madison river, and has re
ceived the n;iine of th- " Fire Hole Yalley." The
lower pari of tiiis valley is filled with myriads of
groups of the most curious and beautifully painted
and decorated springs, which, but for th greater
m ii vels of the upper part of the batin, would com
mand the liveliest admiration. Of the many won
derful geysers of this basin, whose action has been
observed and described, we select a few of the most
conspicuous. Knteting the gate of the valley oa
the north, on either side of the river stand two
lively geysers, called the "Sentinels.'' The one on
the h it is in constant agitation. iu waters revolving
horizontally with great violence, and occasionally
.spouting upward to the height of HO feet, the lateral
direction being .u teet. f.normous masses of steam
are elected. The crater of this sevser is three feet -
by ten. I lie opposite "Sentinel is not so con
stantly active, and is smaller. A few hundred
yards farther up a remarkable groHp of geysers is
uiscoveied. One of these lias a huge crater live
; feet in diameter, and is called the fiiant." It
: throws a column ol water the size of the opening
i to the measured attitude of one hundred and thiity i
teet. and continues the display for an hour and a
half. The crater ol the Comet" geyser is very '
beautiful, though being but slightly elevated above I
j I ne general slope of th;- plateau. "The Castle.''
: situated on the summit c f an mcrusted mound forty '
feet above the river, is tho largest and most im
, posing crater in the baiin. Its resemblance to a
: ruined castle or tower is very striking. Perhaps
! the most astonishing g?yser in the basin is the '
I (iiante-s." which risen abruptly out of a large
oval aperture on the hill side, the diameters of which
: ure eighteen and twenty-live feet. When inactive.
; no water is visible, though it can be distinctly
heard, gurgling and boiling at agreat distance be- ;
low. Suddenly it begins to rise, boiling and splut
I teriug and sending out huge masses of steam.
' When within forty feet of the surface it becomes
i stationary, though foaming and surging at a terri
ble rate. All at once, as if seizedWith a fearful
spam. it rises with incredible rapidity and bursts
Irotu the orifice with terrific momentum in a column.
; the lull size of this immense aperture, to the height
of sixty teet ; and through aud out of the apex of
this vast aqueous mass, five or six lesser jets of
water, varying iu size from six to fifteen inches iD
diameter, are projected to the marvellous heiirht of
two hundred and fifty feet. There are a great many
other springs in this part of the valley, a descrip:ion i
of which would be a repetition of that already '
noticed. No two, however, are exactly alike.
Yellow stone lake, which is situated nearly in the
center of the park, and probably ihe mighty crater
of an extinct volcano, is a singularly beautiful sheet i
of water. 7.500 feet above the sea. nestling in among
the snow peaks of the loftiest of the Rocky mount
ains. These are only some of the chief, the repre-
sentative features of this wonderful park ; but they
are not isolated prodigies, scattered sparingly in ,
the midst of tame, uninteresting wastes. Nature ;
seems to have collected here in the very heart of
the continent, every variety of choice device, of
tender grace as well as of bold design, to lend every '
possioie cnarm to mis lavoreu spot.
The statistics of the religious orders of North
Cicrmany have just been published in the Xorth
lirrman Gazttte Bismarck's official organ. In
Prussia, according to these figures, there are 97
orders of men and congregations, numbering in
the aggregate 1,009 members. The Jesuits and j
Keieinptorists are the strongest orders, the former
having 11 convents with loO members, and the
latter 5 convents with 09 members. Bavaria has
71 convents containing 1,045 members, while the
Grand Duchy of Hese-Darmstadt has 4 convents
with 29 members. The female orders of Prussia
number G2G, with 5,580 members. This is an
increase of about 1,800 since 1865. The Bava
rian nuncnes are 188 in number, containing
2.533 members. The superiors of the various
male convent are mainly Italians, though a few ' j
Mi llM is Ifeginiting to build cotton factrie.
Music, ay Auerobach, washes a war lrotn the
foul the dust of every -i'.iv life.
Miles it-tandish, the old Puritan, is to have a
monument 1(H) feet hih at lKuhurj, M.-uv, to
jeretuate his lacm ry.
Ihe --pif wh'i :irii:.s: lvr in other
M.ssihu-elts t"w:i- ail to svtvi Sutid.iv in
Newburyjajrt, where that liquid iirxury is le.tl.
