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suFplbmem t to the
G. -iDVERTISEB. J AH. 15, .1881.
(' c Me J '.iynesian, August, 1S61.)
Discovery mid Conquest ly the Portu
guese. The conquering Slnlays; and
remarkable diversifies of race. A Dis
course delivered by Ma Walter Mcrray
Gtasox, on the evening of the 30th Jtdy,
1S61, in the Fort Street Church,IIono
lulu, II. J.
I speak ot a region with an area equal to
11 the North American States and Terri
tories; an archipelago of six thousand islands;
inhabited and habitable; among which there
are several, each one equalling in extent
twice the aren of all the thousands of islands I
that dot the Pacific. This imposing archi-
i r 4l
pe ago furnishes to commerce all the mot
? e -c r j-
notable of ast Indu products; which are
more important, and contribute more to
develop the industry of Europe and America
than all that m furnished by Chin.. Jarwn.
r... , . . n .. r i j-
Hindostan. and all other East lndn region
put together ; and yet the land of the Malays
is very much ot a terra incognita to the most
of Christendom ; even to the generality of
JnteWgent observers jxnd readers. Every
. . , .
barren and parss.y peopled spot of the
Pacific is explored, ransacked and cvange -
lized with what may tw terni'd a singularly
disproportioned zeal, when we contemplate
the neighboring vat continental island.,
fertile and productive beyond all other lands,
and teeminglyfpopulous.which up to this time
have only been visited by a few civilized
conquerors and traders ; and they but rarely
have seen the intelligent traveller and
observer; and have not now abiding within
their limits a single missionary cf ihatgvrptf
that has been so zealousty diffused through
Albuquerque called the Great, a renowned
Portuguese commander, was the first to
commence the career of European filibuster
ing in the East. He had heard of the great
Mlay city called Malacca ; of its numerous
and luxurious population; of its great wealth,
not only in gold and silver, but in immense
stores of spices, so coveted in i age. There
fore he sought a pretext for a quarrel ; so
easily accomplished by a strong, covetous,
and unscrupulous party, as illustrated by the
fabled lamb and wolf. But furthermore he
claimed as his warrant the extravagant
Papal Bull of dominion to Prince Henry.
He attacked the Malay city, continuing a
desperate assault' for nine days, and on the
tast he fought a terrible battle against, as
Portuguese chroniclers say, one hundred
and twenty thousand Malay warriors. Euro
pean discipline and vast superiority of
weapons, overcame the brave but less skilled
Malays. The city was plundered, and of
the booty, the King of Portugal shar of
one tenth amounted to eight hundred thous
and crusadoes And this wan the nr?t in
troduction of the European to tf.s Malay.
Si ce then European piracy, both on royal
and private account by English, French, j
Spanish and Dutch, as well asPortuguese i
1 1. k nrmxl .;rrtrrti,el,r moiinn' fnr !
the master of the Lands of Sokes. !
But these MIay princes were simply
reaping the retribution of conquest, which
their own invading and conquering ancestry
had entailed ; for a little more than a thou
sand years previous, a fierce race of Eastern
Vikings, claiming lineage with royal and
prie5tiy-cces of Western Asia, invaded
Sumatra, established the " sic red kingdom"
of Menang-Kabau, from whence issued
princes, authority, laws, religion, language,
literature throughout Malaysia, yes through
out Oceanica. For of the many States of
Sumatra, chiefly peopled by a variety of
races, black, bron and olive, yet we invari
ably find the princes of the governing Malay
stock. In Borneo, among the stout, brown,
mechanical Dyak?, we find the tall, warrior
Malty enthroned ; in distant New Guinea,
wherever Government has been establUhed
among the black, wooly-headed Papuans, we
find olive skinned princes, who claim descent
lromtherovalraceofMenangkabau;andsou,re the pianos and steam
in Celehes ; its trading people have princes
of the Sumatran stock, born with the inst-nct
for government and war ; the same in Ceiam
and Mindanao ; and passing into Polynesia
we find chiefs of a nobler make than the
masses, evidently descended from a royal, con
quering race, that m ages past, when more
earth filled up this Pacific, now submerged,
when power anJ resources were mighty, and
national spirit was enterprising, even equal
to modern sctiviiy, sent forth great fleets of
proas, manned by the Vikings of the East
ern seas' conquered as in Malaysia aboriginal
races, and left princes, and language, and
customs distinctly traceable, in T.hiti. in
Samoa, and here in Hawaii nei. Yes. and
I can point out the indelible impress of these
Normans of Oceanica, on little Easter Island,
famous for i s gigantic ruins, within striking
distance of the American coast ; and there,
too, we trace distinctly by language, custom,
character, and government, the widely domi
nant Magi of Menangkabau, in heroic
The beauty of this princely Malay stock
is surpassing Marsden says, in six years
observation. " 1 have not seen one deformed."'
The nobles of Malaysia are generally exceed
ing the average stature of Europeans, with
a "graceful proportion. They move with
g.-ace and d'gnity, and I say from my own
observation that 1 found in them a thorough
bred courtliness a perfect propriety of de
meanor an accomplished, gentlemanly tone
at all points a masterly poise in intercourse,
and withal, a cordial, assiduous, yet un
obtrusive, manner toward the stranger,
claiming in any courteous spirit their atten
tion which bespoke the cultivated man,
claiming by birth to command ; and all
developedby a civilization peculiarly their
own, and not an exotic and ill-fitting cnlture,
the result of some forcing process of stilted
Western civilization. But of course, as a con
trast to this general character,-there are un
fortunately, numerous instances of excess
es, which evidence a lengthened barbarian
association, and, no doubt, intermixture.
This dominant Malay, these wandering.
acr(rreiive, rjorerning Vikings of Austral
i:j, ar ano-iated with, and here and
-ar:;V.!y tiended with, striking diversi
v" race. In contrast with the tall, cen
t a'. :ti nr. - of Menangkabau, we find the
if the Lampong country.
