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Jicport of tin; Koyzsi Coniiiii.ioiicr.H
on Development of aicsourccji.
IlONOI.l'I.r, A1MIIL 'Sim, 177.
TO HIS EXCEL L ESC 1 "
THE MI SISTER OF THE I ST Ell I OE.
The mulvr.-iixiMMl, Coiniiii.sxioiu-rM awinteI ly Hi Majesty tlu
Kiii in Privy Council uikUt the Act "To aid in the development of
the resources of the Kingdom," approved on the 23th day of
September, A. I). 1H70, would rciectful!y report.
The Commissioners, in pursuance of the first Section of naid Act,
left Honolulu on the 20th day of February, 1877, on Her IJritanntc
Majesty's Ship 14 Fan tome," which venel had been kindly tendered
by II. IJ. M.'n Coniiiii-8ioner and Consul General, Major James II.
Vodehou, to convey the Commission to Hawaii.
DISTRICT OF KOHALA.
The Commission landed at Mahukona on February 20th, and on
the following day proceeded to Kohalaloko. The agricultural
resources of Kohala are well known through the success which has
attended the enterprises there established, which were visited by the
Commission. The Union .Sugar Mill of Mr. Hinds, conducted on
the principle of grinding on shares the cane grown by others, has,
- - - i f
proved profitable to both planters and mill owner, and is a vaiuauiw
illustration of the success of this principle.
Mr. Hinds is about erecting another mill to be conducted the
same way, and the operations of the present mill w ill probably be
These opport unities have stimulated the people in the neighbor
hood to increased industry, and the prospect of large returns for the
capital and labor invested will doubtless lead to bringing into culti
vation a larger area of cultivated land.
The Kohalu Hugar Company, a corporation cultivating entirely
on their own account, are prosecuting the planting of cane and the
manufacture of sugar with great energy. The lands in this imme
diate neighborhood are mostly taken up, and the cultivation of sugar
is being extended to parts formerly considered unfavorable for culti
vation, but where experience shows good results; and we think there
is still opportunity for profitable investment. Dr. Wight is
vigorously enlarging and improving the capacity of his fine estate.
C. F. Hart, Ivsquire, the local Circuit Judge, is pushing forward
a co-operative enterprise on the lands of Makapala and Niulii, which
are mostly cultivated by native Hawaiians for their own account, to
be ground on shares at a mill to be erected by Judge Hart. The land
is very rich, and is said never to have suffered from drought. There
is little doubt of large crops of sugar-cane. Its vales are filled with
tropical growth and it bears large crops of taro. It is greatly to be
hoped that this enterprise will meet with such success as will stimu
late others of alike nature, for the good of the people as well as the
development of the country. Between Niulii and the valley of
Fololu, the farthest land in this direction visited by the Commission,
the lands are fertile and are far from being fully developed.
The Commission were struck with the hopefulness displayed by
the people of this district, a marked contrast to the listlessness and
apathy observed in districts where no agricultural enterprises are
prosecuted, and illustrating the important influence which the
encouragement of such enterprise and industry will have on the !
preservation of the Hawaiian race, who in some districts have little :
' to hope for or live for.
The quantity of land in this district capable of cultivation is very
hard to estimate, as experience constantly demonstrates new capa
cities. Cane is successfully cultivated now at higher altitudes than
was for a long while deemed expedient and in parts of the district
formerly considered t'.nt dry. Upland taro grows high upon the
Ioic3 of Makapala and Niulii, and thousands of acres yet uncul
tivated are doubtless capable of producing taro, sugar, collee and
other products. The climate is healthy, cool and inviting. The ;
supply of water iu the northerly part of the district is limited, and
some steps will yet be necessary for the preservation of the forests in
Mr. Hinds we are told was successful iu finding a supply of water .
for his new mill by digging in a gulch near by. This shows the
value of intelligent effort to seek subterranean supplies, which
should encourage like effort iu other places.
The Commission recommend that the bridges connecting the
lands of Makapala and Niulii be replaced by wider and stronger
ones, and that the roads in that neighborhood bo graded with the ;
view of facilitating the cartage of cane; also that the Government .
conduits in troughs. Mill, tanneries and other mechanical enter
prises should be supplied by pipes.
