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THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE.
f $ '
all-over Moxieo woro as well protected during tho Amori- Sir, 1 thank iho Senate for tho kind attontlon which has
m occupation as thoy had over boon bolero or liavo boon j boon bestowed on mo and for tho courtesy of permitting
SillCO. I Hliv lilrthnr. nnd 1 tfnv if .mi llm luMini' rC n iiiini i nn f mulin ..,!. .. i..w,ni. .!.: . i i. i i.i.i. 2
ana i am noc sure out that tho moL committed fowor of
fenses than tho same number of hum living in civil life
HAW 111 fll1 TTlllfilrl Sf-ntno ,f A .....! T .... -1
why, I will tell you. It was, first, discipline ; and, sec
ond, not speaking of tho commanding officers, who wore
tho best America could furnish, (not including mysolf, of
course, but speaking of tho rank and Itle,) they wore sim
ple, honest, bravo, manly, gonorous, and humano. It is
said thoro aro about ton thousand of them still loft, and 1
Hecdnt Postoffice Rulings.
Western Postal Rcvtow, r
Pookot knives are uumailablo. . ;
It is tho duty of a mail carrier to Wcfivitmiiiil nuitfn,.
say hero now, and I will thank any man to correct mo if P1'0!101' prepaid and inclosed in United States stamj.edon-
l am mistakon, that I do not think in all America you ' iU ' "." mne i -more irom a postoffice.
will And one of them in tho penitentiary. Thov would die : A pilVor pnntecl M1 on. county and published in another
boforo they would commit a crime. Some of them may cauuot b, sent to subscribers residing in both counties.
cue in lino poor-nouse, out you inav take my word for it. . ' "" "" "w particular paragraph
Lho battles ot iu"-v v., ,,v w- n. tu uuy iuiuiwonai pose-
no soldier of this nation who over fought in
.llnvifiA ...ill n.m., .K 4-1. J. ,a.. ..i .: I .
411.U.VIW ii in uti mu uuu uniiiiii; yi sin iiincram nnnu.nn- -',- . .
tiary. 4 . . crayon drawings nro subject to letter rato3 of postage,
If tho Sonato will boar with mo, 1 will justify tho truth fchofnmo ?y other matter produced by pen or pencil.
nV lliio micliPfinn lr n ,.f,.... ' K..:. ' '. TllC POStat laW PrOlllb tS thO YOlin.lHrn A nnnf ,r ...
v .,.wviuiwu uj .v jtmmiitu, ,i, unui ruioieuco. to uie , i .. .t ..Svv. iwumiiv, ouuuub
oi ono uciiominacion mr t; insn nr nthw rinnnmi'ni.t nnn
In tho fall of 1840 a Missouri vogimont nine hundred , om. Pfv,r(;of,a publication must be printed in tho county
M.ioug, uuuor uoionoi uonipnau, tooic its departure tor, "--",- . iw ijuuuwiwuu is locacou, to
Mexico. L hat rogmiont executed a march of so
thousand, miles deserts were crossed
thev passed through the Jornada thl M,
of death, as it was called, passed the Rio Grande at El
Speech of Gonoral Jainos Shields in tho "United
. Siatos Sonato.
The yptuig soldiers who roncl "Tins Tin hunk"
will bo )lonsedf and tho old ones delighted, to rend
tihe speech Of this old soldier on tho bill grunting
pensions to his oomvados and their widows V
air. SirnoiiPs. air. President, I thank tho Sonata for
giving mo an opportunity to speak a fow words in this
place in favor of my old comrades of tho Mexican war.
My words shall be very brief indeed. They will be noth
ing more than an earnest appeal to this body to pass the
resolution just read, and when tho bill returns to the Sen
ate that the resolution calls for, to pass that bill also, and
then, in my opinion, this body will have done generous
justice to tho soldiers of tho Mexican war.
