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V A C 1 F I C C O M M MERCIAL ADVERTISE U, M ARCH tl, 1882.
A. W. BUSK,
FOR STOCK OF
The California Hay nn (Jr.iin i.f tL- .,"!"
alectwd carfc!lv I v tha M;in.,' r during a r . ;a
WE GUARANTEE TO KEEP
THIS VERY I1KST OF EEAV &
AnJ can k-U the sanu- at the I.OWKST KATKS, i.s v.- ., I .r. .
To thos- Con.-niiiers who hav.- li n tI"n- Import. -I f-r th
cit t!fir p.itrou;!.-, tru-ain : tiv;- .:ti-t'.i. t..- i
th in ti:n- l !:n.ir.
Careful Attention Given to the Shipping of Orders to other Islands.
E7" Large Additional Supplies aro now on the way por EUREKA r.ud
KALAKAUA. All Orders to be sent to
We Beg to Notify
i ll AT
A LAKGK ADDITION
TO OUR USUAL STOCK QF HAY AMU GRAIN,
That at No Time Since We Commenced Business
HAVE K KEEN
Without Haj or Failed to Fill All Orders of Oar Replar. Customers !
Nor have we- ADVANCED THE PRICE to them during t!.e great scarcity of II y in
the pat few Month; and
Wf? Will Continue to Sell Hay and Strain
as Cheap as it Can "be Purchased
in Honolulu !
ALL ORDCKS i noil THE OTIIKU ISLANDS
Goods, Wares 2? SSeaeiiasadLis,
In Our Line or Not, Will Be Filled at LOW RATES, and
a?- NO COMMISSION Charged. Telephone, No. 147.
Nor Giving Up the iOr
$21,500 WORTH QF DRY G JBST MM!
BY TIIK. LAHT STKAMl'.R.
The Greatest Bargains ever Offered in Honolulu
FULL ASSORTMENTOF' EVERYTKlfJG !
MY STOKE, CORNER of FORT and HOTEL STREETS,
HAS RECENTLY BEEN KENOVATED AND ENLARGED.
More Room, More Goods.
More for Your Money lhan Elsewhere 1
WNE OF EMBROIDERIES !
100 ptr eeoc. Lower ihio an, otLcr Uoe can 9o!l iU,u in t'.e Ki,,. Ion..
Berlin Zephyrs 15 Cents Per Ounce,
Catxlboarcl. plain - .? "'.Vx lr nhc-c-t
Carclboaixl. silver ;-'J
13- For Facts, all I ask is for yoa to Come and see for Yourself- JiZ
m t i r r. o W ! A fl CT
1m I S W I l I H V - 1 " "
de4 CHAS. J. FISIIEL. Corner Fort and Hotel sts
LOOK AT THIS !
HA. B. V M- II VI KBIMTIIKH
AT Rt SO BLK ETk..
NO PAY ASKIvD !
Artesian "Well Work.
Wagon and Carriage Vork.
Bridge Work. etc. etc .
Done by Experienced Workmen !
AT RlTM THAT WILL
Defy Competit ion !
JILI, I K I A Till I. OIIUKK.
. .4. k. n.i.-if Horner n f,r
above Loeaa' Plninir Mill.
ja7 82 ly C H A Sj. Wl LSXL-
ii o oT i n o X :
I14IK IIKfKIVKH .4XI OW Kfr'r.K
1 "r l.bOivlUr IKoM nttt ef.ll..n .-. -:.
Eastern Shooks. Holasses B irreK all siz:s;
Sa-ar Kegs. Ac.. Made to Order.
j. ii. uur.
vi:i:v sri'i:i:n:t ijuauty
c. -t ON hani
. , v s, !i-
. i . i ! :
MAXAOEE OE L'XIOX FEE It CO.
Our Many Patrons
LAI&E & CO.
