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PACIFIC COMMMERCIAL AD V fi R T 1 S Ei R, M ARCH 4, 1882.
f f A AY 1 1 N ".. I I. M( !( MISSION
ft 3 MKKi MOT, :'.: n(.rr.i etrv.t. ran FranriM-o.
Califoeui:. I r lt..o, N . jr
WILLIAMS. UltlOKD & CO..
Shipping JL lummiion Mcrclmito,
i I ('. lifwr nira lrrrl.
m'.rJ 1 .-N rKA.M'IfCO.
o. r. rorri. hiiiut ram.
GEORGE F. COFFIN 3c CO.,
SHIPPING U (OPIIlU I.Ef. HINTS,
No I - f'.n- -tr . Ir.-- n li-k,
F RAM I" .
IlKTI('l'I.IK ltIK.THi (ilVKV TO
Clhr-if liwu.o or l-r. i.. miil.r.K n lnnnwl.
JOBS' HARVEY & CO..
1llMllION MKIM MlVTMlad WOOL
II iiissillow. Cinnila
Kefer.-nc-t rUi.k f M nlr-l.
Caih a-linne,. on Consignment
W. H. GROSSMAN & BRO.,
r-4liiillil iiikI (' in iiiIhnIoii
M K UCIIA X T R.
IIH (binbrr. Sirrrl. NEW Y O It K .
-:ii!e t '.,ke and J. T. rVaterhou.
JOHN FOWLER & CO.
VRi: I'KKI1 l K CI) TO IK 1SII H
ml Etmare4 f .r rirl p.rtaMe Trmwij. with or
without cr r Irroroo'ive. nTUI!y adat.teil lor rugir
Plnotation. Permanent i'..il . niifi .iComoti' nl cm.
Traction Kninr n-l Roal l."C'im'tii-. Hini l'louKtinr
mnt Cnltiv:iiinc M htnr-ry. rortall trim LriKiora for all
purj . i.i ne Kiittwn f r lr:-!iri.
l'Mlt', i h ilia-lrtion. Moiela ail I't tri'I'h of
tb ax PlnC ari'l Mjhinerjr mjr b" iw-n at Ihc oflicra r.f
V. I. (iliF.CV ar. I
O. W. M.tLl'KL.NE C
aori tf Asm I' r John fowler Jt Co.
(; nATLFl'L ( )M F HtTINO.
" By a thorough knowlil- of the natural law wbicU f
ern the p-nii n of dig-tion ami nulritioo, and by a
careful application f tlie fine proper ! of ell-?iec:rd
cocn. Mr. i w b4 pro,tll our lr-krat tal'lra with a
drlk'atir!y-d or? l hrvrraje whtch m y r- a many hrary
dictnr'a tilt. I: i tiy the juil.ciou uv of such arl.c'ra of
dirt that romtitu i n may tx yrjl:y built up antil
iironi enoo'h to rtraitt rvry ten-lrnry t line. Hundred
of tubtlv: malali-s are fi aiit g around us ready to attack
whreer there i a weak point. We rn.y esc3e many a
fata ahaft by keeping nurrle wl fortiQd with pure Mood
and pronerly tiouruhrd froi." Swe art cle in the t 1
Mail tiiopiy with boiling wlrr or milk.
Sold only io packrt, Uhellc I :
JAIES EPPS & CO.,
IIOM KOTATH IV CIIKMIsT,
Jli EPI S'S CHOCOLATE ESSENCE, for Afternoon
L. P. FISHER,
t DVKRTMMJ ACK.XT. 21 MERCHANTS'
CXCilAMiK, ran franci.eo, California, la autborixed
to rereiTe adrerti:mrnta ..r the column of this paper,
0 wrns 2 arxl 2 1 . Merchants' Exchange.
Ca itorni Street. San FrocLico,
E5T X. n. tdvrrtlsln: Saliritrd Tor all . Ma
paper TablMiril on Ibe PflCt Uat.the S adwirh
Ilaads Pt!jnri.i, JIric.iO Part. Paaama, alpa
ral. Japja, thiaa, rw ZrabnJ, tbr Au-trallaa
Colooie. the l atrra Siatf and Farope. File of
ararl; ever; rwparcr PttblUurd o the Paclfir
faasl are kpt f"a:aBllj oa Hand, acd all adver
tiser are allowed free acre t tltern dorine Bal-ell-ior.
Tbe PAflilC (OHMl.UdAL IDVr.B
TI'il.K I kept oa file at tlie i:nire of L. P. FISIIKR.
TRADE MII.U k EXPOBTEIl !
Markets ReTiew & General Prices Current !
pcMiBh'-d Sl-nihly. and In Eni;ih. lodiP'ria'le
fcjr 1'urch.WT of Continent il ti-ml; gires Whole.
: e Frice. an-l Ui-connta all-wed, of
Wine. Itrariiic, Preereil ProTiiion, fancy Good.,
Mi..n.-ry lre-a l itermU. U. Porcet.iin.
I Mare. War-he. Clock. Rel lmiUtmo Jewelry.
B- ot and !h -. Perfumery. To. t'leorapb.
Photographic n.l Printing MatrrUU.
Orient Ac atd lmital In.-truinnt.-t, Dru. Chemica'a,
Pharniacutif.l rreparuton. Mati.mery, Sweets.
Ji.lk. Vnrni!ir Paint. Pper lUnging. etc , Kte.
AIrv Price- :arrnt of I'rrx'uce. Mirk. t Kep-irts. Notice on
In.luntri.il Noeltties. Trade IutM-ii-nce, etc.
ANSl'a SCB-iCRIPrt'J 5 &T P.ll t'nion, and 0
for oih.-r t'oontrie.