The plain of Fukapu and Waimea are subject to high wind,
a'"nivated bv the lo of the sheltering forests of former days I he
oil however "is verv good in manv places for sugar cane and other
product. To develop its U-.-t resources, effort mut be made to
restore the forests and hu-band the supply of water at their souroe
to furnish a supj.lv for agricultural purposes- At present the lands
are used almost exclusively for grazing purioses. Although the pro
prietors and lessors are probablv not averse to the establishment of
agricultural enterprises, it i to be feared that the denudation of the
lu-ighlioring mountains and plains of the forests will render the
climatic conditions unfavorable to success.
It would seem that a wise appreciation of the le.-t interests of
this district, even of the grazing interests themselvt , would lead to
the decrease of the Immense herd which threaten not only )aimea
but even Hamakua with almost irreparable disaster. It is to be
feared that they will in time render a large tart of the land of little
value even for grazing purport owing to the increasing frequency
and severitv of drought and consequent failure of springs, some
thousands 6f cattle are said to have died this iast winter from want
of water, and the works erected in Waimea for the purpose of trying
out cattle have been idle for months for want of water.
The Commission do not propose here to discuss fully the vexed
questions of the causes of the diminution of the forests, but in view
of the fact that they are diminishing and that the streams and
springs diminish in a corresponding ratio, also that with the cattle
running upon the lands as at present, any effort to restore them must
be futile and anv hopes of their recuperation vain, the Government,
if it would wish to preserve that part of the island of Hawaii from
serious injury, must take some steps for reclaiming tue iorest
correct initial points for other surveyors to work from in prosecuting
surveys. Surveyors should be sent for from abroad to prosecute this
work "if necessary. Some of them would probably settle on some of
the lauds, and be valuable additions to the population of the district.
The Government should have on roads, landings and surveys, a
dozen or more civil engineers as soon as practicable. The landing at
Hakalau was examined. An iron pier to connect the teach with a
point of lava on the east side of the bay, would give fair landing,
but the expense would be great ; as well as connecting roads up the
palis. If mill were put in the gulch it would be advisable to make
the landing available for surf boat. The Government have about
l's) acre of good land in the vicinity, and there is a larger quantity
of lands belonging to private parti.
At Honomu, in ordinary weather, a go.d landing can W made in
a surf boat, and would only need a buoy; parties are projecting a
small plantation on this la Jul with a mill in the gulch. There are
some ls acres of Government land iu the vicinity, and some 12-"o
sold to private Irarties, some of which i cane land. The establish
ment of a good mill at Honomu would greatly add to the value of
these lands. From this land on to Hilo the land is largely under cul
tivation, the plantations of Kaupakuea, Oiionua, i'apaekou and
Paukaa lying along here. On these estates the introduction of new
canes and methods of cultivation have shown the capacity of the
lands to ptxsluce large crops, and their prospects are very flattering.
They will doubtless become very valuable estates, and show what
with labor can be accomplished "in this district, many of the best
lands of which are yet undevelojsl. liack of these plantations lie
large lands adapted to coffee culture. The coffee plantation of Mr.
William Kinney is an evidence of the great value of this land for
this product, and demonstrates what can be accomplished by energy,
even without a large capital. Mr. Kinney has now growing on eighty
ino.niM) coffee trees in splendid condition, and in tlu
i. 1 I nnr.a CMiin UMimhl WhTT.W r FMirf 111 TI I 111 1 1 1 1 i fl Tllllflllll- M III 1 III Ilie
In this connection we would say, mat u is unioriunaie manarge i V . , . V , 7i k i uf .., j ,
tracts of Crown and Government lands have been lately leased on j neighborhood of his p antation,-m fact the whole belt of land Ih ing
Ion" terms for grazing purges, without conditions as to their j in the back part of" the Hilo District, rangmg from 10. to
t.rotection from nermanent iiiiurv. at rat much below their value feet above the level of the sea, is capable of equal cultivation.
J even as preserves "for Government purposes or public protection. j In our opinion this land lor tne purpose 01 conee cuiination
) The Commission deem this a matter of grave importance, dial- is equal to any in the world. The abundant supply of water gives
llengingthe earnest attention of the Government, and involving the valuable facilities for tluming the Umes to the beach, where the
I I r . iJu .i -..ii.iA.ii..i.ta ! neeessarv machinery and appliances for cleaning and drying could
nrosneritv of two important
. W . .... 44.,, . . 1 f . A. 1-
There are large quantities 01 lanen trees in me loresis, wuose
removal would doubtless be of benefit to the forests and it would
seem could be profitably taken to Honolulu for sale as firewood.