Tho soldiers of tho last war havo been treated by Con
gross with justice, and, in my opinion, with very commend
able liborality. Tho poldiers of tho Mexican war have not
been so treated. Thoso soldiers served their country, and
havo received nothing in tho way of generosity at tho
hands of the Congress of the United Stales. I wondor not
at seeing the services of young soldiers handsomely re
warded ; but tho wonder is at seeing the services of old
soldiers almost forgotten, Thoy complain that Congress
has neglected to listen to their appeals. In my opinion, '
sir, after all. Congress is not so much in fault. I think
the fault principally lies upon the Bureau of Pensions.
That bureau, by some process of calculation utterly unin
telligible to ordinary intellects, or at least to an intellect i
like my own, has reported to Congross a larger army of
Mexican volunteers alivo to-day than evor stood on Mexi-
can soil with arms in their hands at ono time during the
whole period of the Mexican war. No wonder Congress
has hesitated to make provision, after such a report as
that. The only wonder is that any intelligent Congress
could place implicit confidence in such a report. For my
part, 1 do not place implicit confidence in bureau esti- I
mates. I havo seen too many of them to place great reli
ance on thorn. It is said that the famous Dr. Johnson, .
when asked if he believed in the existence of ghosts, said,
"Ghosts I do not believe in, because I have seen too many
of them." Laughter. So, Mr. President, I say in re-.
gard to bureau estimates.
. There have been many attempts to obtain returns of tho '
survivors of the Mexican war from every State in this !
Union, and the returns which have been "obtained by the
associations concerned are as accurate as any returns can
in all probability bo in such a case ; and what aro these !
returns? That in the whole Union at this day thoro are
not eleven thousand Mexican veterans alive. I need no i
report from any bureau to enlighten my mind on a point
I cannot call the death-roll of the American Army that '
served in Mexico; but, sir, can, and if the Sonato per-!
mits me I will call tho death-roll of all tho general otlicers
that served in that army in Mexico : Scott, Taylor, Wool,
Worth, Twiggs, Kearney, Quitman, Pillow, Pierce, dish
ing, Cadwalador all gone ; all dead. I, tho youngest of
them all, am left to make this appeal to Comrress-to
make it with heart and voiceto do something ; to do it , was carried with a small sacrifice of life, which to tho mill I Tho Postonio departmom, is not responsible for matter
sneedilv : to do it before thnv n.vr. nil mn ;,. u ?-:., . i..i , iu, yuiuu iu wio mm- , . . .. .. x-
. -- - r nl - " "-"i! "- ilrr . UU.V IUU11 Ul LUitiU UiLV till tj VUIT LIll WMI'IM TO!1 0 O ITlilffm. '-...,. vn ." u..j jik.ii.;.
nor, none stinnriilv. il it. i rtnfavvnri f n iw !!.! i ' . - a. ct : 1 ,-. . . . iuuhw-i wi aa-
, it will come too late ; for then the action of Congress will
not come to cheer living men, but will fall on silent
Sir, do not talk to me of exaggerated estimates by the
bureau. I can give figures of my own. One of tho regi
meuts of my brigade, a regiment from the State of my
iriuuu iiuiu iu, Liur. jjutjjeu, j wnen it lauded In .Mexico.
Paso, found onnositinn oPnvm'vlriiiH ImfAwi flw. o,,t-..
and capRircd tho city of Chihuahua, and in all that march
never committed a single crime, and nevor met with a sin
glo defeat. Ought men of that kind to be forgotten?
Any government that forgets such men is not a govern
ment to encourage national heroism of any kind. But tho
public aro bettor acquainted with what occurred on
Rio Grande. I can hardly find in histnrv n. smvf.i
...." .. :: ' - .i'""
Buena Vista, and you all know it ended there in a blaze of
giory. oir, l rocicon iiuona vista as ono ot those battles
that will always stand foremost in history.
Then look at tho other campaign beginning at Vera
Cruz under Winfield Scott. The capturo of that city is
us sinuuuiu us any mm wiry aeuievemout. The Gibraltar
thoreon, but no indecent language, terms orepithots will bo
allowed in such notices..