P J? I H ii 3 AZ4A!x
WING WO TAI
1 lavf ii;--t:iitly i
it. t: ! in -i r
n i i i.i tiK
.lAPANantl 'IIINA TI'AS,
B..:'. II U- ' - I . l'"Mjr.
lt. ::ii! at. of Pi.5i:ic!:i;i r inji;-- UlniN.
I i. . a i. o. i a i;K srncK of- ::: :.
; i f"; r i :-. i" io tMui.o:: stt:i.K irf
Nl ly MINI; V.liTI A.
FINE CHINA HATTIfiG-
-rr a k i m m :i )
White China Fialling !
ok tiik vkkv t:Kr itr iLirv
Call Early, or it Will All
V1NC VO TA2 l CO..
U tzin lizrz lks
r?3 a O H
Via j mc-rtinnunts.
V ssorl moiil
whs, mm m, u.
! C ihs Hennessey Brandy,
I C-ses De Luage's Brindy,
i Cas s Jules Holeur's Brandy,
! Cases Boutellieur & Co.'s Br..ndy,
j Casks Hennessey's Pale Brandy,
Cases Burke's Irish Whisky,
j Case.- Kinahnn's LL Irish Whisky,
I Cases Burke's Scotch Vhiky.
! Cases Cutter No. 1 A: O K Bourbou Whiskv.
Cases Kentucky Favorite Whisky,
Cases OFC Sour Mash Whisky,
Cases Green Case Key" Gin,
Baskets Stone Jug Gin,
Cases Red Palm Tree Gin,
Cases lied Anchor Gin,
Cases Benker Gin,
Cases Best Cockburn's English Port,
Cases Best Dutr Gordon's Sherry Wine,
Cases Best Extra Dry Sherry,
Cacss Genuine Madeira Wine 1
I X HV 1 UTS A M l'IMS,kr.
Casks Budmeiser's St. Louis Beer, quarts
Cases Anheuser's . St. Louis Beer, quarts
Caks St. Pa uli's Beer, quarts and pints;
Cnses Foster's Ale, quarts and pints;
Cases Bj.-s's A'e, quarts and pints;
Cases Foster's Porter, quarts and pints;
C:ises Burek's Porter, quarts and pints.
THE ABOVE GOODS
OF FIBST QUALITY
And will be sold Reasonable
TO SUIT THE TIMES.
d3iif F. T. Lenchan & Co.,
PONY STABLES ! !
Imported Stock I
Vancouver, the IJciuficent Navigator, First
A Fpiritcd and hardy anim il from SpIlnil Amer
ica into the Islands ; and the original Spanish
Anec.-tors have produced in this day, a hardy,
enduring and useful
That cannot be beat for certain qualities.
A l Ittlmifl florae
Sfurb as we have been receiving lately from the
rich pasture plains i.f Hawaii and
Invariably Kind ! !
Wlitn well broken, k-.-eps in good condition on
small feed, is generally healthy; and will last as
a good, uselul working animal
For Over Thirty Years
V'tn your costly Imported Horse is broken
winded, stiff kneed, and used up before be is
Fifteen Years Old
THESE ARE FACTS !
c can mi pply a Kind, Well-Formed,
I i f Native St ick. for 1cm than half the cofd of an
1 ImV(HIIKI) ANIMAL, and TII AT W I LL DO
I It V. AS Ml "CI I AND 1IEITF.R WORK.
j f.ive uc a Commissi, in for a Good Island
j Horse, w.tli which you can
1 Trust YourChildren
I AM VK WILL tlL'ARAN 1 EE SAT-
Horses Boarded by the Day, Week or
Month. Horses Ben jht and Sold.
I MM.KMMI .ISSOKT.M KNT K f.R
K I I K ON lll.MI TO LET A; SIXL,
II ive jut had built eoiue VERY EASY
ANI WELL FINISHED CARRI AtiES MOST
M ir.MSLK FOR I.ADIF.S.