Urown Sivys wedding-rings ought to In? re
ehristeuexl eufJVr-riii. He las been married
Since t he Jubilee, l--ton hns run entirely
tliat its tneu wear biisd bands v.ti
The S.ar as Stokes put New York to an
expense of scJin,0ti1 by pistoling F'isk, and more
exper.ee is to come with the next trial.
The fashionable hotel at Siratita refused to
receive Joie Mansfield M niay, w hen she went
there to testify in the liarnard impeachment case.
If any rson has doubts whether advertise
ments are read or not, let him put tkiuie tiling he
doesn't wish ceen in an obscure iart ot the paper.
Colonel "Tom ieott'" is president of only
twenty-fix. railway companies, with au aggregate
salary of $170,000. Kirmiiy?.
An Irish schoolmaster recently informed his
pupils tliat the feminine gender ediould le applied
to all ehips and vessels atloat, except tnail-steam-trs
The twenty-filth anniversary of the Rev. Henry
Ward Ik'evher's incumbency of Plymouth's pul
pit, is to be celebrated by his tl.ck ou the 10th of
Some irrcvorant itulividual lias discovered tliat
the first genuine Dolly Yarden was worn by a
man, and that the whole story is to lw found in
the book of CJencsis.
Greeley will get all the votes in tho Tribune
office extv pt the man who sets up his copy ; lie
has been waiting years for a diabolical revruge,
and now liiulo his opportunity.
The planet Ycuus will pans between the earth
aud the suu in the autumn. All the civilized
governments are preparing to observe it with the
From the end of 1SG0 to the end of 1370, there
was built in the United States 22,113 miles of
railway. But little of this was built during the
years of war.
Dolly Yarden has had a short and very igno
initous career in London. No lady,'' says the
Queen, the ladies' newspaper, ' will hereafter
disfigure herself by wearing one ol" these now
Si trtciE.NT ExctPK. The editor is absent, the
foreman has the toothache, the devil is drunk
and the press out of order, and we ain't well
ourselves, so excuse a poor paper for this week
Death, with fleshless fingers, having snatched
all the centenaiians of Washington's domestic
family, is now commencing on that of the late
President Madison, and one old colored lady of
on hundred and seven Summers has just gone.
A gentleman dining at a cheap restaurant, one
day, was heard to give this courageous order:
" Waiter, let the cheese move this way.' It
was a cheese very much like that on the table
i , - 1 Sl.l . j. .
which was awarded t:he prize lor a gymnastics ut
j r . 1 OJ
a country fair.
A few Sundays pin?e a teacher in the Sunday
School of an Episcopal church in Chicago, said to
one of her pupils : ' James what good thing
what great pleasure tire you willing to give up as
a sacrifice during the Lenten season?" Jimmy
meditated about ten seconds, and responded : " 1
thiuk 111 give up going to Sunday School."
lob " Jim, de men don't make such fools of
themselves about women as de women do about
men. If dcy look at de moon dey see a man in
it. If dey bear a mouse nibbling it's a man;
and dcy ail look under de bed last thing at night
to fiud a man. Why, I nebber look under de bed
to find a woman, does you?
A New Fairfield man who failed to get a thirty
cent pine apple for n. quarter of a dollar, wanted
to know " whether we are breathing the pure air
of freedom or being strangled with the fetid breath
of a hellish despotism?" The storekeeper said
those were the only pine apples he had. Dan
bury jY ics.
An Iowa farmer professes to have discovered a
process by which sugar can be extracted from
corn stalks at a cose of less than 3J cents per
pound. In view of the success with which the
makers of beet sugar are meeting, and the
promise of plenty of a superior article from corn,
this country stands a chance of having plenty of
The L'nited States Government is to undertake
the breeding of salmon on the Pacific Coast, with I
a view to stocking Eastern rivers and other waters ;
suitable for salmon. The work will be carried on j
on a large seale, and will be under the charge of ;
Livingstone Stone, of Charleston, S. C, w ho w ill
go to Oregon next month and commence opera- !
tions on the Columbia river. i
Sugar cane in Louisiana has degenerated, in !
consequence of growing the same species in the !
same soil, without changing the stock. At a
meeting of planters, au agent was appointed to !
visit Java and Sumatra, to select new varieties of
East India sugar cane. This measure is expected j
to infuse new vigor into sugar planting, which j
has become of late years almost unrcmuncrativc.