Money or.l-r pijaMeto iK iK'iK WTr.U"4on P4riorln-
d n. or the 'Uia!ent in iy IjI currency or p-tj-ge
Tj- L'.M'AII I.KTrKKS KKI ISKI).
Address: TUe fR.CH TRIKJll RN AL REfORTKIl.
ac-j ly 14. Ku- d Chabrul. Paris, franco.
t'O KM'.K iff
Beale and Howard Streets,
.N ISNCISO, C LI ft'B.N I
II. Til - President,
JOS. JIOOUK. - aperJoteBdeat.
ST HAM MACIIINKKY,
IS AIL IT.-! BKANCIIr:-?.
ENGINES AND BOILERS,
Prr-orr ar f oiupoaed.
I K M VIM-I all kin t. to. It compile saiih
Hull of M arum or C..mpone.
OK I I K ' t:.OIKC"lr.'l"l tmlinihr
'TKt I, I' f II '.'. Brr an I t m Ian c-.ti
atructel with r. f-r-nre f.. t,e Tr.j.1- in wi h thy are to
be employ-il ?tr-. toi,i.-. and draft c.f wir i.ln
treil. vl ;l Mll.l t M I KI
l A II I ' n. id itft'-r tt fno.l - r el pUn.
Alo. a I B iter Iftrt Wor eooneete-l therewith.
W ITI It I'll'K.of H"i"' " fnet Ir-P. of any sis-.
m u .ble ler.h. f- r ennnercn f ather, or .-heels
Hoik. I. Punched ami Park"! t Sotfineot. rea..y to be
eted on Ihe gr .and.
V lK t I.I C It I 'TI i- Bder Work aid
ter P.p.: aia te ihi l.: Mi.lirueni. I.i.eied b lly-.
rauia- K -tiir M. i. i.erj. H.-t .,wl iy of work tug
tor up- rir to h-md w -rk
jlHIl WIlKh. srai . nl Horn .pl..n. .ten Wiih
e, r an.l Circ i: .tin;; Pump. mt after the ol P
Pl pO. lireet A('i( Pomp, for irili.i CI'T w
ter M ora.' purp.. . bu.lt w.th th- eelet.r.ted lry Wle
Motion, Ueri.r In any other pump d. Bl II
iCCMI or Worthington UupU-a Steam Puicp.
JAMr lll'.W. MKKCHtNT, t;l.M;ilV,
l'i.'Irrtik-i the iurrU r.. thinm-M of :! kit J. c.f llr l
ih r..l i:-f.lirrnt il fi .,!.. .J mi l t- c I i . re--: v. Or Its.
t rt .:t!i-r Ir nu lui'l il ir; i.i Kjro;e. r
J-iivrreJ ei sVp (i.u' wr.h .:uty f r h.j'- a. r'.un.) at
il-Ki'.la'u ?urh Order m ter a.-'c..iiio'i 1 ' y r-ov ;tr.c-.
HjaMc in Lorwt,n r Jn rro-i..?., ; or l. II .1rw at ''-J
1 glil a.;i:.t r nfir m-l if It. 'r :n !l no u u II-. k-M.
or wLfw.if, i .uir tfi- cofin.iii-'- o.' b i)Tt.
MK-.-U.-i. M. IRAA it Co., Honolulu
Ho.N W. L. OBttN. Ilir..u u.
II-'.N J H Al KKK. ilof.ou.u.
THE AiS i HASK.l..idj. L
sTJiIW OPKN LG
FASHION STABLES !
. '& I'niou ?.. wt-xl 2 Kiilae;
C ... No. 03 llwlrl St.
Express Nos 7. 9, 32. 34. 53. 91. 193,
First Class Horses and Carriages
To Kerl at any Hot f !he ly .t Nigtit.
All Orders Promptly Attended to-
I'rlrah.ur : IS.
Irrim K ru.onn tle.
Priiculr al'Kui .n p il to Bo.runi ll..rbe by ihe L'.jr
Ht-k or Month. orJ9if
J AS. G. HAYSELDF.N,
ARCHITECT Z. BUILDER,
IKXI17XL7. II. I.
. X I
Scta.il Drawings !
31 -ile on applicti- n and at abort no ice.
Eslimales Given on all Work
tVrm-CtrJ ilh the
AA belli, r it l in
IRON. STONE. BRICK. CONCRETE.
BRIDGE OR WOOD WORK.
Wj.l ri.il any purl of the other Island to KcTIM ATE
and 1K AAA I'l.A.Ni for proio.ed
Mill Works, Bridges or Residences
Modification of Old Buildifj a Speciality.
First Class Work Guaranteed
A N I
CIIARGKS MODKRATK !
ADDKrpS: J .AS. Ci. II t VSKI.DK.V.
Care of Architect x llmld-r,
d O. Wildkb k Co., lioDo'alu. U. I. u26 y
TO THE PUBLIC !
tTE HAVE KKCKXTIiV OPEXK.I) TIIK
T T .reniies at No. I H Nuuanu street, intetiduijr to c-.rry
on bus: ties as
PLUMBERS, GAS FITTERS
Our Ion experience a-- VETII A.M("5 warrant u in sit
ing tht our cew senlure wid meet a want long fell in this
All Orders we may be Favored With.
Attsnlei to uader our ova. Persia il
And executed in a UioroU'.h, C .nilent and wnrkmaulika
aim tr, oo the most approved January Principles.
BY STRICT APPLICATION to BUSINESS
W E TRCSr TC MKKIT A
SHARE OF PUBLIC PATRONAGE !
And we shall at ail timeend-or t E' our i'a'rona
t'i j atniot salif.ctin. boih in perleciion ol
Work and Moderate ChaigeJ.
XXot-xwosnd ilxii T c worli
PROMPTLY EX KCI'T '!.