All letters having one full-rate prepaid must be for
warded. Second and third class matter must be fully pre
W hen a newspaper has been refused by tho party ad-
placo with other
A. postmaster cannot, nsn t.hn nn5tnflr5m lmvno no n .,i
ium to advertise his business without fully prepaying all
mustered eleven hundred gallant boys. When the war
was closed, when the city of Mexico was taken, that regi
ment mustered what? Two hundred and twenty-three
men. Only two hundred and twenty-three men of that
gallant regiment were left to carry the Palmetto flag back
to the old State of South Carolina ; and how many men of
the two hundred and twenty-three are now left? Just
eight. A delegate has corno up from thore to attend a
meeting in Baltimore, and ho is here to-day, and perhaps
hears mo now, and ho tells mo there are only oight men of
that whole regiment now left alive. Sir. 3011 may go over
"the States, and I havo been over many" of them, and of
tho men 1 knew in Mexico and who fought 'in the battles
t there, I cannot find ono man living to-day out of every
twenty or thirty. This illustrates the way Congress has
been imposed upon.
Sir, I need not talk of the history of the. Mexican war
in this Senate. You are all familiar with it, although I
must say that there is no history of that war that does
, even half justice. Neither need I talk of the army that
conquered Mexico, but I can say in one word that no na-
. tion upon this globe need be ashamed of such an army.
I say hero to day I say it because it is due to that army
I say it because it is duo to the American character, that
no government ever sent an army into a foreign country
bettor, braver, nobler than the army America sent to
Mexico. Why, sir, from the first shot fired on tho Rio
Grande to the last shot fired at the city of Mexico, that
army never suilbred a single defeat, never lost a battle,
nevor met a repulse, never surrendered a detachment,
never even suffered an accidental disaster. Where can
.you find anything like that?
But some men may say, "You had only Mexicans to
fight !" Yes, very true, we had only Mexicans to fight,
; and we had plonty of thorn to fight. But ask tho soldiers
of Franco, and they aro as bravo soldiers as can be found
jn Europe -ask them their experience of these despised
Mexicans, and thoy will tell you frankly that in aliEu-
, rope there is no peasantry that is less afraid of death than
these very Mexicans. I ought perhaps to except the Irish
and tho Anglo-Saxons, and tho Germans also ; but I toll
you tho Mexicans stand killing as well as any people on
God's earth, and thoy had plonty of it when we wore there.
Sir, if this Government ever undertakes to walk over
Mexico again with the expectation of having tho same re
sult, thoy will find themselves much disappointed. I as
sure you that it is my opinion, without saying one word
against tho Amorican Army now, that if tho soldiers of
tho Amorican Army woro just such soldiers as first starved
and then killed tho Cheyonnes on a recent occasion, thoy
will never get to tho halls of the Montezumas, except as
prisoners of war. That is my opinion;
Sir, that little army that is now gone except a fow
broken remnants, was as conspicuous for its humanity as
r for its distinguished bravery. I undertake to say horo to
day that Mexican life, Mexican .property, family- relations
muMi rlnl .. 1 . .... !- . .1 .. . -.
, nf iiiuu lo u.is iiu wrii'insT inn ir. nr.nnr Minn t-.im nrt
- 0 --I v..l VUHI. UHW U.l-
Regular newspapers cannot bo admitted to tho mails at
pound rates when a handbill or circular is inclosed.
A publication not entitled to ho sent in tho mails at bound
rates cannot bo sent as an "exchange" at the nound rates.
of Mexico was taken by a little American armv with a , ostmastors to other than letter-carrier officers aro oblig
less loss of life on the part of tho assailants than was ever , dlsti;ibut? locai (country) newspapers, intended for
suffered in any assault. This was owing to the skill and ' FfSlar subscribers, from the boxes or general delivery of
consummate genius of tho commander, tho excellence of i tneir Pstoffico lreo of charge; providod the same aro prop-
our engineers, and the splendid management of Amorican i u"f unea' lomcn Ilua aaaressea.
nvf.iiini.ti .if. fiiof fi.v.n A nostrnaster cannot, nsn f.lm 1
inmuyij uu Ullliu UllllU.