On the 27th of February, the Commission visited Waipio Valley
and rode through it. This valley is rich in waters which are fed from
springs in the valley itself. The falls of Hiilawe were dry, which is
a remarkable circumstance. The capacity of the valley for the pro
duction of taro to supply the Districts of Hamakua, Waimea, ami
even Kohala, is large, and it would seem to offer every advantage to
its people. A few acres of land are adapted to cane and coffee. The
palis on cither side are steep, and it would be well to furnish some aid
to the people by buoys, so that a surf boat could be used in getting
their produce out of the valley for slrpment. This would seem the
better way, as although a fair road for pack animals might be made
up the pali, it would be expensive, and there would be a long distance
to traverse to a port of shipment. About a mile to the southeast of
Waipio is a landing sometimes used, called Honokaape, but as its
use would not be more convenient or safe than a surf boat at Waipio,
the Commission did not think it well to advise the construction of a
road to it. The landing at Honomalino was examined, but no im
provement suggested, as anything which would be available in
weather when the landing can not now be used, would be of very
great cost.- The land of Waikoekoe, held by S. Parker, seems ad
mirably adapted for a large sugar plantation, and the usual products
of high lands, soil rich and laying well. The lands between Waipio
and Waikoekoe have patches of good land for sugar and other
The landing of Kaihumoku was examined, but not considered,
under present circumstances, a place to expend any money upon,
though if a plantation was started in the neighborhood it would
doubtless be used in good weather for light freight. The land of Ka
pulena is rough and stony on the lower part, though above the road
it has several hundred acres of fair land for cane or coffee. The land
ing at Honokaai has the best natural advantages for the construction
of a break-water, having some large rocks laying just awash in a po
sition to be utilized. The boat harbor, which could be thus sheltered,
would need to be cleared by blasting some large rocks, and as materi
al for a break-water would have to be brought from some distance
the expense would be very great, and the landing at Honokaa would
be near enough for the use of the land of Honokaai, which seems to
be adapted for cane, though hilly. Its sheltered ravines will grow
coffee, oranges and other tropical fruit. Kawele was recommended
as a landing, but is simply a point of rocks running into the sea,
giving but little shelter in any wind. Honokaa is the site of the
plantation of Messrs. Siemsen & Marsden, on which there is good
cane growing, showing what under proper cultivation the district j
may produce. The scarcity of water for mechanical purposes is a
great drawback to the district, which being blessed with frequent ;
showers, does not suffer from drought, but is singularly deficient in ;
springs and running streams. This want can be remedied by reser
voirs, or by wells in the gulches like that sunk by Mr. Hinds in Ko
hala. This is merely a matter of enterprise and industry. Parties
should provide themselves with reservoirs, but the Commission would
recommend that a careful survey be made for water supply for the
district at Government expense ; that the supplies, if found, may be
controlled by Government and used in the way best adapted to aid in
developing the district. Just back of Honokaa Plantation is a large
tract of lo.ooo or more acres of Government land in forest, which is
unfortunately leased for grazing purposes, and unless the lease is can-
be erected. If such flumes were erected and appliances furnished to
clean and prepare the cotlee at fair rates or on shares, and the lands
then thrown oieii to actual cultivators, a great ptortunity would
be offered to settlers, and the value of the lands greatly enhanced to
Tue Commission would recommend that Government lands in
that district be surveyed and let to actual cultivators in alternate
sections, with such conditions as may be necessary to reserve water
and rierhts of wav for flumes, and the balance reserved to offer in
! smaller lots to immigrants after the section first disposed of are
! under cultivation, and the value of the business demonstrated.
The lands will produce abundantly of kalo with little labor,
which is a profitable crop, and settlers with small means can raise
most of their requirements, while the coflec trees are maturing,
which they will do in three years; after four years the crop would
be continuous and yield a regular income.
The Commission would recommend a pier north of the present
steamer wharf at Waiakea, in Hilo Day, built in a substantial manner,
extending some 200 feet from a rocky point there, so that vessel
could lay alongside. The produce of the district could be brought to
Hilo for "shipment to foreign markets, thus making a great saving to
the people of the district. Hilo should be the shipping port of this
large and rich district, and a wise expenditure here would increase
the value of property and tend to make the district what it should be,
second in wealth and importance to none other in the Kingdom.