BITIIS. WITI.K CLOSKTS, WASH KIlWLS, F.lr.,
ALAVAVS ON HAND.
s"tiecil Aitruiion given to the fl'.ling up of the SI'IUNA
FltLI O AS MACII IN K.
BKOW.N i I'll I I.I.I lS.
Plumbers, Gas Fitters and Coppersmiths.
Opposite r. T, Ut.er.ao Co.. No. 18 Nuuanu St. Ueo3m
A New "Departure !
fHAHK l .VOr.KMUXKO BKS TO INK-MM
1 b s Fr.ei.da atl patrons. ibt he bas vacated his old
preini-e on r'ort street, rear l.oca Planing Mill, and btis re
moved to a
Large and Commodious Premises
Specially built lor him.
On It! il si 11 osi Street !
Bk of the Cliluesc Theatre, and next to L.itie'a
Warehouse, where be bJS every facilities to
Carry on I-Jis Business
Boat Building and Repairing!
IN ALL ITS BRANCHES
Anv Ivinl i' 13ont
M ADK TO OKHKR ON SHRT NoTICK
Repairing Promptly Attended to,
At Moderate Rales Thorough W orkmatisliip Guaranteed.
nnl-.u;... H. B. RYAN.
I hereby give public Holier that I W ILL NOT be re
sponsible to the public ulieu tliey K" elewlii re ami ay
Lit; price. UEFVKE calling at my New St.-re, MT lVrt
Street, (i ampbell s new buil.ilii). h re they will find the
aI;ol a.irtortmeot of Soil I Walnut and Lt'AA' PRICED
Furniture. Parlor S.l. I.nu;.M. Mattra-he-. ic.
Pianos and Uran and every d.x.nptiou 'f MttMcal
i,,eri lialnli-e. I aintin". Enjjraviu, Albrotype
CbromoM. JIultiHS, Jtc. I'ti tiire Frame made to tinier.
All klu.l t -f I'lt ture FrameH su.l Coruii e Monblini;.
lira. kit-. Hat Hark. Whatnot. Music Stand, if., at
prue hitherto unknown m Honolulu.
We alo have the Three Leading Sewing Ma hitie.
sr. JtHIX! ST. JOHN ! ! ST. JOHN:!!
The only ma. hine runuiitg both way without cUsiit;
iuit th ilire.-tioti of the w. rk.
M KINFIELI ! sl l;INtiHl.I.l ! ! s! U1M.HELI !!
AMERICAN ! AMEUI- AN ! ! AMERICAN ! '. '.
The ltrei.t and let a. ttun lit of k.N (pi roimIly
. I.. t..I) for the holiday trade. loT Fort ?t.. Hoiiiduln.
45IH JIIMNF.nE IlKCORATIVK KAXS
at VAFI.L' Ml sIC STl:E loT. 1 1 J, and 11". Fort St.
GO! KIM -NaT CO.,
Carnrr Kwrt V llwlrl trrrt.
Are Constantly Receiving New Additions
FINE AND WELL ASSORTED STOCK
ivtx v ;ooi . sn ks. s -i i..
,,l l Mnrl KM HIKMllKKIr.S.
Following are a few of the Le?.din Lines :
rreorb. r-ngluh and AniMir.n ?ilk in all c-.lor.
t bin S.Ik in all C'.rs. I'ongee fitk.
Gent' I'oneee iik f h rl. Fine Sdk L'iiderhiil.
Lin-n l.wn. I i.m-y Mulin, Filgmi.
I. ulna' me I i.deraear
FI LL AS.-OKTM KNT OF
Men's and Youths' Clothing Hats and Caps.
KI'I.I. M'lT AT I.OU l'RM'F..
JUST RECEIVED per DISCOVERY
Fring. and Triumlng..
Ltilie.' Fancy e kite, al! m!n,
Lace Edj ng by ev.rv Meam- r- can s-ll Vrrv low ;
AA Lite !re4 G oils l- r l.lle.
A.o:tiner,t 4 t i e Hard .erc-.ief. f -r Cliri-tnia.
Uther t'bri-tllla G.l.
Oome Quiclc foi Bargains !
All .he above are bel-s 'J -t the ver, LnWr-T IR
KkT BATES. (aell 1, tfOt SIM I. u
. . MAIifll. 1, 12.
Abr-lz- l f-.r th' V . (. Aivi:r.Ti-n: from he Lon
Wo live in an a,c? of tirrL.t. ! gi'.-.il r.!irpri-e-s, i
:t'.h ni-r- startling than its jir. il.-ci s'ir. Ni:u-
v-h. Harlicarna-.-.u. Troy, Myc.-iiao, Cypni-. !
TL. Im s, in turn yii.l l t'neir wmiJors of s.-ulpturt-. j
of uruis, t.f jevAel-, of jaiyri, of l"ii' l.uri-J !
l-.a l. Yet these. h-.i-uVe-ric-S nrv. lifter a!l, ! ss j
i iuiiMirtur.t than .iuie others aa hich. '.uth'ilt help !
t.f i-ick or trerich. Lve b.-t-u ucLi-vutl by stu- !
J.-iit- of litriua'j. Chuipolliou, -w-rit inj his j
faajoiis b.tter to Dacier, riir ilcnry liaAvliu.vm j
wreatinjj tL .secret of ug?s from the rock of '
Iit-hi-.tuii, Save.-, l'V ti tiash of iimj irati n diviii- i
iu tlio r..-iie of uu inscription gruven on a bu-,s j
of silver, make n- appeal l-j the popular ini
nation; enrich our inusouius with no sjioiis of
marble, bronze, or Kohl, lint they unlock f-r ti j
the literature? of the yit-atest Oriental nations of ;
antiquity, aii'l they restore to our ue the most j
precious part of the inheritance bequeathed to ,
us by the ancestors of the human race. Buiieil
treasure is not iiccessanlv of that kiud which
tempts the spoliator of temples and tombs. In
scriptions graven in a language to which no key
has yet b'-eii found, records written in a script
bu forgotten and obsi?ure that it b illl-.-s the keen
est scieutific expert, uro virtually treasures as
much buried in the galleries of museums and on
the shelves of libraries as if they lay hidden in
the most secret recesses of a Theban sepulchre.
