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TO CARE FOR HIM WHO HAS BORNE THE BATTLE, AND FOR HIS WIDOW AND ORPHANS."
WASHIXGTOlSr, D. C, SATTJBDAY, SEPTEMBER 24, 1881. NEW SERIES V1" I., N- 6,
IT IS FINISHED.
THE GREAT STRUGGLE OVER.
A GALLANT FIGHT FOR LIFE-DEATH WINS
THE VICTORY -A NATION'S LOSS
BESPEAKS A NATION'S TEARS.
JAMES A. GARFIELD.
THE DEAD PRESIDENT.
STORY OF HIS FINAL STRUGGLE WITH
THE GREAT ADVERSARY -SAD
ENDING OF A NOBLE LIFE.
The Mow, so long expected, has fallen at last.
James A. Garfield, but yesterday the President,
is dead. He died at Long Branch, N. J., Septem
ber 19, at 10.35 p. m. His death came like a
.stroke of lightning. There was scarcely any
warning. About twenty minutes before the event
lie was found to be suddenly and swiftly sinking.
Restoratives were sent for in all speed, and all the
attendants were summoned. It was too late. It
was in vain. Almost before the full group and
the medicine came he had breathed his last.
The correspondents engaged the whole force of
carriages, and were driven pell mell to the Elbe
ron. They got there just in time. In two min
utes after their arrival on the stoop "Warren Young
came slowly walking over to the hotel from, the
cottage. "What's the news?" "It's all over,"
he said : " he is dead'
It justified the familiar metaphor. It was a
stroke. Death is always sudden, but rarely a
more complete surprise than in this case. There
had been a pytemic chill in the morning, to be
sure, of such a significant character as to cause
Dr. Bliss to say the next in the series might be
fatal. But as the day wore on without further
incident, he seemed easier and brighter, and some
thing like hope fluttered up
OUT OF DESPAIR.
Dr. Bliss met the journalists with a good deal of
his characteristic assurance? He took pains, how
ever, to say that he did not mean to take an
optimistic view, and did not wish to be under
stood as saying that there was an improvement.
Still there was a negative gain in a stationary
condition. The evening therefore began quietly.
All immediate danger seemed over. Dr. Boynton
had. said indeed that death was possible to-night,
but he did not regard it as probable. The cor
respondents made their plans to
COVER A REMOTE CONTINGENCY
and began their stories of the day. At ten
o'clock, therefore, the Elberon Hotel was almost
deserted. The scene about the cottage was dark
and lonesome ; the stars shone dimly : it was very
murky, and the heavy surf beat like a cataract
on the beach. The President
WAS LYING QUIETLY,
with the nurses who watch by his side. They
were General Swaim and Colonel Rockwell. Dr.
Boynton was also near at hand. Suddenly the
attack came, and in a moment the awful danger
of death loomed up before the attendants. The
colored help was dispatched with all speed to
call the doctors and get a few necessary articles.
The commotion did not
ESCAPE THE NEWSPAPER SENTRIES.
Inquiries were hastily made and the fact dis
covered that a mortal crisis was at hand. The
next moment it was flashed over the country,
while the great body of correspondents were
summoned by telegraph to their quarters at the
West End Hotel, nearly two miles distant. The
operator dashed out of his little closet by the
hotel door, too much excited by the news to state
it plainly, but before it was posted the tidings
had spread that the President
WAS RAPIDLY SINKING,
and all the doctors had been summoned to his
bedside. All that could be learned was that a
messenger had been sent for mustard and that
another had gone to summon the doctors. It was
evident that a sudden and unlooked-for crisis had
come. "What it was could not for the moment be
known, butsome one was pretty sure to come from
the cottage before long, and till then all must per
force be patient. Soon an under secretary of the
White House force, who had been one of the Pres
ident's attendants, came out and was met by
the reporters. " What's the matter? " was eagerly
asked. The Secretary, Mr. Warren Young, was
silent, and walked on two or three steps without
replying. At length he said :
"it's all over!'
The voice was gentle and the tones were low, but
-these three words were in one minute more heard
from one end of the country to the other. The
scene which followed the announcement was one j
of a lifetime. There was an instant cry of woe :
and horror. No one had dreamed oi such news.
Another chill, at the worst, had been expected.