V.vli is the b
Tli . e will av
v i l-t thnre
!.v?:i ; j re I - low
ha!: a a ir:ra c."
ithern end of the island.
ige a Pule over five feet,
:f the master race seldom
?ix feet. 1 approach within
this stature, and yet I obser-
v-I lint I w.. generally overtopped by
Nctthrrn and Central Sumatrans. Again,
n ; r:h and lc d of body, there are. notable fi ht fof it He haa energies, quickness and
! t ervncea, as ieen in the Battaks. north- j 6ome natjooai hopes fitted for high develop-uy..-n,ir.
abaa. These have broader nf
l;s lid lace?, ler
Inngated than their
Besides these and
ave some semi-
ntrasts to the
t he extreme of
:v v l,i m.u u nek. or dark
4 -V.. i. Lo-ise!e, fe
f' Vor.3 or or
ni as titter
. k riv;Hza
X tne jurIc.
v.-T f ti .-i of A?:v.'.
of letter and lettered culture of Brah
rninism ; it presents the courtliness of Per
sia ; the religious fanaticism and dominance
of the Arab ; the military . ferocity of the
Tartar; the trading enterprise of the
Chinese ; and in contrast with all this, the
wild savagery of the Puttooa of the Himalaya-
nay, it is a savagery lower than any
of Dahomy or Bechuana. There is in
Sumatra all the contrast between a richly
ornamented dwelling, lacquered, varnished
and in'aid with precious things, with in
mates robbed in silks, fine muslins gems
and exquisite filagree of gold ; and on the
other band, at the other end of the fcale of
hujian condition a wild beast's lair of leaves.
le lodging of Kubu. and other untamed
I hay. " this great island.
! hen we pass to the still greater island
! ne n, J. c a .n t.
i 1 Borneo, we find etui more novelty in
human variety. We find the slender and
' alert Malay as pnnce and noble, at .Brune,
: at Banyar Massing, at Sambas, Pontianak,
j ?nd ,aI1 the c!,,ef poin's commanding this
k insular continent. Lnd-r his sway is the
! Uht browru thiclf set D one f the
j cruelest, and yet one of the most promising
; of savages. The Dayak has not invented
any alphabets, as several peoples of Su-
! "?tn hve done 5 h h'S " 7""" aCC0Unt
. of anything; no dec rated mansion; no
. costIy lmf. he isa strong, brave savage,
j like a Kaffir, or a Feejee. and terrible to
'"Sbed blood. The man of Borneo toils and
I hunts, not for plunder or fame, but simply
fr blood and human heads. A lodce full
i of smoked human heads is a true Da yak's
fhief desire. He says the souls that ani-
I mated the heads will be his willing and
faithful slaves in the heaven of the Dayak
imagination. They will! also be slaves to
those he loves ; and bence a gory head is a
0yak' choicest brVrfin1 grift-- &s.b a bijou is
ever irresistible with a Dyak maiden, ana1
will cause her to refuse the attentions of a
youth with hands yet unstained with his
fellow mortal's heart's blood. The Dyak
hunts for bis celestial slaves among weaker
and still wilder tribes of the interior of the
great island, but mostly among the poor,
timid people of the neighboring islets. Now.
the Dayak will try to convince you that
there is a salvation in being beheaded, and
enter with him. his paradise. He will thus
decapitate his poor neighbor for love, for the
neighbor's good, to help people to his para
dise; and hence the Bcmean butchery is all
for the sake of the Bornean heaven. With
some change in his theology, the Bornean zeal
and energy, and utter disinterestedness in
matter of earthly g-tin, could be cultured up
to a high point of civilization. The Dayak
does not love war for war's sake, like the
Malay. Next to her hunting, he loves to
exercise his mechanical skill, and it is great.
He is the best mechanic of Malaysia. The
Dayak makes surpassing cutlery, and he
has the best iron in the world, the most
strongly magnetic, for the purpose. The
Bornean swords are acquiring a world-wide
fame. They have a temper keener than the
famous blades of Damascus and Toledo. I
have seen, I have handled a cutlass of Dayak
make that wou,d choP. uP.a quarter-inch
iron bar like a rattan, and it is a common
test to strike a Dayak dirk point not only
through one, but through three silver dollars !
at once, without in either case edge or j
point being turned. Many of these tren- j
chant blades in the hands of British officers, ;
were in use at Inkerman and Balaclava ; j
and it has been observed by recent authori- j
ties that Diyak sword blades for the use of !
European officers have become a n,vi",.eab!e j
article of export from Siniapor The j
Dayak is a fabricator of other things of !
nicely adjusted armor for the body ; of the j
curious sumpit or blow gun for small game ; i
of marvelous urns.-that are alleged to utter ;
oracular sounds ; and other things show his
mechanical turn. He shows aptitude for I
quick improvement. Sir James Brook, the
Kajih of Sarawak, commends the bloody
Borrfean for his docility and teachability, !
and thinks that he will surpass the New '
Zealander in developement ; so that by and !
by, it is expected, the Dayak will manufac- :
Malaysia ; and at the same time very likely
be the most zealous new light propagandist
Quite another variety is offered in Cele
bes. See what a curious group of penin
sulas it is. with a coast line longer than that
of the United States and Territories.
Crawford says that it h-s a coast line ex
ceeding three thousand miles, and what an
interesting variety of humanity this line in
closes. The Wujees, the chief race, darker
and stouter than the Malays, are the mer
chants of Malaysia a veritable mercantile
republic, like the old commercial Italian
States. Their prahus issue from an interior
lake, Labaya, descend the Chinrana river,
and go forth to ransack every coast of the
Archipelago for pearls, birds of paradise
feathers, tripang, toitoise shell, sandal wood,
nut megs, cloves, massoy, cardamums, ivory,
gold, silver, apes, rare birds all the won
derful variety of this most surpassing region
of rare products, to carry them to European
emporia in India, to exchange for the manu
factures of Europe and America, which by
these enterprising Wujees (or Bughis, as
called by European?,) are distributed among
the isles from Sumatra to Papua. They,
will bring cargoes into Singapore worth
from S25.0U0 to $50,000. The Wujees
have an oligarchy of hereditary banners "
or nobles; and they of their number choose
a sovereign who is jealously restricted as
was the old Doge of Venice. The Wujees.
have a maritime code, the admiration of
European observers in the Archipelago.