Such a treasure so buried has, within the la--t
five or ten years been i scued from the oblivion
of nearly six and twenty centuries. Yet the
geiurul public remains almost wholly ignorant
not only of the work that has been dime, but of
the mere name of the field in which the workers
have labored. That field is the Egyptian Demotic.
The writing of the ancient Egyptian was of
three kinds the Hieroglyphic, Hieratic and Demo
tic, the first of an unknown antiquity, the sec
ond, a cursive form of the first, invented about
the date of the sixth dynasty; the demotic, an
abbreviated form of the hieratic, dating from the
2'Hh dynasty almt 700 R. C. This last is a
sort of short-hand and very difficult to decipher.
Even tit this dat:', although the number of
tn vi nit who devote their lives to the translation
of hereoglyphic and hieratic literature is very
considerable, the roll-call of demotic scholars
contains little more than a half a dozen names.
One t these, llevillout, was appointed in 1877
to an official post at the Louvre, .and gave his
attention lo the demotic papyri in the French
national collection, and afterAvards to a systema
tic examination of other similar papyri in the
British, I.eyden, Turin and Berlin collections.
The treasures thus analyzed proved to be of
unsuspected interest and importance, compris
ing deeds of sale, of transfer, of gift, of partner
ship, of endowment: leases of houses and lands;
mortgages, Inrnds, receipts for taxes and other
payments, marriage contracts, marriage settle
ments, title deeds, inventories, etc. Besides
these there were found a collection of Moral
Precepts, another of Fables, a Philosophical
Treatise, in the form of a dialogue, a Manual of
Witchcraft, a book of patriotic prophecies and a
very curious tale, half historical half magical,
called The Bomance of Setna." The last
named manuscript was discovered in lSfi.j, in
the grave of a Coptic monk at Thebes. Taking
them one with another, these papyri may be
said to range over a period of about five centu
ries, beginning Avith the reign of Darius I., com
prising the whole Ptolemaic period, and ending
about the time of the Roman conquest.
It will at once be seen that such documents
open tip an almost inexhaustible source of infor
mation respecting a period and a society of which
till n )av we have known little or nothing. It is
indeed scarcely too much to say that until the
other day, we knew less about the condition of
the native Egyptians during that period than wo
knew of the manners and customs of the Egyp
tians of the Ancient Empire. Now, turning
over Ihe pages of Bevillout's Chrtttomathie De
m'Aiqut, we see these dead and gone priests and
scribes at their daily work, buying and selling,
lending and borrowing, marrying and giving
in marriage. Their usuries, their law suits,
their divorce cases are brought before us Aiith as
much detail as if reported in the daily press.
Taken in conjunction with the later Greek and
still later Coptic papyri, these demotic treasures
become the earliest links in an almost unbroken
chain of legal and commercial archives covering
a space of '2(00 years.
Abbreviating and omitting much that is purely
formal, we re-translate from the French version
of M. Kevillout, one of the' bonds taken in
security for a debt :
"1. (Date, the fifth of Cleopatra-Circe and
sicond year of Ptolemy-Alexander, her son).
The receiver of taxes upon stuffs, Thoth, son of
Ameiihotep, whose mother is Tanomn, to the
Pastophoius, of Ameii-Api, of the Necropolis of
Djem, Neckhtmonth. son of Ilorus, whose moth
er is Chachperi, saith: For the wheat thou hast
lent to me, thou hast to reclaim from me nine
aureus, interest included. I engage to pay the
thy nine aureus, above-named in pure ungroui'd
wh'.at (value of the said money) paid back, car
ried and delivered into the hands of thy servants
in thy house at Djem, without cost or outlay, on
tlie : tilth il;iv of the month Pakhon. ..nil 1 m.-iA'
tiav thee no art of the above-na,' .uotd the
.tn I'aklioiis at tne tune ami (mi ;
f . appoint
d. I mav not sav to thee,
, eadv de
posited wheat with thee' or ' y .ade th
pavmeiit on account of thv, " r'olleTlu re i
.ade thee a
redemption (oi ine ticnii.
tlie .ccording to
this deed, the leilal Coiisef .r i which rest
upon me and upon my cr ni0" "ne vu,,'
my goods which I now p.t- 1 ."ml all such as
may hereafter become lurW pledged to thee
as security for thy nine aureus ; and if I fail to
act conformably to Ibis writirfi. the whole penal
ty will be dueand I must c le to thee, without
opposition or delay, all tUat which is herein
Noaa-, by comparing documents of this class,
we arrive at three principal facts : 1. That the
old Egyptian law eontiuued in force side by side
with the Maci doiiimi law at the time of the
Greek dominion ; 2. That loans were invariably
contracted for sh irt periods ; 3. That payment
was rigidly enforced on a fixed day, before which
the creditor would accept no instalments, and
after which, though it were a delay of only 24
hours, the unhappy debtor became liable to a
fun- equivalent to his utter ruin. The debtor's
house is frequently specified as the penalty of
default, and it was secured to the creditor by a
deed resembling a bill of sale. Sometimes, asiu
the regoing coiitrai-t, th? debtor gives a niort
gii;' upon the whole of his worldly possessions ;
av ' ile 5o ju r cent, would seem to have been the
i' linary rate of interest, whether paid in cash
or iu kind. It is to be noted that to the author
of the " Chrestomathie Demotique " belongs the
honor of having determintd the relative and
positive values of the Egyptian moneys ol this
p riod ; a problem w hich has long bullied the
most eminent students of numismatics. The
Egytinn sekel (Hebrew shekel) is now shown to
correspond with the drachma of the Greeks
Five stkels were equal in value to one argen
teus ; fifty argenteus were equal to one aureus,
and the aurt Us was the national outen, hierog
lyphically represented as a slender bur of gold
twice folded. The argenteus is supposed to have
been a mere silver weight, uncoined. Besides
the alovo, we find mentioned the kerker, or
talent, worth 30O argenteus ; a discovery of
particular iutrrest, siuce it proves the Attic
tnlt'ut of 0,o0' .Ir.tthni.H.H to h:ive actually bevn
four tiiiu.s the value of tLe Alexandrian talent,
S'j ttles a Ioi:.;-ilif!'J!;. J qrusliou.