I.adie- will find our SADDLE HORSES Su-p,-ri"r
to any in 'he City, both for Gentleness
an 1 Apj earan- e
Ri: -nN.l;LE RATES and S FECIAL CARE
i lien oi S: ck entrusted to our care.
X. I; lin-e Roirdiii; their Hirscswill not
i:E CH ARGED EX I RA f.r DOCTORING or
Horses Broken to
Fony Livery and Sale Stables,
King ftreet, nearly opposite Bethel. J24
GO AS YOU PLEASE !
THE PEOPLE'S LINE !
The Line of New Omnibusses
AnI wll leave cacti of the Termini according U
S. lic.lule Time Table fouml llow.
OUR CITIZENS GENERALLY
Will Snl llii oevr u ili-rpriss
a oitEAT ki:.b:fit,
.Ir.J the Mli.wini: will Tue llie iait'inent.
ai The Uu-ie4 are new. oaiin di"UJ anJ made fur comfort.
2 n d Cuiiiix'lent an i HK rieni-eJ I'river. only eiiijiloyeJ.
3rrl The ch.rg-s s-l citeii are Iis limn one-half the regular
4 lb The Hues will be j rouijaly on time, ac.-urdiiB to
Any I'sirt ot the Town !
WITHIN TflE CITV LIMITS.
The lsity IIomcKtesicl,
n Nuu mu Valley, will be one TermiiuH. and
W.G. IRWIN & CO.'S OFFICE
Corner Fort nd Queen girteu, the other Terminus.
TIME rr.T3L7i !
Lravr W. (i. Iruiu 4. (u.'s G.I a, 7, 8 and 10. 30
A. M li.0., 2, i, 5.10, 6.30 and 9 P. 31,
Lraf Putj's lluiur-trad, Vnoana Yaliry, 6.30,
7.30. X.30 and II A. 31 12.11 2.30, l.iO,
5.10, 7 aud 9.20 T. 31.
JAMES l)ODI. Proprietor.
Ollc Paolheon Stable, corner Fort & Hotel
r NoTM'iis tf rtl v givt-n tiiat. uiu tl.e m-ojun-., D-.Iatiou
cf the Boar-i of He a. til. Ir. iv. I.. Fit. u has Ix-ru, tins
L day, j.rv.iuteU Vacciustmi; nffio. r fvr the Ilautl of Oahu.
M. N. AKMSTKOXC.
Miuistrr .f the Iutt-rior it-i iuurim.
uttriiT LUficr. Feb. ls--J. St
Notice of Board of Health in Regard to
lu ocorliiKe with the law (OVil Cmle, Sec 309 to Sect
SIT). I hereby notify all I'areut rtsi i,us within tbe is
triet fruaj Mauuaiu to Muaualua who have uuvavvinated
cUiiJrei), to riu4 them t the Iii?.t u.-ary of the lizard of
Health, iu Mauntkea-street. fvr the iurpcse i f receiving
gratuitous vaccination. I'nvaocinateJ adults are also
notified to cuiue to the above-uitntionej plate for the
same purpose. The Vaccinatum Officer will be iu attend
ance each day (excepting Sunday and Mondays) bttweeis
the hour of 9 and 11 o m-.
G. L. FITi'H. M I).. Va-ciuatiut: OfHcer.
Interior Oflice. r'eb. 24. 1 iX
Kilinri f rom tlir 1'iril l"le-- I.n x-l.tl-to
ntcnos W. The Minister nf the Interior shall ap-
pcitit, ujiou the recoiuiueudatiou ot the iioard tt Uealth, i
a suitable iers.u to be vaccinatiu officer iu each of the !
gubernatorial divisions of the Kingdom, who shall re- i
ceive such salary as nitty, from time to time, be apj'ropri-
ated by the Legislature, and ihall be removable from '
uilice at the pleasure of said Minister.