The Commission believe that many of the improvements recom
mended for the Hamakua and Hilo Districts, should be begun as soon
as possible, to give confidence in the intention of the Government to
carry them on and give an impetus to enterprise, especially with
regard to mills to grind on shares cane raised by small cultivators.
Natives show a commendable zeal to cultivate on their own -account,
which should be encouraged wherever possible. Immediate steps
should also be taken for the introduction of laborers, that enterprises
may be undertaken, and especially to bring into the Kingdom a class
of people who would bring their families and perhaps assimilate
with the Hawaiian race. Probably in India such could be found,
and the Commission would earnestly recommend that Government
lands be reserved to give such, if after completing their contracts of
service they would settle on them and cultivate them. As in the
case of Hamakua District, good lands are spoken of as cane lands or
coffee lands; but these lands arc adapted to the cultivation, in many
places, of oranges, limes and other fruits. Forests of Sumach are
growing wild, and as this has been said to be the Sumach of com
merce, which when prepared for tanning purixses is worth in Cali
fornia $150 per ton, the Commission recommend that the Government
have some prepared for shipment to ascertain its quality and value.
California now receives its supplies from distant Sicily, while proba
bly the forests of II:! makua and Hilo could supply the whole of the
demand of the northwest coast of America. Doubtless many other
profitable product ions would be thought of if an intelligent and in
dustrious population enjoyed the advantages of these districts. The
i position which these islands occupy to the west coast of America as
j its main source of supply in the future of sugar, rice, coffee, &c,
i guarantee a permanency of values, which should give capital every
i inducement for investment, and should induce the Government to
! enter boldly and unhesitatingly into measures to develop these re
! sources, and trust confidently to the increasing value of property to
. meet the expenses of such improvements. The Districts of Hilo and
' Hamakua should support a population of .'iO.000 to 40,000, and the
Commission are of opinion that the expense of introducing immi-
i grants and md
assist in laying a buoy and mooring at Dr. Wight's landing, in
consideration of its being kept open and the roads leading thereto for
the public use.
The Commission carefully examined the landing at Honoipu.
The boat landing is on the side of a point of lava rock which makes
out for some 300 feet or more from the shore, over which the surf
breaks at times with great force, so as to render any structure of
reasonable cost impracticable. The anchorage is good, and vessels
can lay safely, even at times when with present facilities a boat
could not safely lay to land cargo. The Commission recommend that
a boat dock be blasted out of the lava rock, say 40 feet long by 15 feet
wide, with a depth of five feet at lowest water where the present
landing stage is. Examination shows that a cave exists under the
rock, which lessens by a great deal the amount of rock to be
removed. It is believed that such a dock would often enable the
shipping and landing of merchandise on occasions when with present
facilities the landing would be useless, and thus promote the welfare
of the district. The cost of such a dock is estimated from such data as
was obtained at $1500. The Commission also recommend that the
landing at Mahukona be improved by blasting out the rocks which
obstruct the boat channel.
The roads of this district show intelligent care, and reflect credit
upon Mr. Holmes, the road supervisor.
The introduction of a few hundred families of a laboring class to
enable the enterprising people, native and foreign of Kohala, to
prosecute with vigor their plaus, would tend more than anything else
to develop the resources of this district.
Frorn Puuhue the Commission proceeded to Waimea. The route
lies around the slopes of the Kohala mountains through Kawaihae
uka. The forests on the Kohala mountains are dying rapidly. The land
is used mostly for grazing purposes, though on the mountain potatoes
of fine quality can be raised in large quantities. In sheltered places,
coffee would doubtless grow, but owing to the sparseness of the
population and the superior attractions of other parts of the district,
this v"rt will hardly soon be settled. The once fertile and populous
plain of Waimea looked sterile and desolate when visited by the
Commission, a painful contrast to Kohalaloko on the other side of
The grazing interest, so paramount here, is fatal to agricultural
enterprise. The diminution of the wrater supply and other results
caused by the wasting of the forests, have led the people to seek other
homes. At a meeting of the people held on the 26th February, at
the Court House at Waimea, there was great complaint made before
the Commission regarding the supply and quality of the water used
by the people, and a desire expressed that the Commission recom
mend the Government to take steps to remedy the evils complained
of. Although not perhaps strictly within the range of their duties
under the Act to develop the resources of the Kingdom, the Commis
sioners, regarding the importance of this matter upon the health and
prosperity of the district and the future possible development of its
resources, visited the stream and followed it to the point where it is
The complaint of the people is well founded. The water they use
is foultl in many places by cattle, horses and other animals, ami as
the stream is sluggish, it has no chance to free itself of impurities,
and the water used by the people in their houses must be a cause of
iiau und death, especially to the children. It is true that it is
possible for the people by going a long distance to get purer water, !