Oppressive as tlie c.Kom of usury in Egypt is
shown to b.-, by thes-.r long buried documents,
those of betr. that ai.d iu..tri.uouy were but a
degree 1- ss aiHicting and were in the highest
decree curious. D :r.es:sc life appears to have
been governed by the rule of coiitr.iry." A
pleasant fiction of our own marriage services
makes the IJ.-u-diet eii Liw his bride with " all
his worldly g. ol,." tn- the much married
ancient Egyptian, such au endowment was no
empty promise ; witness the following marriage
' The Tariehcr.te of Dj .-m, Ilorus, sou of Pet
lieihop, whose mother is StUi-rms, s.ith to the
woiuau S-t-' f-Aukh, daughter of l'semont, whose
mother is Tsetaiuen, have nccfp'td l.'itr for my
u-'ff.' I give thee ten argeiiteus, iu stkels 5U, ten
argeiiteus ill all, lor thy nuptial gift. I am to give
thet J1 o;iU-u for thy dress money for one year.
That I urn to give thee. Thy eldest son, my
eldest son, shall be the master of ull my property
present and to com-. will est itlitU Ihrt a.i my
u-e. If I disdain thee, if 1 take unto myself
any other wife than thee, I will pay thet 100
argeiiteus over and above the ten argeuteua
above-named which I give thee for thy nuptial
gift. Iuveutoty of thy hridal goods, which thou
bringest with thee into my house : oue suit of
clothes, value oo argeiiteus ; other stuffs, 50 ar
geiiteus ; one coffer, 50 argeiiteus ; ene rereh (?),
50 argeiiteus ; one gold chain, 50 argeiiteus ; one
ring and a seal with two faces, '25 argente-us ; one
. . ( V), 2 argents, us ; in all, 300 argenteus,
iu sekels 1,50:), m argenteus 300 iu all, with an
alloy of two in 21, value of thy nuptial goods
which thou bringest with thee. My heart is
satisU.-.l. tci i e.il.ititsh the us my wife
not, 1 will repay thee thy nuptial goo
enumerated over and above ail that is before
written. The price shall be in silvei as written
above. Thou hast no oath to take for thv nup
tial go:)ds here enumerated (as though I should
say, "Thou hast not brought them with thee to
my house.") It is for thee to claim them.
(Signed) The Taricheute of Djem, Ilorus, Jtc' "
This and other similar contracts, consists of
ht clauses. 1. The acctptituce of the woman
by the man as his wife ; (2) the nuptial gift from
the man to . the woman ; (3) the promise of a
yearly allowance for dress, particular stress
being laid on the first year ; (4) a declaration
that tha eldest son of both shall inherit all the
husband's property ; (5) a personal promise on
the man's part, to hereafter establish the woman
as his wife ; (C) an undertaking on the man's
part to pay certain Mated damages, if he do not
fulfill clause 5 ; (7) a list of the woman's goods
which she brings with her ; (8) a mortgage on
all the man's property given to the woman to
guarantee performance of the contract. From
all this, it is evident that " acceptance " and
" establishment " as a wife were distinct things,
the former being for one year only. The year of
acceptance aviis a year of probation, at the end
of which the contracting parties could honora
bly separate ; when once formally "established "
the tie was not only indissoluble, but so stringent-
ly contrived that infidelity or polygamous second
marriage on the husband's part involved the loss
of all he possessed. Iu any case whether born
in the year of probation or after the act of estab
lishment tlie eldest son of the pair was heir to
all the father's possessions. Marriage therefore
was so serious a matter, that this year of proba
tion, however couttrary to modern nations, was
a reasonable and necessary arrangement to ena
ble the man to judge of the fitness of one to
whom he must by and by relinquish the free con
trol of his property, for it amounted to nothing
less than that. House, laud and securities, were
the "established" wife's, to dispose of at her
sole pleasure, and if the man desired to sell any
part of his own estate, he could only do so in
the name of his eldest sou. It may be thought
that this j'oke AA'as heavy enough, yet others of
these contracts show that it could be made even
more burdensome and galling. In our papyrus
Fttorpa assigns to his wife Neshorpschrat not j
only his house and landed property, present and I
future, but also " his silver and copper money j
and furniture " leaving himself absolutely I
nothing ; delivered, tied hand and foot, into the
I power of his wife, making but one special clause
in his own favor, viz : -that she shall provide j
for him while he lives and pay for his fuueral
liturgies and the embalming of his body when
he dies. Nor is this a solitary case. In a
papyrus of the eighth year of Ptolemy Sotor
l'chelchons makes a gift of all his property
present aud future, to his established wife Xes
chons. Seven years later he inherited houses
and lands at Ilerinoiithis, and in accordance
with the former contract, makes these over to
Neschons by a deed ending thus :
" It is incumbent upon thee to take care of
me during my life, and to charge thyself with
the expenses of my embalment and my memorial
chapel after my death. Neither sou nor
daughter has any concern iu this deed. It is for
nie to protect thee against claims of theirs.