Dead! dead! dead! went from one to another in
a whisper. A nervous shudder ran through the
crowd, but speedily recovering from the first shock
the newspaper men present speedily repaired to
the West End and sent the messsages East, West,
North, and South to tell the people that the Presi
dent had succumbed to the fell destroyer; that
the fight he had so bravely maintained against
the insiduous foe was ended, and that the stricken
form of him who, since the 2d day of July, had
rested so heavily upon the Nation's heart because
of his sufferings and the people's love, was relieved
from further pain and striving.
PREVIOUS TO HIS DEATH,
up to about ten o'clock, the President seemed to
be resting quietly. His last moments are thus
described by Attorney-General MacVeagh :
" I sent my dispatch to Minister Lowell at ten
p. m. Shortly before that Dr. Bliss had seen the
President and found his pulse at 10G beats per
minute, and all the conditions were then promis
ing a quiet night. The doctor asked the Presi-
dent if he was feeling uncomfortable in any way.
The President answered " Not at all," and shortly j
afterward fell asleep, and Dr. Bliss returned to ;
his room across the hall from that occupied by
the President. Colonels Swaim and Itockwell
remained with the President. About fifteen
minutes after ten the President awakened and
remarked to Colonel Swaim that he was suffer
ing great pain, and placed his hand over his
heart. Dr. Bliss was summoned, and when he
entered the room he found the President sub
stantially without pulse, and the action of the
heart was almost indistinguishable. He said at
once that the President was dying, and directed
that Mrs. Garfield be called; also the doctors.
The President remained in a dying condition
until 10.35, when he was pronounced dead. He
died of some trouble of the heart, supposed to
THE DEATH SCENE WAS ONE
never to be forgotten. Perfect quiet prevailed
and there was nop a murmur heajd while the
President was sinking.
Mrs. Garfield bore the trying ordeal with great
fortitude, and exhibited unprecedented courage.
She gave way to no paroxysms of grief, and after
death became evident she quietly withdrew to
her own room. There she sat, a heart-broken
widow, full of grief, but with too much Christian
courage to exhibit it to those around her. She
of course was laboring under a terrible strain,
and, despite her efforts, tears flowed from her
eyes, and her lips became drawn by her noble
attempt to bear the burden with which she had
been afflicted. Miss Mollie was naturally greatly
affected, and bursts of tears flowed from the
child's eyes notwithstanding her noble effort to
follow the example of her mother. The others
who were present were also deeply moved, and
the efforts made by them to restrain their feel
ings showed how heavily they felt the blow.
Except Attorney-General MacVeagh, the mem
bers of the Cabinet were not present, nor were
the President's sons, the latter having gone to
enter upon their collegiate studies.
of the President's death was made by his attend
ing physicians at about eleven o'clock, as follows :
The President died at 10.35. After the bulletin
was issued at half-past five this evening the Presi
dent continued in much the same condition as
during the afternoon, the pulse varying from 102
to 10G, with rather increased force and volume.
After taking nourishment he fell into a quiet
sleep about thirty-five minutes before his death,
and while asleep his pulse rose to 120, and was
somewhat more feeble. At ten minutes after ten
o'clock he awoke, complaining of severe pain over
the region of the heart, and almost immediately
became unconscious, and ceased to breathe at
At 12.25 a. m. the Cabinet (Secretaries Blaine
and Lincoln being absent) sent the following
dispatch to Vice-President Arthur :
It becomes our painful duty to inform you
of the death of President Garfield and to advise
you to take the oath of office as President of the
United States without delay. If it concurs with
your judgment, we will be very glad if you will
come here on the earliest train to-morrow.
Signed by Secretaries Windom, Hunt, James,
MacVeagh, and Kirk wood.
The scenes in this city upon arrival of the news
of the President's death cannot well be pictured
in words. At first the people refused to believe
the truth of the sad tidings, but when a few
minutes after eleven o'clock the National Jlcpub
Ucan extra proclaimed the fact and the fire
and church bells began to toll, all began to
realize that the worst had come to pass.
The streets were soon alive with people, and
as the news spread thousands who had retired
arose and were soon added to the numbers con
gregated in front of the principal news centres.
At midnight the Republican office was draped in
mourning, and shortly afterwards the business
places began to follow suit, so that when the
morning sun came to greet it looked down upon
a city dressed in funereal black. The theatrical
companies cancelled their engagements for the
week, and everything betokened the deepest re
gard and respect for the noble dead.
AT TITlf JJ A TIOH'S CAPITAL
ARRIVAL OF THE
The City in Mourning-Lj-Injrjiii Slate -Appearance of .
the Dead President Honors to His Memory.
A Lons and Sorrowful Farewell. !