Stcnos Kach net instill ofli.-er sh ill appoint at
least three convenient places in each school district
throughout his division, for the performance of vaccina- ;
tiou; and. from time to time, give public uotii'p of the
time when he will attend at such places, to vacciuate all ;
persons, not already successfully vaccinated who may j
then and there appear; and also of the time when he will j
attend at such place to inspect the progress of sm h vac-
einatioii in the persona so vaccinated. ;
StiTMN all. The father or mother of every child shall
witnin si x mom ns ai ter me uiriu oi sucu ruiiu, or. iu
the event of the death, illness or absence of the father or
mother, then the. Kuardiau, unrse, or person having
charge of such child, shall within six months alter its
birth, or at the earliest opportunity after, take such
child to the vaccinating officer, for the purpose of being
StcrioN 312. I'pon the eighth day, following the day
ou which any child has been vaccinated, the father,
mother, guardian, or other person having charge of said
child, shall again take such child to the vaccinating of
ficer that he may ascertain by inspection the result of
..... ..- . t - . : i . 1 - . 1
skc i ion .jij. it tne vacciuaii'u is louuu 10 ne suci i ss- . . .
fill, the officer shall deliver to the father, mother, or oth- ' lood an l drinK, libations Wts.e txiiire l. ami Itl
er persou having charge of the child, fre. ol charge a j b , tllo lu,errtl aHtue, Or Ka
certincate that the child has been succesalully vaccinated '
and shall note the fame m a book to be kept by sm h otli- j ( tlic deceased. Ill PIliirHOIllC lllUt'S the head of
etr for that purpose. i .
Skciion 314. On the presentatiou of any child to be I tl)C lailllly WH8 til own Clllct finest, and tliece
vaccinnated. should the fhcer leem the child to be in an I - , r . .. , . . , .
unlit state to be vaccinated, he may postpone the opeiatum ; meiiiorml rite were performed by the etdcbteon
at his discretion; and give due notice to the parents, or j a(i6jsted eoinetillies 1V ail attendant deacon. Io all
person Having cnarge ci sucu cuito, to rcpioumc iue
SKine for vaccination at a future time.
SKCi'ios 315. The vaccinating officers shall visit the
several stations appointed by them, at least once iu every
six mouths, and ofteuer if reijuired so to do by the Min
ister of the Iuterior or Board of Health.
Skctios 3 111. Every parent, guardian, or other person
having the charge of auy child, who shall refuse or neg
lect to comply with the provisions of the law respecting
vaccination, shall be subject to a tine of five dollars;
one half of which shall be paid to the informer.
Skiiion317. The several vaccinating officers shall '
keep a faithful record of their transactions, and make an
annual report of the same to the Minister of the Interior.
W. X. AltMSl'liONli,
Minister of the Interior, ml interim.
Interior Office, Feb. 24, lasj.
Honolulu, H. I.. Feb. lltb, 1382.
All employees of the Government, and other persons to
whom juoueys may be due at the Hawaiian Treasury on
or before the :ilst March, 1SH2, are requested to present
vouchers f Jr settlement on or before that date, and all
persons having moneys on account of the Government
are requested to make their returns promptly, in order
tnat there may be no delay iu cho.sing the account for
the fiscal period ending March 3lst,lSS.
Department of Finance. Registrar Public Accounts,
i ' l
3 : U. 3s.
x. J5 -
. -j s: a ?
-3 X ' s
JQIN II. I1KOW.V, Iu'lKetr "t WeighU and
Measure?, f r the Uland of Oi.hu. 103 licretania Street.
Orders may s tefl t Police ytalion. Jul9,81.lf
GEORGE W. LINCOLN
2? 31 22L
Contractor iV Builder !
SO KINO sT.. liriNOLl LU.
n KM It KM TO I.XKOKM III" KK1KXDS
nd l'ie imblic generry. lh:ii fie is rmw jTcpared to
accept Coniracta f r
Stores or Dwellings,
Alter AMERICAN KKESCU. ITALIAN. SWI.-i or G HU
MAN STYLUS, ami fr'.m NEW l)KS If! s5. which combine
all the neces.-arv requU'tei f r health ai.d C )ct)f')rt, in a warm
Orders Respectfully Solicited for
Designs. Plans and Specifications.