Take, therefore, this surrender of my property
Neschons, in truth, stepped into the place
of l'chelchons, and inherited his property dur
ing his lifetime, he becoming a mere instrument
iu her hands, with nothing to do but act as her
agent and obey her commands. It is not won
derful that the Greeks found abundant matter
for pleasantry in facts such as these ; nor that,
while Piodorus kept strictly within the bounds
of truth instating that "Egyptian husbands
promised iu their marriage contract to submit
themselves iu all thintrs to the power of their
,, .. oil i i
wives, other writers, as Sophocles and Herodo-
tns, indulged iu some satirical license when they
averred that the women did all the trading and
marketing, while the men sat at home at the
loom. That the women did trade for themselves,
and upon a considerable scale, is. however, fullv
proved by other demotic papyri in which they
'figure as buyers and sellers, as mortgagees, as
money-lenders, and even as contractors with the
State. Yet, further, the Eirvptian bridetrrooua
... ; , , ....
- name of his wife, instead of giving his
name to her ; and Egyptian sous, instead of
being called after their fathers, were designated
(as in the foregoing contracts) by the names of
tlieir mothers wliieli mem", -ire t:fnt.1 irrmiA.li-
atelv following their own.
Such was the marriage law of Egypt at the j
period of the Greek dominion. It was then i
called " the old law," and it had doubtless sub- '
sisted unchanged from the time of the early
Kings. We shall probably never know how !
customs so strange and perverse came to be j
established among a people famed throughout
antiquity for their wisdom and learning. Still,
there is a room for conjecture : and when we j
look back to the monuments of the Ancient
Empire, and there find the daughters and grand
daughters of the pyramid-Pharaohs wedded to
architects and scribes and simple country gen
tlemen, we seem to see how these unequal mar
riages may have given rise not only to that well
known law wheivbv the children inherited by
right of descent on the mother's side, but also
to these very marriage laws which gave absolute
supremacy to the Egyptian wife a:.d reduced the
Egyptian husband to a nonentity.
Living under the tolerant Greek rule, the peo
ple retained their own laws and long clung to
them with patriotic fidelity, but, by degrees, we
may presume that the spectacle of Greek set
tlers governed by their own laws being always
before them, they began to discern the superior
ity of the latter. Thus, Ave see, that under the
earlier Greek rulers, it was the wife alone who
divided property among children, later, it was
the husband ; the wife being a consenting party.
From the time of l'hilometor, th husband
gradually assumed a different position. His
name appears in various contracts, and soon,
his signature become indispensable on all im-
portant occasions. Above all, the singular
clause whereby he formerly stipulated that his
wife should provide for him while living, and
care for his body aud soul after death, now dis
appears from the marriage contracts. Later
still, the deed of gift disappears, the consenting
parties apparently retaiuiug control of his or h r
own property, every item of w hich is can fully
enumerated in the settlements. Finally in :i
papyrus of the 4'th year of lv-u rgeUs il.. we
End a Meuiphite Egyptian so far departing from
the traditional usage as not only failing to give a
nuptial present aud an annual allowance to his
bride, but actually receiving a considerable
dowry from her partnts. This evidences an im
mense chan 7e on public opinion, for the man who
in former times accepted uiuuey with his bride
was held to be dishonored and disgraced. The
Egyptians, in fact, so far from regarding a
dowry as au almost iudispensary condition of
inarriuge (which was the Iiomaa i lea) had up to
this date looked upon it iu the liht of purchase
money for value received. Hence, the man who
received it sold himself into voluntary slavery,
and became the property of his wife. It is not,
therefore, a mere modification of the old law to
which the papyrus bears witness, but a social
revolution of the first magnitude.
W A N T E D
IT TO UK KNOWN' THAT
J. WILLIAMS & CO., 102 Fort st,
(Succeora to M. birknon.)
I li o t o x I p II o i ! ,
ARK I'KKI' tK K l TO DO Kl RS T-CI.ASS
WORK OF ALL KIN OS.
Special Attention given to Children !
. WK AKK PRKPAKE1) TO DO
ALL KINDS OF LARGE WORK !
MINIATURE TO LIFE SIZE !
F.ither in Crayon, Water Colors. India Ink or Oil.
Photos Colored, etc.
We employ FIRT-CLA33 ARTISTS, doing work equal to
that of the bent Galleries of San Kraiiri-co and t Irs cost.
A great variety of Inland A'le. turiosities Sliells and
Coral Irom all parts of the Pacific. Hawaiian fi'4 Mes and
Ferns, Latest Styles ol Frames, Passepartouts tied MhIj con
stantly on hand
XT A Lady will be in attends ce. Charges reasonable and
fell ly J. WILLIAMS Sc CO, Proprietors
GEORGE W. LINCOLN,
Contractor & Builder !
80 KINO ST., HONOLULU.
KSIUKN TO INFORM Ills KKIKXIIS
and the public generally, that he is now prepared to
accept Contracts for
: BllildingS, Cottages,
Stores or Dwellings,
A'ter AMERICAN VKEN0II, ITALIAN. SWISS or GKIl
M AN STYLK8. and from NEW UK.SIG N s, w hich combine
all the necessary requisites for health and comfort, in a warm
Orders Respectfully Solicited for
Designs, Plans and Specifications,
i For Dwellings. Stores,
Public Buildings, Halls, Hotels,
I Mills and Works of Every Description,
I IN EITHER
j Wood, Brick. Iron or Stone Constructions.