A Texan tells this fttory of lost opportunities :
Now, you see," said he, " hind was cheap
enough at one time in Texas. I have seen the
day when l could nave nought a square league ol
land, covered with fine grass and timber, for a
pair of bo. its." " And why didn't you buy it?"
asked bis comiianion. ' Didn't have the boots,"
said the Texan.
Homemade Disinfectant. Dissolve a bushel
of salt in a barrel of water, and with the salt
water slack a barrel of lime, which should be
wet enough to form a kind of paste. For the
purpose of a disinfectant this homemade chloride
of lime is nearly as good as that purchased at
the shops and drug stores. L'se it freely about
sinks, cellars, gutters and outhouses, and in this
way, prevent sickDcss, suffering and expense.
Whenever you see a flock of geese all standing
on one leg. except the old gander, and he chew
ing bis cud. iook out for a south-west wind to
morrow, or next day, or a day after, or at some
future time. Whenever dogs are seen traveling
around with nothing to do, and old maids refuse
their tea, and hop vines won't climb, and grind
stones won't grind, then j-ou may expect a little
crop of oats and beans that won't pay for har
vesting. Jotli BdUnfjs.
The followiug is a certificate given by n Troy
lawyer to an applicant for admission to the bar :
" I hereby certify that the bearer. , was
a student in my oOice for ten months ; that dur
ing the whole of that time his character for piety,
chastity and honesty was above reproach ; and j
his example was such that from my daily contact
with him I have now become a pious and con
sistent member of the church, and a useful mem
ber of society.'"
Education in Ireland. The recently published
statistical reports of elementary instruction in
Ireland for the year 1869 give a very low per
centage of education among the adult masses.
It is shown that for all the marriages registered
in Ireland during that year 36 per cent, of the
men and 40 per cent, of the women were com
pelled to sign the registry with a mark because
they were unable to write their names. In Eng
land, during the same year, those who were una
ble to sign their names were 20 per cent, of the
men and 27 per cent, of the women.
George Francis Train makes a curious revela
tion about the Great Farmer who eo egotistically
told the world ' What I Know About Farming.'
He says that the nomination at Cincinnati was
secured for Greeley by the stockholders to get j
him out of the Tribune: " For many years the
Tribune stockholders have tried to get rid of
Greeley. Clark, the Finance writer, who died
abroad, would have put him out had he lived.
Sinclair and Patent Medicine Ayer, the largest
owners, Eaw the chance at Cincinnati, and
Whiielaw Reed, without any stock, was given
full power to make the trade. Applause. J Old
Greeley, in his dotage and insane passion foi
office, tumbled headlong into the Presidential pit
Laughter. He resigned the Tribune, and will
never resume hiw old pitirn. i.,Scnattoa.l
An edit nr relates Imw a cohired barlnT made a
lea l liead ..f Litu. He ollensl lam tlw usual
dime for having. when tls fellow drew hiniw-ll
up with eotisiderahle juij ty, and sail:
Weil, what of it?" said we. "We never
charge editor tmliin." Uut.iuy wlly friend,"
we continue-1, "there are a good many txlitora
traveling now-a-d.iys. nnd such lil-erality ou your
pirt iiill prove u ruinous hu sines. ' Ofi,
n-lT mind," ret !isl the liarU-r, we make it
We have often beard of legislative IkkIics and
luuuicipal authorities! Hering a reward, or bounty,
lor the calne, .pelts, or wins of fuch wild beac'u
or bird- as are pct and nuisances about the
ountry farm-yards, but never until now have we
kn.wn a titnilar offer to be made for human
skeletons. This novelty is reported from San
rrancisco, wIktc, it is said, the city authorities
offer a bounty uf $10 for every dead body picked
up aud recovered from the waters of the bay.
Here is au opening now for the unemployed ut
least for such a have uo eouipunctiona about
committing murder for the foe of ten dollars, aud
doubtlct many such cun be found.
The TrRviM'9 or tuk N. P. Umlhoau. The
Pacific Trttu,nf has reliable intelligence from the
agents of the X. P. Railroad Company that the
liue of road will ruu to the Lust Side of liud l's
Inlet to the rollings or W yl;e donation claims,
i Riid claims being in sections 23, 2b, 35 and 'M,
i in tow nship No. 13 N, liauge 2 west, in that ter
ritory, and a point will lie selected ou one of said
: claims for freight and passenger depots where said
j line will tcrmitiate. This division knocks the
t claims of Port Townsend and all the ambitious
towns on that side of Puget Sound into a cocked
hat. Seattle, Steilacootu and all towus ou the
oilier hide may now hold up their heads.