For Dwellings. Stores,
Public Buildings, Halls, Hotels,
Mills and Works of Every Description,
IN KITH Eft
Wood, Brick. Iron or Stone Constructions.
I j.leJe AlCl'RACV d M li.ETKN K.-S in nil res
pects, and will t.mI any of th-: I -I m.I- in in-rsori t x iniir.e
StTK. LOCATIONS. e:c , upon pHjinenl ol Ir.ivell ng ex
pense. My arranrement3 enable me to supply competent men to
superintend 'he con-truction ol ISuild n aud Work on any
t f ihe Iland. Ilaviug formed a buirien connection ith
one of the
Principal Mills on the Coast,
I AM PUEPARKD TO 1)0
First-Class Work !
AT .MOUERATK KATKS.
XT One of the Latest Iuveniions for reroothine f AH'i has
been brought by n.e from the Coast, and old Cust. mera and
new ones, are invited to call on me wilh their old an l worn-out
8 A and I will make them as good as new, and at moderate
cr GIVE IVXE A. OAIjTj.'W
MARCH, 11. I"-
(Alrij.l for tht 1. C. AfVERTist from the
London Timr$.) j
We h.ive thus far boon occupied with legal
djuionts relating to nffjira concernin; the
living. Iti ti iw turning to hoc concerning the
dead, it must be j remised that these are f the
tame period. nnJ m ostly from the prirate archive
; of the same families of Choachyte prierts a- the
contracts already described. In order to under
! stand the drift of the deeds which we are now
! about i exaaiine, it is oecessary to describe the
! duties and privileges of the Choachjtes of the
Supreme iuiportance was attached by the
' F. tiaif nt all peri -dn i. the rites of embalin-
uient and repultuie. l'. prepare his toa.b,
I vvliether pyruinid or entaeomb. was one of the
main occupations oi a rich mnn's life ; but even
j the cplend uir of his tomb w;n f less moment
than the preservation t his mummied corpse,
! and tSe perpetuMtiun "f those lueuiorial services
1 upon which the ulumate leunion ol his body and
' soul uiust depend. For that the soul Rfter its
terai ot wandering and trial would hereafter re
turn to live uiin in its corporeal home, and only
after repeated probations in bjth worlds would
become eternally one with Osiris, was the funda
mental principle of the Egyptian belief. Hence
the necessity for preserving the very substance of
the body, and for hiding it away in the very
bowels of the earth, or under mountains of quar
ried stone. Nor was its preservation enough :
.Special services needed ti be performed on certain
anniversaries iu the chapel connected with the
! tomb, during which an altar wa dressed with
ttite rites the pouring of libationo pluj'ed a pro
minent part ; wine unJ water being almost inva
riably enumerated in tlie monumental lists, while
milk and beer are Icmm frequently mentioned.
From a reliiou.' point of view the luast impor
tant libation was that of water. Osirid himnelf
was resuscitated by the efi'tibion of water ; and
in like manner the revivification of the mummy
depended on restored moisture. Wuter in fact
wax deemed the citential principle of life ; ari
dity was a synonym for death ; and the most
imperative duty that devolved upon a eon wan
the pouring of libations to bis father's memory.-
So indispensable was this rite, that a very an
cient Egyptian maxim counsels a man to marry a
young wife in order that he may beget a numer
ous offspring, and so never lack male descendants
to perform his libations.