Then there was Cerro Gordo, f have some
censes ot that and I shall not
natural fortress defended bv tt
m m - t w..w,...i KlKMi III
nnmr.inn ic T.nn cri-nnrricr m mnn ;.. il.,.. a in m.
stvmirrlli nf tlmf. nn&if.inn tvnc rai.f ; :1.' !... j.. , ! UOl lllllSt ailV mail be Oneuod Or dolivnrnrl in nnxrcnnli rnmn
strength of tlierexican anny defending it, aud thoy were ' Lettors passing through the mails can not lawfully be
nearlydoublethostrengthofthe American army assailing it. ' Penet DV. anv ofiicors of the law for the purpose of do
lt was as line a position as could bo. A nrt vf n.m.n fln.in wuuug criminals.
iji.i'v hi f i in 1,11:11. ii:i.vr :i.u nvni' 1 lit tvnn ii ...... f. ,..i ..j. iu
tonishment. Sir. itimvlmmhlnonininn nm.m f3,,,.,in . ! It is no part of a postmaster's business to innnim nf n.
with and is only second to the battle of Now Orleans un- ' Person rec iv5uS newspapers, prepaid at pound rates,
dor old Andrew Jackson. i whether thoy are subscribers or not, nor is there any re-
But I will not delay the Senate; I will not abuse its striction in tuo number a person may receive, except in tho
courtesv. On the 10th davof Ano-nsf. ifwr fi. i.r... case of free country newspapers.
infill ni'AUUil f.lin mnmitninc iii1 rnit..l j-i. i . . .
, ,. . .wwwmo .!. uuimeu tuu romancio val
ley ot Mexico. It was an adventurous movement. That
army abandoned its communications, its supplies its very
possibility of re-enforcement. That was its condition,
and yet isolated as it was, small in numbers as it was it
fought the battle and gainod the victory at Contreras,
Ohurubusco, Molino del Hoy, Chapultepec, and on the
1 13th day of September, 184.7, it stood before the ramparts
of Mexico ; aud how many men stood before thoso ram
parts, all told? Six thousand six hundred men on tho
13th day of Septembor, 1817, crossed those ramparts, cap
tured tho city, a city containing two hundred thousand
inhabitants, and defended by thirty thousand disciplined
soldiers. Give me any other instance of tho kind in his
tory. Why, sir, tho army was hardly sufficient to police
! the city after they captured it. When I myself stand hero
and look back at that, it looks oven to me more like fable
than reality. I shall never forget tho insignificaut appear
ance we cut when we got into tho great plaza of the city
of Mexico. Happily, though, they thought we were only
the advance guard of some tremendous army. I recollect
an old English militalro who was there, and after he looked
at tho little band ho said, "Is this the army?" "Yes "
"Well," said he, "all I havo to say is this, you Araericaus
are not only the bravest peoplo I ever heard of, but the
most audacious peoplo on God's earth to corno horo with
such an army as that !"
Then, sir, think of the acquisitions that havo been so
cured to this country by that array. Thoy aro not to 'be
estimated now, they arc not calculable at this time. Tho
future only can estimate the value of tho acquisitions re
sulting from that war, a territory sufficient to make an
empire, certainly largo onough to make another indepen
dent country, with unsurpassed mineral wealth, mines of
gold and silver that have changed tho monetary condition
of the world. Why, sir, the world was struck with as
tonishment a year or two ago at the idea that this our ter
ritory acquired from Mexico was about to delude tho whole
world with an inundation of silver. I wishto God the
American Congress would turn a littlo stream of that flood
m tho direction of our Mexican war veterans. I am very
sure wo could stand under tho deluge.