but it is well known that but few will take that trouble, nor does it I
seem right that they snouiu oe compel lea to. it is little wonder that
with his crops trodden out by the sheep or cattle of his stronger
neighbours, his family sickened perhaps to death by the polluted
waters, that the small holder should yield to despair, and abandoning
his homestead seek employment in some other district, usually with
out making another home.
The Commission would report that in their opinion, for the good
of the district the water should be taken by Government and made
available to the people through pipes or covered conduits, secure
from animal intrusion. The animals should be watered from the
celled in some way great damage must result to the district. The
lauding at Honokaa is the best, so far seen in the district. The
Commission would recommend that the landing be improved by
erecting a sloping sea wall of concrete to protect the road to the pres
ent derrick, which should be replaced by a substantial iron derrick
capable of raising eight tons weight, and a road of easy grade laid
out to the Government road, whichf under a competent road maker,
can be so laid out as to furnish access to most of the lands of the
district. At this point heavy machinery can be landed, except at
exceptional times, and carted to any part of the district, while light
freight can be landed at the landings heretofore mentioned when the
weather is favorable, or by a rope buoyed off from the shore. Mahiki
and Paauhau were examined as landings. The former would require
a large outlay for a road to it. Paauhau is doubtless one of the finest
lands in the district, presenting many advantages for one or two
sugar plantations. Beyond this land is some stony land intermixed
with very good land till Kaholalele is reached. Some 10,000 acres of
forest land belonging to Government lie between Kalopa and Kaohe,
which are not yet leased. It is to be hoped this will be reserved anil
protected from trespass. Kohala-lele has some fine cane land, and
the landing offers another opportunity for the erection of a derrick,
which will be necessary, as several large gulches intervene between
this part of the district and that which would be secured by the
landing at Honokaa. There should be a platform of concrete laid on
the rocks some fifteen or twenty feet above the sea for the derrick,
and a track from the platform some five hundred feet to the top of
the dug-way, on an incline, with a hoisting winch and cable.
The District of Hamakua may become a most productive district.
In commenting on lands we have spoken of them as sugar lands, as
that will doubtless be the staple product; but there is almost no land
that is not cultivatable, and everywhere the fruits of the tropics and
many of the temperate zone can be raised. The land is rolling, not
so level as generally represented, and the Government road is an il
lustration of the folly of appointing incompetent road-makers and
supervisors. There are no insuperable obstacles to the construction
of a good cart road from Waipio to Paauhau, and it should be built.
All the roads in the district show shameful neglect. The fact that
most all the finest lands back of the district are held by graziers,
whose immense herds are already making inroads upon them, is full
of danger to the prosperity of Hamakua, which should at any cost be
saved from the fate of Waimea. The law under which the Commis
sion acts, provides that cultivated lands should be taxed for improve
ments, but in a district like this it would be manifestly unjust that
the small amount of cultivated
great bulk of the lands more
proprietors fail to develop them
gest that lauds capable of cultivat
according to their value, as otherwise an unfair discrimination is
made against industry and enterprise. Here, as elsewhere, the great
requisite is population, people to develop the resources of the district
which ought to sustain a population of 10,000 in easy circumstances.
Where mills are established on the factory principle of grinding for
cultivators of small tracts, every encouragement should be given and
aid extended in the way of the improvements suggested. As to the
amount of land capable of cultivation, there are doubtless many
thousands of acres, but in the absence of accurate surveys no esti
mate can be made. There is doubtless sufficient cane land to raise
sugar cane enough for ten to fifteen mills.
DISTRICT OF HILO.
I nmir m in nn flfv.ltioii of Knm n
lilllll SUIFU1U I'ilY llilC i i i i .
nnd vonr Commission wm.ld ,,r. ! over 5000 acres m extent.
k. :.. icai ouriHises. xt a meeiiuir
ucing the settlement of these districts by the improve
ments suggested, will be fully returned to the Government in the
increasing revenues of the districts.