They have abundant laws and penalties.
Tbey are trict conservatives, cherishing
peace for trade's sake, and making all things
religion, or war, or art, subservient to trade.
Thev -have invented letters; have some
literature worthy of our consideration ; and !
j accumulate wealth in strong, cemented dwell- !
j ing, that vie in many respects with those i
j of Caucasian civilization, and yet owe noth- !
1 ing to it. !
What a contrast again, when we turn to
Mindanao, as big as Pennsylvania, the home
of the Lanuns, the professed corsairs of
Malaysia. These are the cruelest and most
alert of Malays ; their study is plunder ; ;
their work is the shedding of human blood.
This is not an occasional pursuit, but the I
only one, the only Honored occupation.
They are the unmittg.ted Ishmaelites of the
sea?. But they war with all mankind as of
right, as an inherited right; and still these
innate, tutored robbers and murderers .have
many of the kindlinesses ( the strong,
wicked men of the world. Dampier speaks
well of their hospitality; and I know from
my encounters that a Lanun has an appre
ciation of the value of friendship, and will
To continue this ethnologic patchwork,
and offer another shade of human variety, 1
turn to Java, the foremost in population and
wealth of all these is'ands. Its products are
in every market of the world. It supplies
half the coffee in use in Christendom, and it
feeds i:s o'.vu i.;ri.ing mss of hamanitr.
eleven millions and a quarter, and still many j
nor? iiiiiions beyond its borders. All tiis i
v-t T'- popUtUB of Jt. it now reported to t 1
is evidence of richness of soil, and an assidu
ous culture of it. The Javanese loves
nothing better than the mud of the rice
fields, laboring with his favorite and docile
companion, the smooth humped buffalo of
the East. The Javanese is wedded to hfs
sod ; he loves his tamarind and waringin
groves; he clings to the traditions of his
" sacred isle ;" and Java is to him the cen
tre of the solid earth. He has'a face like
many Hawaiians ; and the natives of Hono
lulu nd Soorabayah might intermingle
without exciting, the recognition of any
noticeable difference, if there was none in
costume. I will not say that they are the
most resembling these islanders; for in
many parts of Malaysia the face of a Haw
aiian would hardly attract comment, as that
of a stranger. The Javanese is the farmer,
and the greatest producer, and the closets,
wedded to home-associations of all the peo
ple of Malaysia.
There is a contrast to this home plodder,
his very antipodes in character and tastes,
not to be found on any island of the Archi
pelago, yet belonging within its circuit, and
this is the Bajau, or orung laut, the " sea
man " of the Indian seas.. His home is ever
on the wave, going in fleets, with from one
to ten thousand on board, and ever shifting
from coast -to coast in quest of fish, or a
chance venture ot piracy. They are the rov
ing fishermen, the gypsies of this archipelag
ian region, and yet a numerous and distinct
people of the Malay stock, and as I judge
more directly in descent from the Malayan
conquerors or colonizers of Polynesia than
any other people of this island world. Their
itories abound in allusions to the glories of
the past ; that they are of a conquering race,
and yet to build up an empire in the se s.
These dreamers and rovers, about two mil
lions of them; are of course nonproductive,
and present' U sufficiently striking contrast to
the plodding, delving, garuen'..g .v.-aviwiw.
There are more yet. 1 could enumerate
a score of such contrasts. There is variety
at every step in this region. I find it in the
industrious, independent, warlike Balinese ;
in the fairer, yet feeble people of Pulo Nias,
who sell their daughters for cotcubines to
the Netherlands' army ; in the black, wooly
headed Papuan, who captures the birds of
Paradise, in the wonderful varieties of
Negritos in the Philippines ; in the hemp
growers of Luzon ; in the sago eating Al
furans ; in the wild Semangs of the Malay
Peninsula ; and the still wilder Kubu of
Sumatra. Now this latter offers sufficient
novelty to dwell upon, and 1 will introduce
him as far as known.
Marsden makes mention from hearsay of
a wild people, covered with hair, who wear
no clothing, construct no dwelling, eat all
their food raw, who are to be found in the
interior of Sumatra. There are more par-ticul-rs
given concerning them by Mr. de
Sturler, an officer of the Dutch East India
army. He spent some time at Palembang
in Sumatra, and heard and saw much of the
wild Kubu, and that he was truly a hairy
man, coated with long, soft hair, like a bear.
He says that the Kubu has no idea of the
use of clothing ; and cannot be impressed
any more than the most utter brute with
any idea of the impropriety of exposure. "He
subs sts upon snails, toads, fish, and some
times an alligator, which he devours raw.
He uses no weapon or instrument of any
kind, except a piece of bamboo rudely sharp
ened with a shell. He' makes his lodging
like some of the great apes, by arranging
sticks and leaves among the thick branches
of the great Sumatran trees. He has no idea
of Government ; knows no chieftain's au
thority ; and shows no vestige of social
order ; not even adhering in a family group
as much as the orangutan; for the young
Kubu leaves the parent support as soon as it
has its teeth and can run, and can catch
toads and snakes for itself. No ties or in
fluences of consangu nity appear to exist be
yond the first, animal, maternal, attachment,
which is lost by separation ; and these crea
tures readily intermingle with' the uncon
scious indifference of any best, in all the
degrees of incest. We have man here sure
ly at the lowest rung of the human ladder.
We have not much, if any, vestige of rela
tionship with the being made in God's
image, and should be disposed to rank him
with soulless orangs; but de Sturler says
he has speech some short grunts afew of
the rudest articulations of joy anil fear.
Now this is a. strong case, and not much
gratifying to our civilized, human pride ;
and we should need much, very much, con
firmation in order to realize its actuality.
Well, there is more testimony in a long ac
count to be found in a Dutch periodiAil en
titled Tydschril voor Rederland Indie.