As time however -went on and filial piety
waxed languid, these duties come to be wholly
relegated to the Colehytes or Choachytes whose
name derived from choc and ciuO signifies liba
tion-pourcrs. The Choachytes of Thebes called
themselves by the more priestly title of Pasto-
phori of Amen-Api and were especially anxious
not to be confounded with the Parachists and
Taricheute. The latter were tradesmen, the
(Jhoachyte was a priest, and both got their living
by the dead. According to some authorities the
Parachist's office was to open and cleanse the
corpse, whereas the Tancheut embalmed it, but
tbe Theban iuumiuifiers appear to have united
j both businesses. The Clioachyte was concerned
j with the body only as it was destined once again
to become the dwelling-place of the soul, lie
j was the representative of the eldest son, whose
! duties of libation and piayer bo performed. A
I prayer Irom a libation vase recently translated by
j M. Pierrct begins thus : " Oh Divine Father
j Firrt Prophet' of Amen, Osoroer the justified.
; son of the Lady Nehem-s-Ra-taui priestess of
: Amen, etc., thou receivest this libation at the
. hands of thy son at the return of eich decade
; wheu comes the holy (Jhoachyte to perform the
i rites of purification in the .western quarter of
1 Thebes. He evokes the remembrance of thy per
; son, and saves thy body and sul for ever," etc
; This shows that the son was supposed to be pres
ent in the person of the Clioachyte, and that it
' was the hitter's duty to visit the tomb every ten
Distinct as were the functions of the Taricheut
and Clioachyte, these two clashes each forming
a great corporation, or guild bad necessarily
many transactions in common ; and to these
! transactions as well as to their dealings with cus
joiners and clients, a large number of the docu
ments contained in the jar of family archives
found at Thebes relate. A demotic papyrus in
the Egyptian Museum of Berlin contains the Code
of Rules by which the corporation of Theban
Choachytes was governed. This document shows
the singular point of view from which these
worthies regarded the duties of their office and
the still more singular way iu which they per
formed them. The Code is composed by three
divine fathers," Ilor, Khons and Osoroer, and
addressed to " The Choachytes inscribed upon the
Register of the Subterranean City." It would
appear that the members of the guild were bound
to merge their perquisites in a common fund, and
fined if they were caught appropriating them to
private use an ordinary Choachyte's fine in such
case being 19 argenteus, and a divin futtier's
25 argenteus. Mere are a few of the rules :
" 1. No man shall sell his stud's from his litur
2. No man shall draw his allowance of wine
behind the backs of the sinirers. He shall take
his allowance and share with tiiem.
" 3. No man shall take away the wine of the
services on the day when tho two measures of
wine are appointed to be drunk.
"4. The man w ho has taken the wine of the
services, if he be an elder of the guild, shall pay
an argenteus ana repay the wine out ot his ullow
ance of wine hereafter due to him.
" 5. When nj man here inscribed shall die
21 bins of wine shall be furnished to the Choa
cliytes to drink for him There shall be given
them drink for two days, etc.
M. Revillout summing up this curious document
escluinis : In short the dominent idea of the
Choachjtos was wine. Their name in demotic
signified ' pourers of water,' but we may be cer
tain that if they poured watitr on the libation
they took good care to do quite otherwise with
the wine." To eo low an ebb bad come the cer
euionial observances of the earlier time. The fil
ial rites were now performed by deputy ; and the
deputy when he had drunk his two measures of
wine (presumably in presence of the Ka) had
done all that custom or his employers demanded
Indeed the Choachyte bad, in the days to which
these documents refer, degenerated into a mere
man of business. He contracted with families for
the embalmment of their dead, as well as for tbe
subsequent rites. There was always an extensive
carrying trade of mummies on the Nile, wealthy
Egyptians preferring to be buried in particularly
holy places, such as Memphis, Abydos, and
Thebes, and their mummies being mostly trans
ported by water. The Clioachyte played an im
portant part in such affairs, receiving the mum
mies on delivery, or in the case of very wealthy
i rcror8 taking clmre ul it fr..i.i iho ...,t-ot of tl.e
. ii . ..l Titul iii the tierroi oil
' and built. Ie.mil. and .old totub. HeinS uiuoh
uf a tradesman and o litlic of a .riet it w- er
; lmr inevitable that be !.ould iu timo have learnt
i to rcgurd nil ih-o matters in H e lil't -f urfly
I couimini..! ii..:.-.iv.iuns. Hi buMiiocK wai cx
! trcmelyTrotiiablc, and be brought h'f funs up t
its a ujattor of course. Al-o lie wan care!ul in
.irnin up bis vuntntctw tn insure n tvttitinuanoe
of CQtlU,m to j,;, ,vir nj tueoeworn. "Mjcl.il-
jrcn ,jiajj , erforiu the liturgies for thy children,
and my grand-children lor thy grand-children.