Immediately upon receipt of the news of the
death of President Garfield orders were issued
for closing all the Government Departments in
this city. All the public buildings and private i
places of business and many residences were
draped in mourning. The National Tribune j
office was tastefully decorated, and by Wednes- j
day noon the Capitol was fully and befittingly ,
dressed to extend a sorrowing welcome to the I
funeral cortege on its way from Long Branch, i
At the depot on Sixth street a vast concourse had I
gathered, including troops from the Arsenal, a !
battery of artillery, the District militia, and
Knights Templar to act as an escort. A little '
before 4 p. m. officers of the Army and Navy be- ;
gan to arrive, and at about half-past four the !
train bearing the remains and accompanying
party ran up to the platform. As the coffin was !
removed from the car the Marine and Artillery j
Bands played a solemn dirge, and
drawn up in line, presented arms.
In a few moments a carriage containing Gen- !
eral Grant and Senator Jones drove out and !
down the Avenue, and shortly afterwards
Mrs. Garfield with Miss Mollie and Harry !
passed through the silent- throng towards the j
Capitol building. Then followed the military
and others, and at length the hearse, drawn by
six horses, moved slowly along, the bearers and
files of distinguished Army and Naval officers I
upon each side. Behind the hearse followed in
carriages President Arthur, Secretaries Blaine,
Hunt, Windom, Lincoln, Kirkwood, Postmaster
General James, Attorney-General MacVeagh, and
other prominent officers of the Government.
The procession passed down the Avenue and
around to the east entrance to the Capitol aud
the remains of all that was mortal of James A.
Garfield were conveyed into the rotunda and
deposited upon the catafalai.awaiting them.
LYING IN STATE.
The decorations of the Cajjitol, commencing at
the top of the building, show harmony and taste.
The statue of Liberty which surmounts the dome
is without adornment. Just below it the
columns which circle around are tied with
black bandages, with a rosette of black in the
centre. The balcony just below these columns
is festooned from section to section. At each
large rail there is a rosette. There is a big jump
downwards before any more decorations are seen.
The white space between the two reliefs of black
stands out strongly. The next place where black
appears is on the large balustrade around the
bottom of the dome. The rim of the balustrade
is covered with black. There is a rosette where
each section of stone pillars join together. A
pendant of black hangs from each rosette. The
same system of decoration is observed around the
balustrades on the roofs of the House and Senate
chambers and on the corresponding balustrade
that surrounds at the same altitude the base of
the dome. The big columns below have bands
around them, from which two large strips of
black are pendent. This form extends all around
the building. All entrances to the building are
festooned in black. The figures on the bas-relief
on the east front are so draped with the crape
that they seem to hand one fold of the black
from hand to hand in graceful continuance. The
statues in niches around the building are hung
in black. On the whole, the big white pile has
put on a very handsome mourning dress.
IN THE CENTRE OF THE ROTUNDA
is the catafalque. About six inches from the
stone floor there is a platform covered with black
velvet. Upon it rests the structure upon which
the coffin reposes. It is about three feet from
the platform, and is four feet wide and about
seven feet long, but looks much smaller in the
vastness of its surroundings. It is covered with
heavy black velvet and silk. A silver rim is at
the head and foot. Upon the same bier rested
the remains of President Lincoln, Chief Justice
Chase, Senator Sumner, and Thaddeus Stevens.
The surroundings are decorated in good taste.
Looking from the catafalque each of the four en
trances to the rotunda are hung heavy with black.
There is a rosette in the middle of these hangings
and one at either side. The large pictures which
hang on the walls around are draped with rosettes
and pendants of black cloth. On the cornices
above the pictures there is a repetition of black
and pendants with rosette. The first row of big
windows above the cornice are in black ; also the
balustrade below, which constitutes the first in
side balcony. Above that there are no decora
tions. The House and Senate chambers are in
black. All of the many corridors and approaches
thereto are hung along the walls in black, with
rosettes and crossed drapings over each archway,
whether to door or otherwise.
A guard of soldiers was stationed around the
building, and in a short time the vast throng of
mourners began filing through the rotunda to
look upon the Noble dead. It was a sorrowful
sight, calculated to touch the stoniest heart, to
see the living pressing eagerly yet respectfully
forward to look for the last time upon him who
had so recently been the head of a great Nation.
There were evidences of the deepest and strong
est feeling manifested upon every side. The ro
tunda remained open to all until Friday noon,
after which time admission to the funeral services
was by ticket. In the evening of Friday the sad
cortege started for Cleveland, where the final ser
. , , . n ,r ' ,
vlces are to Le had on Monday next.