In the volume lor 1S38, at page- 2S6, we
find the observations" of Mynheer J. W.
Boers, a very intelligent, matter-of-fact and
circumstantial Hollander. He has seen the
hairy Kubu and speaks of them as in a
state of utterest savagery, (volkomen woest
heid verkeesd), and that they roam about in
the unconscious nudity of the baboon, (geene
amlere kleeding heeft, dan die de natuur
hem schenlif) Now, 1 too saw the Kubu ;
and can confirm in good part the statements,
of these worthy Dutch writers. I had a
glimpse of this rudunentary human, of a fe
male specimen, whilst boating on a branch
of the Banyoo Assin in Sumatra. I had
heard the shaking, rustling leaps of some
large creature, in the dense, feafy top of one
of the monster trees of the Sumatran jungle.
One of my sailors espied, as he supposed, a
huge baboon, and was about to bring it down
with a shot. I had looked at the same time,
and. struck with a human expression, and
besides, hearing a genuine baby cry, coming
from a little body, clinging to the larger one
we first saw, 1 felt that it was -murder to
shed the blood of such a being, and I bade
the sailor, to lower his weapon. . The face
in the tree-top was decidedly and not un
pleasantly human in every lineament, though
a mantle of beastly hair covered the body.
The face was distinct, clear in outline, com
paratively smooth-swinned and not unpleas
ant in expression. The Kubu face has been
noted by all who have seen one, as singular
ly mild, harmless, and even' pleasing to look
upon. Boers even says that the females are
not unhandsome: niet onbevallig." I must
bay that I have met with many uglier
physiognomies in the midst of our fine robed
civilization than was displayed by this
hirsute humau sister in the tree-top. ' We
made' some outcry and caused her to flee,
springing .from limb to limb ; and now we
had a glimpse of others, which we had not
previously observed. Afterwards I saw an
other, a male, in bondage. His Malay mas
ter siid that he belonged to the tai orang,"
or refuse of mankind that he was born slave
to be hunted and caught in a trap like a
beast. He could not be much raised in the
scale of humanity. He could not be taught
the use of axe, shovel, plane, or any tool or
instrument whatever, bnt was simply used
as a beast of burthen, to drag or bear wood,
stones and such mater al, or tend domestic
animals like a watch dog. Yet he has some
articulation, and laughs and cries like any
son of Adam ; even he sings. 1 heard him
hum and drone, like unto the barbarian
rrroaning coronach of the Hawaiian ; but
Boers has listened more closely, and caught
and given unto U3 the sot;g of KubJ, as he
sways his thoughtless soul in the trve-tops.
Listen to the voice of the true son of
Wben pigs leap around.
When dorian (fruit) is ripe.
When paddy I can gather.
When I have a bark lodge.
Eating sago cake,
A nd one to pick my head.
That ia good enough,
Kubu want a no more.
Contented and philosophic Kubu ; he is
like the Grecian sage, who having contem
plated the vanity of the superfluities of civ
ilization, had dispensed with every ippliance
of man's invention, except a small drinking
cup ; and after time, discovering that it was
simpler process to drink at once from the
stream, rejoiced in his freedom, as he threw
away the cup, from every artificial contriv
ance, whether for clothing, lodging or sub
sistence. And so this. Grecian's modern
prototype of Sumatra rejoices that i o hand
spins for his back, no skin of beast is dress
ed for his feet, no lodging engrosses his
care, that he fears no incendiary, that
matches were invented in vain for him, as
he devours the reptile whilst ypt it wriggles
in his' hand, thai neither creeds nor lands
lead him to war on his fellow beings ; but
rejoicing in the shade of the warririgin, in
the durian's pungent pulp," this philosopher
of Sumatra sways content in the tree-tops,
unthinking of the broad world, and would be
utterly careless how' it wags, were he not
disturbed by his silken-coated, jewelled
Malay brother, the appropriate Valentine to
this Orson of the'fndian Isles. The Malay,
the proud, the rich, the conquering Malay,
disturbs the poor Kubu, fo catch him fr the
uses of his poor body; 'and also disturbs
him to get some precious gum, that, the
Kubu forest alone has ever contained. The
Kubu home is in a wilderness of morass,
partly a moving quagmire,' and impenetrable
by ordinary locomotion to' than or beast. The
laborious Dutch, long coveting a nearer ac
cess to the previous gum, which is the
Vwin. or frankincense, have contemplated,
but to this day dreadVu1, ,.hs enormous labor
and cost of canalling, so as to gain mvys to
the interior of this ."dismal swamp" of the
Archipelago. The Kubu passes from tree to
tree, and picks up the spontaneously exuded
lumps and strips of this resin, so famed in
ancient as well as in modern times, and is
the chief ingredient for incense in Catholic
worship, and all other ceremonial worship
throughout the world. . The civilized Malay
gets it for commerce in thTs wise : He pro
ceeds with a company, to some point on the
borders of this swamp jungle. A great out
cry is made with gongs and other noisy in
struments. After being kept up for a few
hours, the company retires ; but before do
ing so, leave some bits of colored, glass, some
strips of bright colored cloth, whose glaring
hues attract and please the Kubu The -poor
hunted wretches, creeping cautiously and
stealthily forth, pick up the colored trifles
deposited by the traders, and deposit, in re
turn for them, lumps of the odoriferous gum
of their forests. Boers "says, " De neder
legds artikeltn aUnlen, en leggen meer
dan de waarde in .de phtats neder." I
shall have more to say of this wildest, most
rudimentary of our kind, as" well as of all
the varieties of the archipelago, undet other
aspects, religions, governmental aud social.