henceforth and forever, is n almost invariable
clause in de"ds concerning the endowment of me
morial services in perpetuity
Ol'sil documents relating to affaire concerning
the dead, the in ot numerous and by far the most
extmordinni are those regarding the division of
inheritance mid the sale and purchase of proper
ty between Choachyte and Clioachyte TheJ
deeds show nn extensive traffic, not only in tomb
but in their occupants who were bought and s.d I
and willed away with as little ceremony a citthr
or drv koihIs or any other staple of trade. A rvi -tain
Ilorus thus shares a portion ol his property
between his four sons, saying, to e.ieo in tuyi :
I give up to thee one fourth part of what
comes to me Irom the catacomb ol Ah ooiiolre, and
the fourth part of the dead which heh-iig to me in
the above said catacomb," (then follows an enu
meration of those dead) " total, lodeud of which
I give thee a fourth part, also the fourth part cf
their eons and tfisir wives ; also the fourth part
of my half share in certain other dead hcroinalter
To his eldest son whom he chooses to enrich
above his brethren, he says :
" I .give up to thee for thyself only, the litur
gies herinafter named. Here is the list : IVon
asychis, son of Osoroer, and his sons and their
wives, l'chelkhons, son of Osoroer and his sons
who are among the dead as well us the r wives
and their children, and also those ot their children
who are yet among the men of Eypt as also their
wives and their places of repose ; also the cata
comb of Psekhons son of Pauas with those who
That is to say ho gives away his hereditary
rights in those who are et living, lie further
more adds :
' Thou slialt also take the ' brood iish Teetoiri
and the children she mav hercaiter bear ; also
Pseoasychis, son of Osoroer, and Pchelkons son
of 0oroer, and 'heir children nnd their wives, and
the catacomb of Psekhons as hei ebelore mcntion
tioned. Thsse matters shall thou tukc in surplus
age beyond thy brethren as the share ol the eld
Hence the children of Pchelkons who are yet
living, and the children that may yet be born to
thMu, nre disposed of in tho same manner as the
yet unborn children of the lady whom Horus del
icately designates as the ' brood ass " of the
family. A mummy, in short, represented so much
per annum to bis Choachyte, and the descend
ants of that mummy belonged to the descendants
of that Choachvte. There exist fragments relat
ing to suits at law, showing bow the Choachytes
fell out among themselves when their Hereditary
rights were infringed. A citizen of Thebes who
was so inconsiderate as to die at Memphis or
vice versa became of course a fruitful source of
litigation. Tbe wealthy Egyptian whoso ances
tors reposed in & family catacomb richly endowed
and periodically served," was naturally an ob
ject of lively solicitude to bis faithful Clioachyte.