Good roads and bridges should be liberally supplied to the Hilo
District. The roads at present are not well cared for.
DISTRICT OF PUNA.
This district is largely composed of a-a and lava, and no large
agricultural enterprises, except stock raising, are being prosecuted at
present. The natives of the district, however, look cleanly and con
tented, and raise some coffee, cocoanuts, &c. The cocoanut grows
spontaneously, and its cultivation might be indefinitely extended till
the export of copra would be quite important. There is a boat-landing
at Mawae, Kula, near FJdart's ranch, to which the present
entrance is dangerous in consequence of having to double round a
reef of rocks, a part of which might be blasted out, opening a direct
channel to a good boat harbor; the expense of which would probably
be less than $250. The anchorage is said to be good, and with a good
mooring and buoy would supply the district with a fair landing. The
roads leading to the harbor would need improvement. The roads
generally in the district are good.
DISTRICT OF KAU.
From the crater of Kilauea to Kampala the country is mostly
a grazing country, and is largely owned and leased by the Hawaiian
. Agricultural Company, who also own between there and Punaluu
extensive tracts of sugar lands. There are lands also owned by
. natives and others in the neighborhood, which are very rich and
! promise large crops when they shall be cultivated. A good Govern
I ment road should be opened to the Punaluu landing. The Commi3
i sion are informed that it is the intention of the Company to erect a
, large mill on the central factory system, and it will doubtless prove
j profitable to planters and mill owners. A liberal policy pursued by
! the Company will doubtless plant a prosperous commur ity there, anil
J open a field for the employment of immigrants. The interests of the
i Company will compel it to take measures to preserve the forests, in
'. which the Government should co-operate.
The lack of a laboring population will retard the development of
i this district, which has greater natural advantages than many others.
At Honuapo a landing could probably be made by blasting a channel,
i This land is doubtless well adapted for cultivation. Along the road,
i mauka, lie the fields of the Naalehu and Waiohinu plantations, run-
lboo feet. Jiack of these lands lies a
ion of some 2200 feet, of verv rich soil
abundantly supplied with water for mechan-
of the people of Waiohinu complaint
was made of the pollution of the water supply, and in view of the
necessity of pure water and of preserving and preventing waste of
the water which will De necessary hereatter to supply mills, the Com
mission would recommend that the water course be fenceo, ami that
at some point some 200 feet above the town a reservoir be built with
pipes from which householders could be supplied as at Honolulu.
The landing at Kaalualu is good, and should be supplied with a
good mooring and buoy. Between Waiohinu and Kahuku are some
lands adapted for cane, and might be brought under cultivation if
supplied with water for mill purposes. Some looo or more acres
might here be cultivated. Kahuku, with it neat appointment,
shows how pleasant ranch life can be made.
The road to Kona reflects credit on the road supervisor of the
district, and should be continued through the Kona district. Over
beds of a-a and pahoehoe a fine road is constructed ; soil is carried on
in some parts and manienie grass planted with the best results.
Good roads are a great inducement to settlers, and road supervisors
should be held to a strict account. For miles the country seems
The first point examined in this district was the proposed landing
at Ookala. A erulch runs down to the shore, where it ends in a cliff
some 2(H) feet high. To the eastward of the gulch a small point of ! adapted only to awa, and in some places coffee, and below the forest
land makes out into the sea with a projecting reef of rocks, makinjr i to goat raising, till the coffee district of Kona is reached. Mr. Green-
a sman cave wmcn is smootn in oruinary weatner and anordincr an
opportunity for a derrick. The cliff is verv precipitous and over
hangs the sea in places. A road of tolerable grade can be constructed
from the landing along the side of the cliff to the foot of the gulch,
and roads from" that point up to both sides of the gulch to reach the
adjoining lands of Kaiwiki and Kaala on one side, Ookala, Humu
ula ami Waipimalei on the other. These lands are taken up alreadv
for cane planting.
At Laupahoehoe the landing is very good and the lands rich.