But you have a glimpse in this slight sketch
of the most curious human- mosaic that any
region of this globe can present. You be
hold such extremes, such varieties, and yet
so fitted to blend, that there might be formed
out of it a very orderly structure, a sym
metric pyramid of human organization. At
the apex, the governing, organizing Malay,
appropriately takes his plice; then the agri
cultural Javanese, the manufacturing Dayak,
and the commercial Wujee make up the
chief body of the structure ; whilst the timid
Alfuran, the wild, wooly Papuan, and the
hairy, and still wilder Kubu find their places
in the mud and drudgery of the base. It
seems like a veritable hierarchy of race. If
you want a king or a president, you find the
best material in a true, royal Malay of cen
tral Sumatra. Little Bali jvould furnish a
general and good military officers. An ad
miral and seaman must be sought among the
Lanuns. Java and Celeb.es will provide
farmers and tnders ; the Dayak will furnish,
the cutlery and cambrics, whilst poor Kubu
or Papuan, having no notions of government
or property, is bt content, if he must leave
his wild-beast lair, to be the" willing slave of
some paternal-hearted, civilizing mnster.
There is a goodly number of peoples to
make up this archipehgian organization.
One million and a half of true Malays,
enough to bo nobles and .priests. Eleven
milions of Javanese farmers, and it Avould
be well that they were double. Half a mil
lion of Wujee traders, and quite a plenty.
About two millions. jf Dyak mechanics, a
good proportio'i. One million of Lanum
pirates, who will make as good a commerc
ial marine by and by, as .ever thieving
Northmen of Eu:ope- did. Some ten mil
lions of Balinese. Timorese, Banca tribes
Ceramese, Moluccas, Bisayans, and num
erous others of different kinds of pursuits;
and lastly, three millions of Papuans,
Semangs, Jakuns, Alfurans, Gugus and
Kubus the poor "mud sills" of the isles
to be productive "property" or idly
sunning, tree swinging, hen d picking pariahs
of the land nonchalant loafers of a heaven
dreaming civilization. There are about
thirty millions of souls in all this broad
Archipelago; and what they do, and'are fit
ted for, of all their, history, wars, creeds,
loves and wanderings," and what their
is ands produce in their wonderiul ' exube
rance of all things, 1 shall endeavor to speak
of on another occasion. '
. JTo be continued. ' "
The opening of a Chinese Church in Hono
lulu, reminds us of the one Tiopefinl nidof what
we know as the ' Chinese problem." The Church
hi Fort St. is.ejid to be the firet that has ever
beeo voluntarily organised bj the Chinese in any
laud, and the building in which they now wor
ship to be the flret Christian Church erected for
themselves, and under their own management, by
Chinese. If there be hopes that the incursion of
Chinese hordes into the Hawaiian Islands ehall
ever be anything other than a devastating wave
of pestilence, tbey certainly lie in the fact that
Chinese who have .become converts to Christian
ity appear not indisposed to transfer themselves
to this countr, and that when here tbey do not
forget their faith, aa is so common with white
professors of Christianity when they emigrate,
but are readv and willing to organize, to enter
upon the work of Christianizing their fellow
cituntrjmen, and to assist and encourage all the
missionary enterprise in that direction that we
choope to develope.
Dr. Damon in his address at the opening ser
vices of the new churcb.tells as that "at least one
hundred Christian Chinese have arrived in our
islands from mission stations in China." Otbera
have become converts to Christianity since their
arrival on these Islands, or daring an intervening
aojourn in California. Their total number doea
not appear to be exactly known. Compared
with that of the total Chinese population on the
Islands, it' may eeem to be bot. email. Never
theless it should be remembered that it is much
larger in proportion than it is anywhere else in
tbe world. Cb".- '??'? i" better chance, and
something fs mcie v - ?ii3j3 .u) ; d here,
than aoywnerv felt;, fcr tzU-g un ,; Cfcinee
mind. It appears to us that with ua this ought
to be looked upon as a National work. In spite
of the wording of the Constitution in spite of
the lingering superstitions that afflict the Hawaii
an race.and which have done so much to help it on
its downward course in ppite of the pressure of so
large a heathen mass of Chinese this is a Christ
inn country, and its salvation from each of the
evys that threaten it rests on its continuing to be,
not merely nominally, but in very fact, a Christ
ian country. This ought to be the guiding
thought of the government in its dealings with
all aspects of the Chinese question. JubI now
especial effort is being made to secure an influx
of Chinese women. Why should no step be ta
ken to secure, if possihle, Christian Chinese
families? I the government afraid of being ac
cused of Bectariiirism, or does the juxiapo ition of
the two ideas, a Chinaman." and a Christian,
seem too Utopian to he worthy of grave discus
sion in Cabinet? Express.
Foreign News in Brief.
It ia said that the invasion of Persia by the
Kurds was instigated by the Turkish Govern
ment. The village of Flasch in Switzerland has been
almost totally destroyed by fire.
Since the Democratic defeat at the Presidential
election, John Kelly's influence in New York is
said to be greatly impaired.
A rumor is abroad that the Czar of Ruia will
abdicate in favor of the Czarewiich and a Council
of Regency, retaining his title and retiiiug to live
at Livadia. ..
A bill has been introduced in the U. S. Con
gress to withdraw till greenbacks under $5 from
By a fire st Omaha on December 7th, damage
t the extent of $234,500 is reported.
A fast mail is now run from New York to New
Orleans in fitly hours.
The U. S. Grand Jury has indicted the Direc
tors of the company that owned the "Seawanaka,"
the captain and engineer tf the same steamer and
.tha government inspector of steamboats.
The subscripaou Jutntrg for stock of the Panama
Canal Company were rusbeu as fooj- as opened
in New York and San Fr&ncisco. In the loniu
citv three pages were filled before noon the first
day and in San Francisco $U.GO0.(J0O worth of
stock was subscribed for the first day.
Mitlntones are now being superseded in the
United S'aies by steel rollers.
The earthquakes which occurred in Washing
ton Territory, British Columbia, and Alaska, at
the time of the second eruption of Jlaunn Lou,
appear to have been the most severe that have
teen recorded since the white man became ac
quainted with those regions.
The claims of the German Government against
American naturalized subjects, in respect ol mili
tary service, have been abandoned.
The French .wheat crop of 1880 is one of the
largest recorded durinz this century.