The TuMmf in IVmin u-IiiIi ti.-ttv caaiiw t. I
.... .... ....... ... . . l.U I. .-vv .uc v iv
.-ma w. km. now ems to ne
chKM.. has bevn productive of an
almost unraralleleJ in moden.
Picrson, an Knghshman who has
drawing near its
amount of misery
times. Captain Picrson, an Knglh
! recently traveled in that unhappy country, de- j
, scnlies the hist stage of the famine" as worse than I
the first On his journey from Shirax to Teheran
be found the ruadbtrevvo with lialf-eatcti corpses ;
canmoausni was very prevalent, ana starvation
had aroust the usunlly peaceuble inhabitants to !
desjvair, and brigandage aud other crimes of vio
lence were rile all along the roads. In the capi
tal alone, out of a population of eighty thou
sand, at least twenty thousand bad fallen victims
to the famine aud its attendant diseases.
It has generally been assumed that China had
3.rU,000,000 inhabitants, aud Japan oj.000,000 ;
but we pcrtfeive these figures ure questioned by
intelligent persons rosidiug in those countries.
It is said that the rebellions in the Middle King
dom have caused a great reduction in the jpula-
tioti of many province within the last twenty
vears mtiilinitmu- in some mnp
to over fifty per
ivnt. or more : and a lato Iti-it is rev ew est ln.nl,'.
j , 0 ... ....
tbo entire IVIesti.al mmnbl ion now it Jlll (Hl'l -
ihe Japan Mail of n lute date insists iiioii
"a ' v
a similar reduction in the insulation of Jajmn.
it says tliat
" the estimates given by those best
the subject range from 18,000,000
to 22,000,000;" but it is admitted that this.
estimate is not accepted by the educated Japan
ese, and is not sustained by any official docu
nicnt ; though u census was taken in 1871, w hen, !
according to report, the total was 35,000,000. I
Sawing Wooo by Electricity. The latest
novelty in the electric line is tho employment of
the battery current to saw wood, without a saw.
It is well known that the resistance to the passage
of a curreut is inversely as the sectional area of
the conductor. In fine wire, for instance, this
resistance is very great, and the arrested forco
being transformed into heat, may be sufficient to
render the wiro while hot. This" is the nrincinlc
I of the various gas-lighting nnd fuse-firing electric
j apparatus, in which the gas is lit or the fuse
exploded by the white-hot wire. It has also
been employed instead ol the kniic in certain
surgical operations, the wire being found to burn
its way rapidly and smoothly tlnough flesh, etc.
The latter application, according to tho inntijic
AtntTican, has IxtMr extended by Dr. George
Il ibinson, of this city, to cutting woixl also, the
cmctricaiiy neaceu platinum wire proving as
e, without any expenditure of manual
strength, as a suw in the hands of a strong
,.'i, as a suw in the bands of a strong man.
The surface are slightly charred. .'.
Tkavu.ixo .Ma nt; Easy. In England there is a
beneficent being named Cook, whose grateful
mission it is to proviuo suitaoie excursions lor
people who have not the originality, or the lime,
or the patience to think them out, ami attend to
them in person, l or example, a London trades- ;
. . .i i. ... i .!
man or attorney ueeircs to spenu mice wecKS or
a month in n trip on the Continent, lie goes to '
Mr. Cook, he mentions his limit as to time and I
money, and selects from a long list of tours to j
Madrid or to Malta, to Copenhagen, the one !
j which takes his fancy. He pays n stipulated'
amount ; bas Ins baggage sent fur on the stipu
lated day, and then from the moment be gets
into the railway car, or the steamboat until he
returns home he has not an atom of care or
responsibility, or expense. His hotel bills are .
paid for him, his luggage looked after by some
good-natured invisible sprite ; all the trials and
mishaps that vex and worry the ordinary traveler
arc carefully smoothed from his path. lie dines
at the best hotels; he sees all the places of:
interest; lie travels, in a word, like a Prince of
fairy tale, with Mr. Cook as his tutelary genius.