Now, sir, one advantage not to speak of the harvest
of glory which we foolishly thought wo had reaped at that
time, but a harvest, as I say, of real, substantial advan
, tage m addition to tho territory and mineral thoro, is
; this, and future ages will consider it, and that is, the com
, mand of tho great Paoific Ocean, tho greatest ocean upon
; this globo, which will romain in our control "to tho last
! syllable of recorded time," if America shall last so long.
Sir, the remnant of that army, tho army which did so
! much tor this country, speak as it woro through mo to-day,
hold up their hands in supplication to this body and this
Congress and say, "Give us a littlo of that wo helped to
securo lor our country ; give us a small pittance before wo
leavo the world ; give us a pittance to help us on tho down
ward path of life to old ago ; givo us something to assist
us m our last days when wo arc marching to that fiold
from which no warrior over has yet returned victorious,
and nevor will.
Magnificence of Ancient Eome.
If anything more woro wanted to givo us an idea of
Roman magnificonco, we would turn our eyes from public
monuments, demoralizing games, and grand processions ;
we would forgot tho statues in brass and marble which
outnumbered the living inhabitants, so numerous that ono
hundred thousand havo been recovered and still embellish
Italy, and would descend into the lower sphere of material
life to those things which attest luxury and taste of or
naments, dresses, sumptuous living, and rich furniture.
The art of working metals aud cutting precious stones
surpassed anything known at the present day. In tho
decoration of houses, in social entertainments, in crook
ory, the Romans woro remarkable. The mosaics, signot
rings, cameos, bracelets, bronzes, chains, vases, couches,
banqueting-tables, chariots, colored glass, gilding, mirrors,
mattresses, cosmetics, perfumes, hair dyes, silk robes all
attest great elegance and beauty. Tho table of Thuga
root and Delian bronze were as exponsive as side-boards of
Spanish walnut, so much admired in recent great exhibi
tions. Wood and ivory wore carved as exquisitely as iu
Japan or China.. Mirrors were made of polished 'silver.
Glass cutters could imitate the colors of precious stones
so well that the Portland vase, from the tomb of Alexan
der Severus, was long considered a gonuino sardonyx.
Brass could be hardened so as to p.nt stf-nun mifi iniio mL
palace of Nero crlittered with o-old Ami in7i tt i,,i
woro of silver, and his tables of gold. Tiberius avo a
munon oi sesterces lor a picture lor his dining-room. A
banquet dish of Drusillus weighed fivo hundred pounds of
silver. Tho cup of Drusus was of gold. Tunics wore
embroidered with the figures of various animals. Sandals
were garnished with precious stones. Paulina woro jewels
when sho paid visits, valued at eight hundred thousand
dollars. Drinking cups woro engraved with scones from
the poets. Libraries were adorned with busts and presses
of rare woods. Sofas woro inlaid with tortoiso shell, and
covered with gorgeous purple. Tho Roman grandees' rode
in gilded ohariots, bathed in marblo baths, diuod from
crystal cups, slept on bods of down, reclined on luxurious
couches, woro ombroidorod robes, and woro adorned -with
precious jewels. Thoy ransacked tho earth and tho easB
for raro dishes for their banquets, and ornamented their
houses with carpets from Babylon, onyx cups from Byth
Inia, marblo from Numidia, bronzes from Corinth, statues
from Athens whatever, in short, was precious or rare or
curious, in tho most distant countries. Tho luxuries of
tho bath almost surpassed belief; and on the walls wore
magnificent frescoes and paintings, exhibiting an Inex
haustible productiveness in landscape and mythological
scones, oxecuted in lively colors.
But these wore not all. Tho most amazing wealth and
the loftiest taste went hand in hand. Thoro were oitizen
nobles who owned whole provinces ; oven Paula could call
a whole oity her own. Rich senators, in some cases, woro
proprietors of two hundred thousand slaves. Their in
comes were fivo thousand dollars per day, when gold and
silver wore worth four times as much as thoy aro now
...i! ,. rwwfc.wnMCtoMnwfc r