Some tradesmen of Vienna got up a rumor that
the Crown Prince wbs furnishing a house to bring
his bride hotne to, with thework of foreign oper
atives. This was so effectually spread that the
Town Council appointed a Com mi t tee to report
Meanwhile the Corporation of Vienna had invited
the Emperor arid Crown Prince to a ball, in cele
bration of the marriage of the latter. Just as
the Committee was reporting to the Town Coun
cil that there was no toundation for the statement
that furniture, etc., had been ordered from Paris,
the Council had the deserved mortification te re
ceive an intimation that the invitations to the
ball were declined.
Mdlle Sara Bernhardt had a narrow escape
from a serious accident at Boston. The stage
property mantel piece beside her couch fell over
with a great crash, but the fair actress escaped
just in time to avoid it.
A Civil Service Reform Bill has been intro
duced into the American Iloiuc of Reprer-enta-tives.
The object is to make official positions
The Baroness De Fi iedknd, daughter of the Duke
de Persigny, and God-daughter of the Empress
Eugenie, has, with her husband, been arrested
A fierce " lobbyist ' war has already com
menced at Washington between the supporters of
the Nicuaraguan and the Panama canal schemes.
Since the acquittal of Schroeder, the Oakland
murderer, it has been officially stated that during
his imprisonment he was allowed to ride round
the town in a hack whenever he pleased.
The Emperor Willianf, old as he is, killed 118
deer and wild boars during his recent hunting
excursion at Letzmger.
Cyrus II. McCormick has given $100,000 to
the Presbyterian Theological Summary of Chi
cago to place it entirely out ol debt.
Patti is enid to hay taken a great liking to
Wagner's mufic, and is btudving the part of
4,EIsa" in Lohengrin.
Bc-rjje & Sons wall-paper factory at BuPTilo wa9
biirnt on the 17th uliium. The liinldinar was tivu
stories high and without lire 'scaps. Eleven livt-s
wre lost. nd many persons weie injured.
In Ireland a reiitu ol terror exists. Persons ob
noxious to the Land Leauu are pybtftnaticallj
boycottrd," and hundreds of people are nuw in
L iri'l'in in actual distress who have hitheito lived
iu uSliieiiL'e in the Emeiuld Islt.
The United Stales Police have got possession of
th plant of the forgers, whose counterfeit Bond
coupons and $100 National Bank Notes have been
passed during the past year.
The President of the United States has recom
mended that General Giant be appointed Captain
General of lliw U. S. Army.
Greece i jteitinir ready for war, and Turkey is
prepitringlo resist any aggression on her part.
Botn side evidently think that European media
tion wilt be unsuccessful.
Madame Thiers, the widow of Ex-President
Thiers, died December 12th, at Paris.
Tbe S. F. Chronicle suggests that it is the Amer
ican trans-continental railroad monopolists who
have discovered " the Nicuarasiia canal route
witb the sole object of defeating the enterprise of
Daron De Lesseps, and protracting their present
AUCTIONEER & COMMISSION HERCH'NT
LAUIKV AND GENTS II OS I K II T.
GENTS FURNISHING GOODS !!
Ladies, Gents' fc Children's Boats & Shoes,
GROCKKIK3 AND CANNED GO0D.S,
Hardware, Crockery and Glassware, To
bacco, Cigars, Pipes, Yankee Notions,
PATENT "MEDICINES, ETC.
39. 32. AND 34 FRONT STREET,
HILO, JT A.W All.
EXTRA JO. 1 SPRISG S.UM0S !
Barrels and Half Barrels.
FOR SALE Ij OW
J - II . BRUNS',
No. 30 and 32 Fort atreet, Honolulu.
ALL. KINDS OF II 1 K. W ET AMlDRf.
AIm. Eheeu sod Goat Skins, foe which the Hghet Cub
frice will b paid. - '
H. O. BOX 49. nrGII MACKAT,
13-8 iu Proprietor Honolulu Tannery, Kobololoa.
A NEW LOT OF
And F.-r SW b J. H. BSCXS, noiio'.ola.
H. W. SEVERANCE,
HA XV A II A CO S IT L. AN D CO M M ISSIO N
MKKCII ANT, 316 California Street, San i'rancco,
CaltoruU. ET Boom No. 4. oltt ly
eco. r. rorrm.
GEORGE F. COFFIN & CO.,
SIlirPIXG 1SD C03IJI1SSIOX MKRUIANTS,
No. 13 Pine Street, Union Block,
PARTICULAR ATTENTION GIVEN TO
flliii:- Hawaiian orders, ami aaiUhction guaranteed.
JOHN HARVEY & CO.,
DOMMSSSIOX MERCHANTS WOOL
Reference Bank of Montreal.
ja17 80 Cash advances on ConaignicenU
A. P. EVERETT,
Forwarding Commission Merchant
405 FROST 8TREKT, COKNKK CI.AV
Particular attention paid to tfouaiKiimenta of Ialand Pr.luce
WILLIAMS, DIK0ND & CO.,
Shipping & Commission Merchants,
X.2 18 Citliforaia HI reef.
mb29 80 SAN FKASC1SCO.
W. H. CE0SSMAN & BR0.,
f! li i p p I II B nud O o ill iiiImmIo ii
118 Chambrri Si reel. NEW YORK.
Reference Castle & Cooke and J. T. Waterhouse.
XHTDXA RIC1 MIX-I-!
CORN KR OF
MISSION 3t FREJIOXT STS., SIX FR1XCISCO, CAL.
riHE INDIA RICK MILL. AFTER SIX-
1 T.KN YEARS of practical expent-nce and improve
ment, ia now the nearest to perle'lln of any of the Kice Mille
of the world. In hocouliiteM of Cleanaiiit; and I'MlUliintc it
aianda unrivaled; and in jrHd of Clemrd, Merchantable Ktc
from the Paiidy. product from 5 to 8 per cent, more than
He Celebrated Mills of Am-terdiii.
a VV '.' i I A R I C K JVI I I.I. Is no in Terfect
tT.nrifilrjg order tw lbs
IIIUIE k MW Uf PADDY !
From the Hawaiian Islands, to which it is Specially Adapted
PADDY AND HULLED RICE !