APrEARANCE OF THE REMAINS.
The President is laid out in the suit of clothes
which he wore on inauguration day. His left
hand is laid across his breast, after the manner
he had in life. This is done in order to make his
resemblance as near to life as possible.
The body was so greatly shrunken that artificial
means had to be resorted to to give the clothes
the appearance of fitting. In addition to the nat
ural shrinking from his illness the operation con
nected with the autopsy left the body in an
even more emaciated state. The autopsjr was
very thorough, and the fluids of course have left
the body. A plaster cast was taken of his face,
as well as of his right hand. In taking the cast
of the hand it was somewhat discolored ; so that
this hand was not seen. The effect of the oil
used upon the face prior to taking the cast was
to disfigure the features somewhat, and to slight
ly alter the color of the face, so that the appear
ance was very much less natural even than it was
after death. The President had a massive head,
and the large bones of the head showed very prom
inently ; his cheeks were fallen in. The beard had
been so arranged about the parotid gland as to
conceal that terrible scar, and such arrangements
had been made about the pillow as to still fur
ther conceal the swelling which helped to sap
away his life. By such means quite a natural
appearance had been preserved about that part of
the face. The beard had been carefully adjusted
there. The face was not so changed that those who
knew him would not recognize him, but it was
greatly changed. The effects of the fluids in em
balming were such as to have already hardened
THE GUARD OF HONOR,
The Guard of Honor over the dead President's
remains at the Capitol was made up of members
of the Society of the Army of the Cumberland,
and a detail of poljce. t r-....-. .-? ?
OUR NEW PRESIDENT,
Vice-President Arthur was in New York when
notified of President Garfield's death, and in ac
cordance with the dispatch received from the
Cabinet in regard to taking the oath of office,
messengers were sent to the different Judges of
the Supreme Court. The first to put in an ap
pearance was Judge John R. Brady, who was
closely followed by Justice Donohue. The party,
consisting of the Vice-President and the Judges
named, besides District-Attorney Eollins and
Elihu Root and the eldest son of the new Presi
dent, assembled in the front parlor of No. 123
Lexington avenue (General Arthur's residence),
where the oath of office was administered.
On the 21st President Arthur proceeded to Long
Branch and came to this city in a special car, set
apart for himself, General Grant, and others, which
was attached to the train bringing the remains,
Mrs. Garfield, and friends of the family.
NATIONAL BANK SECURITIES.
The United States bonds held by the Treasurer
to secure National Bank circulation, September
17, 1881, amount to $365,180,000, as follows:
Currency sixes $3,509,000
Six per cents 51,000
Five per cents 2,655,650
Four and one-half per cents. . . . 31,965,150
Four per cents 91,585,800
Three and one-half per cents. . . .235,323,400
The United States bonds held by the Treasure
to secure public moneys in National Bank de
positories, September 17, 1881, were $15,540,500
Currency sixes $ 33,000
Six per cents 20,000
Five per cents 75,000
Four and one-half per cents 845,000
Four per cents T . . . 6,207,800
Three and one-half per cents. . . . 8,359,700
The United States bonds deposited to secure
circulation during the week ended Septemler
17, 1881, amounted to $1,271,500.
The United States bonds to secure circulation
withdrawn during the Aveek ended September
17, 1881, amounted to $828,500.
The Treasury Department furnishes a state
ment of the immigration into the United States
for the month of August, as follows: From
England and Wales, 9,018 ; Ireland, 5,391 ; Scot
land, 1,599; Austria,-1,643; Belgium, 169; Den
mark, 800; France, 562; Germany, 19,431; Hun
gary, 413; Italy, 641; Netherlands, 816 ; Norway,
2,817; Poland, 206; Russia, 694; Sweden, 3,889;
Switzerland, 871; Dominion of Canada, 5,746;
China, 1,785; and from all other countries, 253.
Total, 56,744, as compared with 50,504 for August
of last year, and being a grand total of 113,351
since June 30, 1881.
The arrivals from September 1 to 15 were
15,273, a gain of 2,122 over the same period last
year. The total arrivals this year since January
i have been 328,010.
On the 3d of March last, the day before General
Garfield's inauguration as President it thundered
and lightened, snowed, rained, hailed, and the
wind, for a season, blew almost a gale.
WHAT THE DOCTORS SAY.
ALLEGED RESULT OF THE POST-MORTEM.
Where the Ball is Said to Have Keen Found The Iliac
Fossa and the Induction Balance At Fault.
A Case of Enlightened Surgery.