Messrs. Lndgate and Campbell have fine cane growing and every
Erospect of success in their enterprise at this place. The roads on the
aupahoehoe palis should be improved. From this, to the laud of
Maulua on the lands of Koamano, JLauhulu, Kihalani and Papaaloa,
Hookumahoe and others are very fine lands. Some of the lands are
let and some 1000 acres sold, but there are some 3000 acres cane land
left in the vicinity, of Government lands, making some 4000 acres in
all; also from 10,000 to 15,000 acres of forest lands, which should be
preserved. If parties could be induced to put up a mill on the central
factory system on one of these lands, and the rest let out to small
farmers, an admirable opportunity would be given to parties of small
means and to the native Hawaiians in the vicinitj-. Probably
Hawaiians in other parts of the district would gather here if such a
prospect was held out, and the same happy results which have
occurred in Kohala ensue. The Government lands, or such parts as
were reserved, would become of greater value and yield a good rental.
An enterprise of this kind in each district would be invaluable in
establishing centres of influence and society, which would attract
emigration, demonstrate the capacity of the soil, and thus give a
value to all the surrounding lands. There is no lack of water, and
with good roads to Laupahoehoe there would be no trouble about
shipping produce. On the forest land back of these lands there is a
large extent of coffee lands. The Commission would recommend
that the Government lands here be devoted to the effort to establish
a central factory, and to promote immigration ; also that part of it
be reserved till Legislative authority can be obtained to allot it in
small parcels to immigrants. At Kaiakea there is a good landing,
which would require a road to connect and a mooring buoy. Next to
the land of Maulua there are some 10X) acres of good cane land
belonging to Government. All these lands should be surveyed and
devoted to the development of this rich district. The Commission
earnestly recommend that the Government Surveyors be instructed
to survey the coast line and the Government road, which would give
well accompanied the Commission to lands on the mountains slopes
i above Kaawaloa, where at an elevation of 1000 feet a gentle slope
i upward to an extent of 3000 acres is doubtless well adapted to coffee.
I It is to be hoped that the capacity of this land will soon be demon
j strated, and that the proprietor will succeed in inducing settlers to
I occupy it. The soil and climate of Kona are adapted to orange and
j coffee culture, and if the blight can be overcome it will be a pros
' perous district.
The wharf at Kaawaloa, which has been allowed to fall into
j ruin, should be repaired. The roads in the Kona district are very
discreditable, and should be put In order as soon as jossibIe.
As roads are so important in the development of the resources of
! every district, your Commission would call the attention of the
Government to me Daa results oi ine present system oi worKicg oui
the road tax. Road Supervisors find that they cannot get fair work
out of the people, and we would therefore recommend that the taxes
be collected in money, and be used in employing the labor of com
petent men under the direction of skilful road makers.
The Commission would recommend that all buoys laid out at the
different landings in the Kingdom should be carefully laid, and that
in all cases the length of cable should be equal to three times the
depth of the water; and every three months the buoys should be
examined and painted, and the cable hove up to ascertain if it is
foul. They recommend spar buoys where the depth of water is not
over eight fathoms, and iron nun buoys in deeper water. Much could
be saved bv care.
Your Commissioners have not attempted to make estimates of
the quantities of arable lands in the districts, as in the absence of
accurate surveys such estimates must be based entirely upon con
jecture, as also estimates of the cost of the improvements suggested,
which we recommend should be estimated by the Superintendant
of Public Works, or other practical authority.
(The Commission embarked at Kailua on the 20th of March, on
board H. B. M. Ship "Fantonie," Captain Maquay, for Maui,) and
beg to express their sense of obligation to H. B. M. Commissioner
and Consul General, to Captains Long and Maquay and the officers
of the " Fantome," for their many attentions.
HENRY A. P. CARTER,
JNO. M. KAPENA,
WILDER & CO.,
Importers and Dealers in
Zld verbis or?
NOR' WEST SCANTLING,
Tongued k CrooTeJ, SirfaeeJ,
PLANK, BATTENS, PICKETS,
11 in. 4, lxi, idJ lit,
Scantling, Boards, Flank.
Battens-lx3, 1x4, 1-2x3, and 1-2x2,
Picketi Rough and Fancy,
Surfaced Boards and Flank, 7-8 to 2 in.
Tongued and GroeTMl
TIMBER, FOR SHIP USE!
2x12 to IGiIG;
CLEAR NOR' WEST. FOR PUNTERS' USE
EASTERN WHITE PINE,
California & Eastern Doors, all sizes
SACTT oil .ir. PTTWT13 oll.lr... PRINTING ESTABLISHMENT
White Lead Zinc t
PAINT OIL, i SMALL I'AINT, CIIKAf,
Fatty and Varnish,
Glass, No. 2x2 and 3,
Wall Paper and Borders,
VERY LOW !