I I tile lire ACCURACY aid COMPLETENESS in all res-
pects. and will Visit any of the IjWh.1i in person ti mm! le
; slTKs, LOCATIONS, etc , upon pnynient ol travelling ex
! My arrangements enable me to supply competent men to
; superintend lh construction ol Buildm and Work on any
! of the Island. Havinc formed a busine's connection with
I one of the
Principal Mills on the Coast,
I AM PREPARED TO IH
AT MODKRATK RATES.
S a t i s f a c t i o ri Guaranteed.
XT One of the Littest Invention,, for re:o.ithi':g SAWS has
been brought by n.e from the Const :: d old Customers and
new ones, are invited to call on me w ih heir old and worn-out
8 AWrt and I will make them as good ne, and at moderate
T 3E3I 3E
92 KIXU STKKKT.
To Planters, Expressmen & Others !
YOU WANT A GOOD ARTICLE
WHERE YOU WILL GET IT,
Of All Kinds on Hand and Made to Order,
SOLD AT THE LOWEST PRICE !
E7- Look At Tliijs
Double Plough Harness
do Cairiae or Express Harness.,
rtlnyle Carriage Humes
F rum f 20 00 up
I Break Harness.
j i)r.y names-..
ladies' Sad. lies...
ALL GOODS WARRANTED
A3 KEI'RESEN'TKO AND
GU3,ra,Ilt8S& FOP SlK HOIlthS !
(7" T Snnfirintfmd all Work that
! i - r m t j?n. n
leaves my oaop, iuoni peuuit; uaiie,
J J, , '
Hen Fruit or Cold
j J Make HameSS and Sell them,
a. bmoliso. j ias kmhelith.
C. ENCLINC & CO.,
(Successors to (I. Seyelken & Co.,)
NO. 6 XL'I ASC STKKKT.
Dealers in Stoves and Ranges,
Tin. Sheet Iron 4. Copprrware
Knur CossTuiiroJ !1ssd
FULL tMMlRT.MUXT OK TINWARE
GalTanlird Iron and Lead Pipe,
al 81 India Robber Hosf, &r., &t.
E. S. CTJNHA.
RETAIL WINE DEALER.
THE REAR OF HAH'AIIAX GAZETTE BUIl.D-
JVCf, yO. 23 MERCHAXT STREET.
Jan 1 81
MRS. J. SIMMONS,
Illf.U Ull l.STBCME.T.U Ml'Sir,
No. 31 Beretania Street-
HTEAM O.VTN IV
MANUFACTORY and BAKERY,
XT'. HOR 1ST,
Practical Confectioner, Pastry Cook and Baler,
No. 75 Hotel street, between Nuuaou and Fort.
Jd 1 01
BOSS HARNESS SHOP
rDf A very large assortment of fine white cm
embroideries at figures never offered before, at
CHS. J. FlsllhLs" porfi.-AU sTor.K.
PORTABLE OR PERMANENT!
- .-. . I.Kf.TII. 14 lb. I'Ktt V lKD
1. ij for e i. rrt? -t Iuke el Ateic.ro from
V T'.V '
AV L. UKr FN. or
O. w . MA I'r aRL.ANK & Co.
Agent for John Foler Cj.
KISTLER & SMITH,
NO. HoTtX sTREKr.
rMiimtaei'ss c Grnlittei-H,
Stoves & Ranges,
TI SHKKT III0X AM) (0PPKII U1KK,
Keep Constantly on h mi a L:.r.'nl Superior Assortment of
I.U.YAMZKD IIIOA and I. KID PIPF..
d3I Sl ly
I II UK THIS 1V EnTABlISHED MYSELF
GENERAL COMMISSION AGENT,
Dealer in Dry Goods, Hardware, &
F. D'A. MARQUEZ.
II o m; a io, k A V. II A W All.
August 12th, 18SI. aug27.ou
Martieal.- 4. 1 1 ban Soft's,
lire-proof, lire &, llisrfrlar i'loof, v linrglar Proof,
smaller .sizrs constantly mi hatul.
Orders for Larce Sizes Filled at Shortest otlte.
Old S:.resTlrn in Kxeiiane.
Babcock's Fire Extinguishers !
Platform, Dormant, and Combination Beam Scales!
XT For Price ami Circulars, write lo
f. O. II K KG Kit,
General Aitem trt the Hawaiian Islaud.
E. B. THOMAS.
BRICKLAYER & BUILDER.
9 4 IITK" I! LA R ATTKXTIOX PAID TO
X Setting stesm Boilers. Furnaces. Baker's Ovens and
Kannes. and all kimlsof 1 1 ntinic Apparatus. Also, Variegated
Concrete Siilewalks. All Work entrusted to me will be execu
ted promptly, and on reasonable terras.
Atldressthrougli ihe Post onire j-n 1 81
T st- fll ... II...... I
IV1R. H. P, WOOD
II AS BF.KN AIM'OINTLD AGKNT AT
MAHUKONA and KOHALA
S. F. L IIOXOLLLU TRAXSFRE fO.
OFFICK AT DR. WIGHT'S STORE.
SEP" Baggage landed from the Steamer
and Delivered as per Aaddress :
S. F. & HONOLULU TRANSFER CO.
"Big Collar " Harness Shop
C . HAtViMER,
8U KING STKKKT
PRACTICAL HARNESS MAKER!
Fine Single & Double Buggy Harness
Concord and Mule Harness
Plantation Harness of all sorts,
Riding Eridles, Saddles & Whips
Currycombs, Brushes, Saddle Cloths,
And every necessary fur stable use at
BEDROCK PRICES for CASH
XT Kepairing of i-very dusrription done in the best possible
Manner, with the hi materials, at lowest workmen's rales
All Work Guaranteed or Exchanged
Look fr.r the 11 Jiig Collar!1'
jat 81 t
STKA(ii: TO SAY
Vickery's Fireside Journal
Has the Largest Circulation of utiy Pictorial Paper on the
Islands. The inleiexliiig kelrhes and Stones con
Inine I in Kach Number are ol the most instruc
tive nature, hn.l Ihe
Large Size Chromos
Excels anything ever given away in this line.