The following official bulletin was prepared on
the night of September 20 by the surgeons who
have been in attendance upon the late President:
" By previous arrangement a post-mortem exami
nation of the body of President Garfield was made
this evening in the presence and with the assist
ance of Drs. Hamilton, Agnew, Bliss, Barnes,
"Woodward, Reyburn, Andrew Smith, of Elberon,
and acting Assistant Surgeon D. S. Lamb, of the
Army Medical Museum, "Washington. The opera
tion wes performed by D. S. Lamb. It was found
that the ball, after fracturing the right eleventh
rib, had passed through the spinal column, in
front of the spinal canal, fracturing the body of
the first lumbar vertebra, driving a number of
the small fragments of bone into the adjacent
soft parts, and lodging
BELOW THE PANCREAS,
about two and one-half inches to the left of the
spine, behind the peritoneum, where it had be
come completely encysted. The immediate cause
of death was secondary hemorrhage from one of
the mesenteric arteries adjoining the track of the
ball, the blood rupturing the peritoneum, and
nearly a pint escaping into the abdominal cavity.
This hemorrhage is believed to have been the
cause of the severe pain in the lower portion of
the chest, complained of just before death. An
abscess cavitv, six inches bv four inches in di
mensions, was found in the
VICINITY OF THE GALL BLADDER,
between the liver and the transverse colon, which
were strongly adherent. It did not involve the
substance of the liver, and no communication was
formed between it and the wound. A long sup
purating channel extended from the external
wound between the loin muscles and the right
kidney almost to the right groin. This channel,
now known to be due to the burrowing of pus
.fi&m-the woundfwasrsupnpsed-duringjifeio.haxe -
been the track of the ball. On an examination
of the organs of the chest evidences of severe bron
chitis were found on both sides of the broncho
pneumonia of the lower portions of the right lung,
and, though to a much less extent, of the left.
THE LUNGS CONTAINED NO ABSCESSES
and the heart no clots. The liver was enlarged
and fatty, but free of abscesses. Nor were any
found in any other organ except the left kidney,
which contained near its surface a small abscess
about one-third of an inch in diameter. In re
viewing the history of the case in connection with
the autopsy it is quite evident that the different
suppurating surfaces, and specially the fractured
spongy tissue of the verterba, furnish a sufficient
explanation of the septic condition which existed.
D. "W. Bliss.
J. K. Barnes.
J. J. Woodward.
Frank H. Hamilton.
D. Hayes Agnew.
Andrew H. Smith.
D. S. Lamb.
THE FUNERAL CAR.
The funeral car which brought the dead Presi
dent to this city is No. 497. The entire car is
lined with black cloth between the windows.
The only bit of color is the dull red of carpet.
Its woodwork is wTholly draped in black. Along
the ceiling about the cornice is a line of flags
closely festooned and interwoven with black.
The chandeliers are trimmed in serge. The cata
falque is slightly raised from the floor of the car,
and is draped in simple black. The next car is
for the surgeons and attendants. At either end
are twelve wicker chairs for the United States
soldiers detailed to accompany the train a3 a
guard of honor. The last car on the train as it
leaves the cottage is the mourner's car, occupied
by Mrs. Garfield. It is the car of President Rob
erts, of the Pennsylvania road, which has been so
often described. It is arranged in a suite, and.
appointed in great luxury.
THE DEAD PRESIDENT.
BY J. S. SLATEK.
Dead ! The President ! Aye, and murdered, too I
The vilest deed that fiendish hate could do
Hath laid him low ! The President is dead !
A Nation, horror-stricken, bows its head !
And, like to him o'ercome by poignant grief,
Finds no expression for the heart's relief.
Yes, he is dead ! He, who to loftiest rise
Of Fame's high summit toiled beneath the eyes
Of watching millions ; whose success was won
By earnest, honest work life's labor done
Now lies enveloped in a sweet repose,
Though horrors dark presaged life's evening's close.
Words are but feeble tlungs at best. They grow
Too weak to sound the lowest depths of woe,
E'en when a Nation mourns its heavy loss;
But when affection's gold is turned to dross,
Ah ! then what language can express the thought
Of them that suffer thus what death hath wrought I
But yesterday a man now lifeless clay !
But yesterday the President ! To-day
He tills a nivhe in Fame's historic hall,
And in those hearts that loved him. That is all I
"Tis all ; but yet enough ; for none are left
To hate. "With one accord, like those bereft
Of near and dear ones, all the people bow
And bind the cypress on his stricken brow.