Brown Cotton. JOB PRINTING TYPE,
Iron and Tinned Tax,
Faint & Whitewash Brushes, Of any othtr Office in tht Sm,hnkh llandf
METALLIC & FIRE-PROOF PAIHT,
For Plantation or any Other Use,
VrHITOR AT IIII.O. ANI PARTIES
ROITB 10ft Till (UU'ltO, Sb4
Cm o o1 Accommodation
DOARD AND LODGING
AT MA0AtLI ftATKJ, at Ik wUHI4w(
HORSES AND GUIDES FR0CURXD
At .bort iUr, 4 tU mtrifniritii at. it M lk trip to tk
Cun 17) C. Km IIAfAI.
BOOK AND JOB
No. 10 Merchaat turret
AckH0wltnljd t 'oirn tht litlt AtBOrir
inrnt of JJook ttnd
Butts & Hinges,
Hooks and Eyes, &c.
SALT, in QUANTITIES to SUIT
Well Adapted to the Superior Printing
POSTERS OF ANV SIZE!
KITUZa I si
SA1YTL G.WILDER PLAIN OH FANCY COLORS.
Agent for the Hawaiian Islands,
. or TUB
MMl LIFE IOTMtE (OJIPAJT
OF NEW YORK,
BUpp Pillf, ClTMlM,
Fr.nnnmiral I iffi Ins.. C.n. L
am w w w w 9 mm m w j i " up mm m md 4 mm K 4
Conoert Bllli, Utk
Rk1 Notice., Hill U4tic,
School ftporU, Frleca Crr t
IN THE WORLD!
VIjL, OA8H t
Now is a Good Time to Insure.
0E BIT FIRST-CLASS BISKS Tlkl V
iPl OFFICK WITH WILDER At C.
Steam ISoilcrs Pipes
AND ALL HEATED SURFACES !
United States and Foreign
but. rn '
SEWABD COLE, Manager Pacific Branch,
Office, 317 California Street, 8. F.
THEO. H. DAVIES,
of Beat, frcreoti JUdiklioa and CondnMIUMi. fta rea
S5 pr real, la Fact I Supplied by lha Barrel with
rail and Complete Initractioaa (prtoted) for Its Application.
II 12 1'KllKNCKHi
C. 8. Oovernment't Principal Manara&orlnir Eatabliihattnta
In the Eart and on the Pacific Slope, aod lb Principal
Mines and Mills of Kerada.
Honolulu Iron Works....... Hooolula
Kami O. Wilder Uooola
f ircsltrs, DettriptlTt PaapkleU, Etc.. Stat
I ippllfatlal t
THEO. H. DAVIES, HONOLULU.
Concert Tickets, Faallral Tickets,
Kleaatiokt Tickets, CtcursUta Tickets,
Deposit Cbsckf, KUifplog KspnlpU,
losur.aca Policies, CsrUAcatss of DB it.
Certiorates of Stock, Bills of Kscbaaf,
Tags tf trerjr stle.
potbecanea' Lets, Orders tf Kaerclsea,
Rewards tA Merit, Letter Headings.
Drjr Ooods Tags, K'Hs llaadioga,
Lecture Tickets, Hank SMAoaa,
IIIIIm oi I n re, Miow Card !
School Record, Check Ilooks,
Wood Cuts, Hark Lists,
Mf asioes, Wsjr Bills,
En re lopes. Billet.
Ministerial Beports, Pamphlets, Books!
Tas Bills, Lactares, Boods, Brian.
ANY KIND OF WORK IN TIIEIE LUTE.
WOT SPKCiriCD A B0 V It,
Will be Satisfactorily Executed
Offers For Sale
Br, Mails. Veal, BalsvM Jfc flak.
at tna rUIX MARKET STALLS. Pas. It, 1, 0, 21, at tha
Loweat Market Rates. Please fire sm a calL mil If
With ample Materials of Newest Btjlea,
PAST PRESSES, AMD GOOD W0RKMBS,
We Btldoinfallln giving $atif action toovr Patrons
ttUADITT OF WORK,
RAPIDITY OF KXKXtTION,
CHEAPNESS OF FRICEU
NO. 16 MERCHANT 8T&EBT.
n. L. 6IHXD05, Pnprkfer.