Is it any wonder that all traveling England grate
fully puts itself under the guidance of this accom-
plishcd man, whose combinations now embrace
the entire world, or that Peers and Archbishops i
hist year, were glad to travel under his protection.
Effects of Removal of Forests. At one :
eeason the earth parte with its warmth by radia- j
! tion to an open sky receives, at another, an ;
immoderate heat from the unobstructed rays of
I the sun. Hence the climate becomes excessive,
i and the soil is alternately parched by the rigorn
; of winter. Bleak winds sweep unresisted over ,
: its surface, drift away the snow that sheltered it .
; from the frost, and dry up its scanty moisture, j
The noil is bared of its covering of leaves, broken I
' nnd loosened by the plough, -deprived of the
I fibrous rootlets which held it together, dried and
f1 lulvcrized by sun and wind, and at last exhausted
, y new combinations. The face of the earth is
i no longer a sponge, but a dust heap ; and the
! floods which hurry swiltly along its slopes, cur- j
rying in susj-nsion vast quantities of earthly j
j particles, which fill the beds of the streams, j
! divert them into new channels, and obstruct j
! their outlets. I he rivulets, wanting their former
regularity of supply, and deprived of the pro tec t
' ing shade of the woods, are heated, evaporated,
and thus reduced in their summer currents, but !
j swollen to raging torrents in autumu and iu
spring. The earth, stripped of its vegetable
I glebe, grows Ies and less productive, and conse-
qucntly less able to protect itself by weaving a j
new network of roots to bind its particles together,
a new carpeting of turf to shield it from wind,
and sun, and scourging rain. CJradually it
becomes altogether barren.
Ihe Discovery of the North Pole. It is
nearly four hundred years since the first effort to
tins end was made by the Portuguese Corte Keal.
As long back as 1585, was formed the London
company wnicn una lor its ouaint title the
" Fellowship for the Discovery of the North-west
! Passage.'" For more than seventy years (1745
j 1818,) Parliament offered a reward of twenty
i thousand pounds for this discovery. For their
I eallant if fruitless efforts for the tame purpose. :
I I)-,.,, I'Mnll.n H.ij f1rA.nrAar.ti on.l I
' were knighted, Yiloughby, Frobisher, Davis,
!.w wV t rail
lJuinn, iiuuson, -viacneuzie, lieicner, Vancouver, ;
i Kane, Grinnell, Hayes, Collinson and .McClure '
; are only a lew oi me names inai nave necomo
S famous in the same way, through association with ;
! unsuccessful endeavor. Hearne made a land ex- i
pedition to try to get at the pole more than one j
1 7 i . t r f a. l nr . 1
nunureu years ago in noj. uver iniriy cuons i
by sea and land have originated in England alone j
and there have been a number of like enterprises
initiated in otber countries. Ibese lacts show
that in spite of failure, men continue at great
cost and risk to prosecute a research, the com
mercial value of which is doubtful, and the
advantage of which in any except a scientific
sense, or as a pomi 01 national priue, is prooaoiy
immaterial. It is reasonable then to infer
especially when we consider the greatly increased
facilities for prosecuting such researches, obtained
by the use of steam which insures speed, by
preserved and condensed provisions which guar
antee quantity and protect against scurvy, nnd
by greatly improved scientific instruments that
.efforts will continue to be pertinaciously made
'until the North Pole is discovered, and the exist
ence or non-existence of a north-west passage ia
jicjairin ip hU vuxxdLftomAvmtMMi 111 1
All kinds of fruit made into jam and ftweetetir'
with honey instead ofaatgar are very nice. Tho.
who are foud of li.mey cvnidcr butter" mail
; in this way nicer than when made with augar. ';
1 W;n ok TxEt.v Take soft avp made Inn-bord-wo
xl ashca, tron enough to take the akts
off the hands or eat a hole tit a tin il, and ii
erring apply with a brush from tho ground uj
among the brunche, taking rare not to touch an;
of the swelling buds. Ltery kind of parasite, lis
eluding the tenacious luiuk-louae, will leave. -
A correspondent or the Macs. Pttnrnutn recotu
mends the following remedy for tl white hair
which sometime up pew r on hortca from tho uaeu
1 the saddle: Take piece of lard, largo cnougl
i to give the spot a thorough greasing; rub lb
: Rime with the Land until it become right hot
repeating the operation at least three or fou
' times, uud the wlut hail w I soon come out, ai
' hairs of a natural color take their )Jace.