Each Subscriber For $1.25
Receive monthly a pi-er for a year, and with the
first number the Tuo llandnrue Chromos.
XT Over 400 new Sulitcr.ber since November last, and
orders are dally cominp in.
JOSKPI1 K. AVISKM AN. Ageril,
jail 3m Office, 2 Merchant street, Honolulu, II. I.
rW The best 1'trcalo shirts, r-xtrn ccffs jind
TAVO COLLARS, ffir Only 1 0, fit t'HAS. FlSHKLS'
8 8 K1NU STKKKT, OVKK LVN'CH'S SIIOK riTOUK.
iliU L.IU IU.1.1 L U ! i
A Ml- -
SPECIFICATIONS DRAWN UP!
Mrrhnnirnl tin ft Suirifor. Drnajjht
i Hour. iiimI Ili (.'ouat r urlt-d
Tram Klf-lil .Vair.
IRKXCH, ITALIAN, I.KRnt.V, M'A.MSH,
roRTl(.l KSK AMI CHIVKSK.
letters unci Documents
W ritten in ibe above languages.
XT ALL. TRANSLATIONS GUARANTEED
Inml Iti-oortlN Stiirhctl nurt
nol21 Iotiiii-ilt H KculMtered. Sin
Thirty-two pieces all aa-oo1 dress good a for
only 25 centa per yard, at Chs. J. Fishals popp-
LAB STOKE .
Lot of CIlOICK
tx Kce nt Arnv.lf, a A
OAT, lilt AN. It KIH . tl.i:i.
A i.lt . (.1(1)1 M) 'M'Ii,Klr
II I V. I.TC, K I C Sal IJ
.':!f!i Ar v iil Nril r. !.CiV s r;sn Ir I t o:lit In
Tkaad U ll i KU.
A I.M, FX i A I. IK t 1 I. TWO OF
Putnam &, Co.'s Spriug Brake-
Carts, Easy, Light and
ami arc a JIur.'i Superior to thr Ortlaur) Tnti-
Ulirrlrtl Catts as n Llfftif Cii??)
I iu aa v.x fart.
,VISr 32 & CO.,
m tf Fal'l,l4l)IC.
AM) I RUSH, MUIK KIKKV PAY.
PORK SAUSAGES !
Our Customers are informed that we
TO PAY SPECIAL ATTENTION
BRANCH of OUR BUSINESS,
fill Guarantee to Please witli Our Goods
GIVE UN X ( ALL !
RAUPP & SCHRAEDER,
se!7 ly No. Hi llalrl sirrrl.
RESMKCTU'LI.V INr'OK.M TIIK I'lH
I.IC that they have urclia. d Ihe lsiahlii-hmeiit
TsrO. 127 KOTtT ST.,
S. D. Burrows' Planing Mill
And are now i.rrparrd t curry on tl.e husiness of
Coiiti'sictors : HnilclerM
Under the cornorntlvc name of
PLANING MILL! !
127 I'llHT ST., IIOXOI.L'LL.
And lhal l.y slrict attention lo huiini'sa they will he war
ranted ill reducing piicet to a sUmiaid lhal will mxke II an
Inducement lor all parties w ishinic any woik iu their line lo
give them a call, and they will u-e their ue.t ndeavors lo glv
entire sat it faction.
PUnlog, Shaping, Turning,
Bund mid Snoll Sawlnc,
Doors, S-h, llllntl't,
Door and Wlndotv 1'ranirs,
lirarkrts, R.illasli'ix, Slulrs, Llr.,
Made to Order
MOtJITDINGS fe FIIsTIttll
ALWAYS ON HANI.
XT All orders filled on ah'Tl notice, and Juhhing promptly
Mouldings made lo any patttrn without esita Cl aris for
PRICE OF MACHINE WORK, $1.00 TO
$1.50 PER HOUR.
XT Orders from Ihe other IsKnds pioinp.ly fllled. Plana
and ppecifl -RtioD furnished l ord-r.
C J. II Alt II EE.
II. I". I1KUTKL.M ANN.
ins own mm i
By reding of the vehicle of the nation of Ibe
Antique World, we learn tlint their chariot wheeli
wre made of tolid Llocks of wool, oirnilar to those?
ixiAde up by the choollmy of lo-dity in his first
effort at carriage mtking ; and it mut he taid,
notwithstanding the propreca made in H e tneana of
locomotion iu these modern l:in., ihe irimi'ite
solid block wheels are mill in tie in the wine grow
ing Islandti of Ihe Extern Atlantic, and on th
coast of Africa. However,
M. J. ItOSl
in his ABlablishtnent on King Street, offer the
finest upecimens cf mo'lern art in carriage manu
facture. He presents the furthest remove from the?
solid block, in the production of the moat perfect
combination of lihness an atrengtl, iu bis
wheels, and offers the most surprising resulta of
vehicular mechutiirm in hi admirable
Fine, pj Fsiauily
I) il ill 1 AVsion s
illlllc C'.il-fs, ;iBltI
MR. ROSE imports the best of Eastern
timber, and executes all orders in the
most thorough, workmanlike man
ner. He has also opened a
and will fill ordeis for
Fine Mingjc sum!
ill ii I ft BSai iii Aa,
And all kinds or
As we are frugal in oui style, we can
aflford to sell cheap. You can go farther
and fare worse than by calling on
M. J. ROSE,
"K27,tr Xea. 78. 81 . 83 KIXC STRETT,
TW 9 17Vr