If he travelled, or went to the wars, if he married
and became the father of numerous progeny, who
so keenly apprchensivo so unfeigncdly rejoiced, as
the holy man whose privilege it was, not only to
take care of bis body and soul, but to hand on
that privilege, at compound interest, to his own
From the division of an inheritance to an actual
sale is but a step, and deeds of sale arc at least
as numerous us those of division, nnd both may
be counted by hundreds. A famous bilingual
papyrus, also of the 3Gth yerr of Ptolemy l'hilo
meter is a deed of (Tale by which Osoroer conveys
the half of his third share " iu the liturgies of tho
dead which lepose in the catacombs of Nuhoiin
en," and the half of his third share in their offer
ings. The following is a Mem phi tc demotic pap
yrus. It is perhaps not a deed of sale, but rath
er a release of a mortgage, or conveyance of trust
property by a guardian i.n his ward s reaching
bis majority. It should bo premised that a " di
vine minister " was a priest of higher lank than a
Choachyte and was superintendent of the necrop
olis ; yet at the same time at Memphis, he united
in bis own person the functions of both' Taricheut
' The divine minister Ilofankh, son ol Timoou,
whose mother is Tet Imouth, saith to the ditiiio
minister Teho, son of Pasi, whoso mother is Cho
mati, I relinquish to thee the whole of the prop
erty which belonged to Pasi, thy father houses,
lands barren and cultivated, buildings, enclosures,
oxen, pigs, live stock of all kinds, gold, nilver,
copper, household furniture, bonds, all liturgies,
all funerary revenues, all libations, memorial
chapels, catacombs, tombs, contracts, endow
inents, all worldly goods whatever, and especially
the liturgies and chapels which Pasi, thy father
had acquired. Hero is the enumeration of them:
The inhabitants of Pamcnma, tho inhabitants
of Sinoun. tho inhabitants of Selcp, tho prayers
(to be said) for llarpocr, the burials of the past
ophori of Thoth, tho burials of the priests and
priestesses of Isis, the burials oi the priests of
iSmoun, the family of Ptoou, lord ol Nehi ; the
family ofRem-n-paho ; the families of Kallunthes,
of Nebnehi, of Ncspouto, of the baker Peliiuouth,
of the man Sep Ardiki, and with these their
wives, their children, their brothers, their sons
in law, their relations, their servants, their depen
dants, their representatives, nnd all persons be
longing to them ; also their funerary revenues,
and all that is derived from them, and all thatcan
be claimed on account of them, and all that may
be due for them, and all that may be given away
iu their names, whether in favour of the rights ol
the Taricheut or the rights of the Choachyte.
Tli i ne Shall be tlic morales, ilic houses, and" all
before written. From this time forth, if any per
son should conio to thee (to dispute thy rights),
whether in my name or in the name of Timoou,
my father, I will send him away be'ore the expi
ration of five days. That is the fixed time. Il l
do not remove him from (troubling) thee I will
pay 2,000 argenteus, in skels 100.000 i.e.,
2,000 argenteus, to he paid within two days after
the aforesaid five days. If I receive the price of
a burial, though it be only the burial of a little
child, or if any person receives it either in my
name or in the name of Timoou, my father, I will
pay thee 200 argenteus within five days following,
without compulsion or delay. I will act conform
ably with all here above written. My heart in
satisfied. I relinquish to thee all the foregoing,
and most particuliarly the memorial chapels and
the liturgies. All are thine."
Studied by tho light which they throw upon
each other, these demotic documents whether re
lating to uffairs concerning the living or to affaira
concerning the dead present a vivid picture ol
the social life of the people ol Eypt under tho
Ptolemies ; and it is certainly not too much to say,
that it is a picture to which no pendant can be
found in the history of ahy other highly-civilized
race, whether ancient or modern. In it we be
hold a world in which the balance of domestic
power is reversed. The woman owns all and rulea
all ; the man is a helpless dependant ; and both
are the property of tho iciest. A more insignifi
cant and pitiable object than tho Egyptian pater
familias can hardly be conceived. As a child, ho
was the property of his mother ; as a married man
he was the pensioner of his wife ; as a corpse, be
belonged to his Chonchyte. who could sell him,
mortgage him, or will him away at pleasure.
Born or unborn, married or single, living or dead,
he was never bis own property or his own master,
to speak of him as a man and a citizen would bo
a figurative expression. He was a marketable in
vestment, like a house, or a piece of land, or &