A cement of great adh site power may be tnad
, by rubbing together, in a mortar, two part o
( nitrate of lime, tweiity-tive of water and twentj
' of powdered gum ara"bi', this forming a trait
arrnt ccmetit of wotiderful Mrcnglh and applitv.
le to wood, iwrtvlain. c law and ptoue. Thesur
face to e united should be xvintcd with the i.t
' nient and firmly bound together uulil the drying
. is complete
Kavie. We oWne by au extract from a So
nomaCul.,peter, that this plant ia found to succeed
. very well iu tltat ouuty, and ita growth ia atrongl y
, recommeuded. So far oa we are apprised of the.'
experience of tbowe who have tented it in Louisiana
i and els. where at tho South, the trouble ia not b;
make the plant grow, but to fiud an availablt!
market fir the tirndiict- With mm.vliiii.lliiii i.'
I ........ ' ' . . W .
drcsa the fibre, we have na doubt of the value of
1 be Crop
J'hc rough undressed fibre, however, is
MiJ itl ti)f extmct, to be worth 15 cei.Ua ik,u ,l
at SlU, Frtni' ,u tli. caw u 0 ,a
, wd, Xt.Calfurnu Fn, )
1 ' f
The First Spanking.
There are many pcoplo in thU world w!o lo
; to live upon the memory of tlie "lirst. IV
, fin,t baby." "the first tumble down utairs.
me lirtt liniio, tlie first tmirof ImobJ," tin
' firnt love," "the first luother-in-law "all theW
; and more have been liung.drawjj and quarlereI by
j the poets und prose writers of nil timeaand Uuda 3
j There ia one "first" on which every writer
; ought to dwell feelingly. We refer to the " first
spunking. Hie tirstiqaiiking" is synonymous
with " the first love," though it in not generally'
understood in that sense; lor are not IIkkhj who'
: are spanked often, and tliose who are ch:utciied
oltcn, olteti dearly Iovol7
To show our high estimation of euch love we
will tell a small atory. It cocurrrd in the days of
our fira"1 bather, who was a fine old geutl
wg'tyigt 3'wra. liiig barefooted on
.,:,,..,,.,, 1!.... I.r ...... I . .'
".".V? ..... ....ft uu.viwum vmi uk- iu ,
' UlH ,KaJ 1,0 Wt're Wl of chestnut hue. lie'
fell in love with a lively widow of ru'ity uuiniers,
and as tho old wig became ehabhv in his eyes, be
i i . i , ... . , . f . . '
: I"" uewiren tnc iaci to tie,
a MJ..ret' , . , , . . , ,
n.v.t, oun niiivii nay me vriuu oiew, Willi
bad all her teeth pulled out and a new act manii-j
facturcd, in order that she could apeak her loe
plainer and make her countenance more beautl-1
ful. She, too, was modest about this item artread-l
iug about in tho neighborhood, hut it uiicht in-'
j tcrfere with her heart's desire. Wo cannot for-;
. 8ct now pleased sho waa us she showed tho teeth
( rouul to tho folk. You would do tho same,?
reader, eo you need uot laugh. f
De day tho sewiug circle mo nt our bouse,:
"d the widow waa present." As nho and,
'. grandfather were talking togetlicr, wo nindo ourf
j. waJ" through the crowd und But next to them. I
i 1 youthful siiur licity wo nuked tho v idow if
' B',e could take the teeth out of jier mouth v easily;
! M grandfather took tho hair oil' his bond. The'
question wlb asked in tlie peculiarly loud and
shrill tone of childhood, and was hcnrJ hv rvfrv
one in thn room. For a littlo time we were the
centre of attraction. Innocent of producing a!
profound sensation, we waited for n reply.
Our question was never unswercd, for our,
father whs in tlie room at the time, lie nought!
us, and invited ua to the barn, where wo were,1
'impressively loved" with a shingle, or soundly
pankod. Then we were advised to ask no more?
questions m company.
j the first spanking.''
Here endeth the Icwoii ol f '
1 np8ia hns now thoroughly organised, and un-'
dl.r government pntronaie nnd MiHTvi-ion. fif-'
, tCo thousand public sehools-a grand token of' j
1 huccmi i
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