Will Receive Promjtt and Ouiefl"Atlention.
WJI M. OHKKNWnOD,
General Commission Merchant and Proprietor of India Rice
Beale and Howard Streets,
BAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
W. II. TAYLOE, ... PrfIdent,
IS ALL ITS BRANCUES.
ENGINES AND BOILERS,
High Pressure or Compound.
STEM VESSELS of all kin.li, tm;lt complete Willi
Hails of WooJ, Iron or Composite.
ORDINARY ENGINES compounded when advisable.
STEtM LAUNCHES, Ilart'es and fleam Tub con
structed with reference lothe Trade in wi.it h they are lo
be employed- Seed, loiinage aud draft of waler guaran
tied. SUKAR MILLS A S U SVCAU MAKING
MACIII. EKV iiMds xf'jet tt e moat approved plans.
Also, all U' iler Iron Work connected therewith.
WATER FIIE. of Holler or Sheet Iron, of any site,
ena'le In suitable lengths f.r ronnectmif tupt ther. or fheela
Kolli d. Punched, and Packed for Shipment, ready to be
riveted on the ground.
II TOR A U LIC RIVETING. Boiler Work and Wa
ter Pipe made by Ibis Establishment. Kivel-d by Hy
draulic K.vetinK Machinery, that quality of work being
far superior to band work.
SHIP WORK. Ship and Steam Capstan. Fteim Winch
es, Air and Circulating Pumps, made after the moat ap
PUM PS. Direct Aettne; Pumps, for Irrigation or City Wa
ter Woraa' purposes, built with th- celebrated Dvv Valve
Motion, superior to toy other pump- d27 7U-1
AGENTS for Worthlngion Duplex Steam Pump.
Trade Journal & Exporter,
Produce Markets Review and General
Puh'inbed Monthly, and In English Indipen,i,b' for pur
chasers of Continental Goods gives Wholesale P. lets, and
liisoounts allowed, of
Wines. Brandies, Preserved Prnwii-inns, Fancy Goods,
Millinery, lres Materials, Glass, Porcelain,
Plated Wre. Watches. Clocks,
Kea and Imitation Jewelry, I oola and Shoes,
Fe.fumery. Photographic nd Priming MutenaK
Toys. Olographs. Scieniiflc and Musical luatruments,
Ilrug's. Ch micala. 1'haroinceutiral PrepHMtious,
Stationery, .-we- ts. idka. Varidaiies, I'ainiS,
Par tUi'gii g. He. fctc
AUo Price, t urrer.t of Prwduce. Market Reports, Notices
on lniu-trial Novelties. Trade Intelligence, Etc.
Annua rubsciiption 6 'or Postal Onion, and 0s for other
Money orders payable tit QKOROE WATKRS on Paris or
IxMid':n, or the equivalent ia any local currency or postals
CNPAIH LETTERS REEL'S EI),
Adiresa TUB FRENCH TRADE JOURNAL k tXPORTK.R
octfj 14. Hue de Chibrol, Par s, France. ly
DIME & LUNCH PARLORS,
Koa. 70 and 79 Bote! Streets,
HART BROTHERS, Proprietors.
Board by the Day, "Week or Transient !
Cigars, Cigarettes and Tobacco, -Soda
Water & other Iced Drinks,
HEALS SERVED IN FIRST CUSS STYLE
AT ALL. HOC KS.
HEXRY J. HART. (ny; f I.LI3 A,. II A '!
L. P. FISHER,
ADVERTISING A ti EXT. 21 MERCHANTS
KXCHANUK, 8an Francl.ro, California, is authorised
to receive advertisements for the columns of this paper,
I. P. FISEER'S
Rooms 20 and 21. Merchants' Echnge,
California riireet. Fan Framlaco,
rT S. B. AdTf rtisinjr Solicited for all 5w
paprTS rnbilshrd on the rati fie Cest, ttit Sandwlrh
Islands Polynesia, Mfxlfan Tort, Tanaina, Valpa
raiso, Japan, China. New Zealand, th' lirtrallaa
Colonies, the Eastern States and Faror
nearly every ewspaper PnblUlif d on the Tafllle
Coast are kept Constantly en Hand, and alt Adver
tisers are Allowed Tree AeeeM to them dnrlnc Bnsl
nes Honrs. The PACIFIC COMMFltCIAL ADTEC
T1SEU Is kept on file at the Office of L. P. F1SUEK..
The Great Popular Monthly,
THE CA LI FORM I AM.
THE C A LI FO R X I A X is the best and most popular
monthly ever j uMt-hed on the Purine Coast. It Is tha
only niasatlna west of the Mialilppl Valley, and Is full
if the vigorous life f the Gnat lVet, Its laraa and
kamltomely printed pages are filled mith Interesting and
valuable contributions fn m the pens of nan oi tha allet
and ni-ft eminent writers In I lie I'uilid rMsira. It Is uni
versally and Mghly recommended hy the local and Kaatera
Tress. It is the rising mainline ot t dsy, ai.d Its eicel.
lence increases with each isu. 1'rat rl jr S.i lcrk
last lis Adraarr, 4.00. Maitfle Naiaker,
TMrlv-flvr Cmli. ot0 lm
Wat chmakcrs !
The Rd anw Manufacturing Toinpany. (limited Capital
$2.tH'0.000), bo.-ton, (America. ) will Inrward. her. alter, even
one single watch lo any prt of the world al wholes
prii-e. i. e . Si r cent. cheaer than any wairt"er. as
none 'I'V.rq are manufaciui log wa roe- .i-slvt s, hut only
liuying Uiem ir. in here, w r-umf' in p irih'ular attention ol
every one lnti'iidii g ti purchase a first cla.s reliant Watcu
to our following pr.ee liat i
fIlver Watch. t'rytal glaa seconds h nd .......$
Silver Watcli, I'untu g cnee, engraved. hlgh'y ft lln-d..
frilv.-r V ktch. tikelelou movement, t xlra Jeweled, stout
rlnuhle rover ........................... .
Gold W.icli, Jeweled. Mali.taialng Tower, t'rystal
Gold Wal.-h, Hall Hunter. Kifinel or Gold I'M. I .ever
Gold Watch. Hu illng l.'ase. fnpefior Mckel Mi Vmient
h-l qua ity with alt the Ule.t iniproeitieiils. 2
K E 1 L KSS 1 VA TC11LS,
The Keyless mch-iilm to a watch Is one of the rreat mod
ern improvements In watci work. It d.iea away wl'h the old-far-h
oued key,' Willi wtncli ao m in V person- h.veruln.'l their
watches.' The welch I wound hy turning a nurled kn b
placed on the handle or Ikiw, iintead .f liv the otdloary
niexn-l the hand, are set in the same way. Th" advantages
of lhee Improvement ai ohvl ms. the Caw, whu'h n. verne d
he opened In w Indinir. I" ma le alr-tivhl ai il tlii.t-t'thi. thus
pre.ei vlng inurh longer 'tie flul lily of the oil, ai.d grtlt lio
lonKit'g the intervals between the necessary cleaning of the
Mlver Keylea Watch. Lever Movenv-nt, Flat, Jeweled,
Cr!-lnl Oinra $ 4 25
HIH'er K-yleaa Match. Iloul.le Cover, Ennvl or Orna
ment d .-Hv.-r I ial 6 2ft
Silver Kelea Watch. fcueil'T fkelrpn .Movement,
Kxtr i Jewe'eit, M"U llouhle Cover ........... . t.75
Gold Key.eas Walc:i, Open ac:.J.ever Kr-capement.
Ten Jewels II 25
Gold Key !en Watrh, Half Hunter. Heat Movement, all
late, l lii.pr. V. mel.la. 16 Jewels 16 00
Ool 1 Ke.le-a audi. Two Mnut flold Covers. hroiiom
eier Movmenl with enter Pei-ond Hand, a
plendil watch fnr preei tailon. 18.76
Go'd Kyiea Chronometer, 3 Gold t'oveia, Mov.ment of
fluent wnrkmnn.hip. Center HCo..d Hand, rt eat.
ing h"Ura and quarters. . .. 42.10
Gold Keyie.a Chronometer, I Imperial Chronomttrr),
nhowii.g las. il .te, wck. anil month on .lit. I,
rei-etinu h. urn. quirtera imd eithih. 3 h-xvy
Hold ( i.v.rn. warranted for 6 ye. ri. and without
doubt the beat und hatKlnnniest watch In eg-
IA 11 lh above watches can lie had In smaller site to suit
for Indies' wear at the e-tme price. Monogram, Initials,
arms, etc, engraved ou the bark of the waicu Item of Charge.
f All our Watches are thoroughly flol-lied and r-ady for
a Immidi .te in-, snd will be S'tit aecurely pucketl in Mo
rocco cae j;of free., lo any part of lh world, together Willi
spare mHiii-iiriiiKK, (.'laaaes and keys, thetsj being a real con
venience, as in many oul-of-lhe way l iC'-". it Is almost a mat
ter of impotaibihty to replace one of Ibeae articles.
O Ksvrjr watch Is acrnmpanlcd hy a written wirrantjr
IC.JBi itllielllK III? rruiNI 1 J MUM .ujiri mill J Ul liv
Ui;inli p for 3 year, during hi;h time no charge i
mde for repairing II the watch ia returned pout frs.
All our Gold Cases are 14 ctrat Gold lbs fcllverfJCases
are of the bod sterling tflvt r.
Plx-per rent, dl-enunl will be allowed on orders for Six
Mid more watches.
All our watches have compensation balance, which ren
ders them equally accurate In either h t or cold climate.
7 AH watches may he rde-ed wl'h or without seconds
h nd. with enpraV' d, plain polished or engine turned
Caaes, without litferoi.ee of price.
8 No order from abroad filled unless accompanied hy a
rem. itauce to cover the amount, or a reierciceon a Bos-
too hi ue.
I'ersons residing In any part of .bs world need not heajtala
fo forward their orders t' this establishment as they may rely
upon r ceivlns the exact wt. h or. I e red l y them, which If not
approved, will be exchanged free and safe y poet, or money
refund d The best mean of sending money I. by draft on
New York. Paris or London, which can be procured at any
banker and eVer where, r encl.we the amount In bank-notes,
gold coins or ix.sage aiarpns of any country of the world All
i.rders. the smallest as well as tbe most Important, will receive
the aame particular attention and wdl bs forwarded without
d. lay. We respectfully aak for a trial order.
The Rodanow ManPg Co.,
5 and 7 Portland St.,
BOSTON, U. S. of AMERICA.
JIRS. I. II. OUIFFIiV,
NO. 103 WOHT STREET,
EC TO IN FORM TIIK l,AI)IR Or' 110
NOI.fl.U and of the adjacent Islands, that
She will Keep Constantly for Sale
Splendid and Most Fahionab'e Assortment
MILLINERY GOODS !
Ladles' and Children's Underwear,
l:e dr-Made halts for Ladles' snd O H tren. all klndef
Hats Trim med in tb Latest Elies, aud completed la lb
bRILLIANT & DELICATE NICETY OF ART.
' A Standing Order f. left with hrr A gents to Con
stantly Forward btr by tbe tUamers,
The Latest & Most Advanced Styles
In the Jrt T Jlllllnrrr. ZT JV"twlthfti din
the r.itra 1 Ti;;-.-!-? of crtttnff t.oiJi to thl Mig
dom. Her CUsres will be tt !If?riate tntse of the
MILLINERS ON THE COAST.
s!:? vtil Always Keep Selett Stock fLidlet
Fancy Ribbons, all kinds;
Eeal Ostrich Feathersi
Laces, Trimmings, and
LADIES' FANCY- TRIMMINGS
OF ALL KINDS.
AT RS. r. . fITtTP",V-ViIlKSTO 1W.
-1 1 form th Lad'- ol V. '
Ladies' and ( hitdreu's fashionable i,t
j In the rear of ber MUm.ry ltor.