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THE KATIOAL TJRIBUNE: WASHINGTON, D. C, SEPTEMBEB 24, 1881.
The National Tribune
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WASHINGTON, D. C, SEPTEMBER 24, 1SS1.
But a little more than sixteen years ago, in the
city of New York, upon the occasion of the death
of President Lincoln, General James A. Garfield, j United States were but what it used to be, with
then a Representative in Congress, uttered these j a respectable fleet afloat and plenty of new ships
memorable words: : building, sailors would be plentiful and the Gov-
"Fellow-Citizens Clouds and darkness are j eminent would find no difficulty in securing en
around about Him! His pavilion is dark waters ; listments. The material thus furnished would
and thick clouds of the skies ! Justice and Judg
ment are the establishment of His throne ! Mercy
and Truth shall go before His face ! Fellow-citizens,
God Reigns and the Government at
Washington Still Lives ! "
On the 4th of March last General Garfield en
tered upon the duties of the high office to which
he had been but recently chosen, and began his '
Presidential career under the most favorable au- j
spices. The country Avas at peace, prosperity AAas
abroad in the land, and all things, apparently, j
conspired to secure to him a quiet and prosper- j
ous administration. On the 2d of July, four ;
mmifhQ rfW T,p li.ifl tnlrmi flip Prpsidpntinl nnth i
of office, he was vilely stricken down at the Na- ,
tion's Capital, in the broad light of day and in !
the very presence of the whole civilized world. !
The shot that laid him low was felt in every j
loyal heart, without regard to party feeling or
personal prejudices, throughout the length and i
breadth of the United States; and the sharp report !
of the assassin's pistol echoed from continent to
continent until it had spanned the globe.
Since that fateful and terrible event, and until I
the night of the 19th of the present month, fifty
millions of people have been engaged in testing
the strength of our institutions and their regard
for the Chief Magistrate of the Nation. The im
pulse to execute Aengeance upon the foul mur
derer of the President and of the peoples' peace
has been subjected to the universal respect for
the requirements of laAv, and indiAridual soitoavs
and sufferings have been merged in, and to a great
extent overshadowed by, the greater public mis
fortune. The end, Avhich many foresaw and all feared,
has at length arrived. General Garfield, the de
voted son and husband, the loA'ing parent, the
kind and sincere friend, the man of the people, i
the scholar, the soldier, the statesman, the earnest i
patriot, and late the President of the United '
States, is dead. The fell destroyer that so rude- 1
ly severed the tender cords which bound him to j
his family and to his trusted bosom friends, also !
snapped the stronger chain of duty that bound i
him to the State. His loss thus becomes a double
bereavement. His gentle, patient, and devoted j
wife mourns for him, and there is no comfort for ;
her outside of Him who ruleth the lives and for- j
tunes of all. His children sorroAv as they only can
who have lost a noble, loving, and devoted parent.
Friends Aveep because they shall no more see
bis manly form, nor longer drink inspiration j that no bare technicality of the law may stand
from his words of kindness and wisdom as they j between him and a speedy trial, conviction,
listen to the voice of his teachings. And then, i sentence, and punishment.
beside all these whose personal relations Avere j we desire, however, to see that he has the
such as to bring them nearest to the great heart j right guaranteed to every citizen of a fair and
now stilled forever, joining its grief with theirs, , impartial trial. His crime was committed in a
the Nation stands with bowed head, struck dumb, ; land of laAv, and under the laAv let him be con
as it Avere, by the great calamity that has fallen j demned. Any other method which might be
upon the people. There are clouds and darkness
all around. But justice and judgment are estab- (
lished in the land, and in this all hearts may find ;
comfort. Mercy and truth shall go before the j
face of the Lord, and the final ending, Avhatever
it may be, of what now is, shall be to His honor
and glory. "God reigns, and the Government at
Washington still lives."
It- is not yet time, nor is it a befitting opportu
nity for us to speculate as to the future course of
the new President. During the trying weeks in
tervening since the 2d of July he has demeaned
himself in such a manner as to win the respect of
all ; and from his well-known character we have
good reason to hope that his administration will
he worthy, not only of himself, hut of the great
party which put him in a position to become the
successor of the lamented dead. The Republican
party elected him Vice-President, thus express
ing their confidence in his loyalty, integrity,
ability, and good judgment, and we do not be
lieve they Avill have any occasion, from any act
of his, to regret their choice. It is true that he
enters upon the duties of his high office at a time
of great public excitement, and while the people
are mourning for his immediate predecessor. His
position is far from being a pleasant one, but for
that he is in nowise responsible. The Constitu
tion has made him President as imperatively as
the people had previously made him Vice-President,
and as good citizens we ought to assist and
encourage him in his administration of affairs,
honestly, earnestly, and willingly. If we do this
we may safely trust to him and his advisers to
do whatever may be found necessary in order to
ensure for us, as a Nation, peace and prosperity
at home, and due respect abroad.
The Reason Why.
Complaint is made that there is a great scarcity
of sailors, and it is thought that the U. S. S.
Brooklyn, which is to be the flagship of the
South Atlantic squadron, will be delayed in sail
ing for want of a crew. There are, according to
report, scarcely enough sailors on the receiving
ship Vermont, at New York, to supply the new
complement to be sent to the Richmond.
This is nothing more than is to be expected. Garfield, been called in to be present at the post
in view of the condition of our merchant marine, ! mortem examination. The character of the bul
which in times past was the feeder from whence ' letins issued from time to time during the last
the Navy drew material to man its ships.
Americans do nfct like to sail under a foreign
flag, and with no vessels of our own in which
j they can serve those inclined to the sea adopt
i some other calling. If the merchant navy of the
be of the best, and. if not at first, would in the
course of a few years be composed almost wholly
of native-born citizens: and then, with proper
war ships, we should have the finest navy in the
world, of which Ave need not feel ashamed, and
with which Ave need not feel afraid to meet other
maritime nations upon the ocean, either in peace
or time or war-
Hearttoe.s for Soldier' Graves.
ome time ago Congress made provision for
marking the graves of soldiers, wherever buried,
who died in defense of the Union or after their
discharge from the service. All that is required to j
secure a neat and appropriate headstone is for the j
relatives or friends of such deceased soldiers to j
te to the Quartermaster-General U. S. A., in j
this city-, stating the full name of soldier, com-
pany, regiment, and location (town, county, and j
State) of the grave. These requests, however, 1
should be sent in Avithout delay, as the Depart
ment is anxious to settle up this branch of its
business as soon as possible.
Under a recent ruling headstones Avill not be
furnished in cases of deaths subsequent to 1879.
' The victim lies beneath the Capitol's high
dome, cold, silent, peacefully, dead. A Nation
mourns for him. and the hearts of fifty millions
of people are throbbing in unison Avith sympathy
for his Avidow and orphan children.
The assassin lies in his cell at the jail a prey
to all the cruel thoughts and fancies which his
hellish deed has called into existence. They are
eating into his very vitals as it Avere, like a pack
of ravenous wolves. They give him no relief.
Night and day he is brought face to face with
his crime and compelled to live over and over
again his sufferings.
The victim is guarded by love the assassin
hy the stern arm of the laAv. About his prison
sentries pace up and down to remind him that
for him there is a day of reckoning yet to come,
From all that can be gathered of his past life
his is a currish and dangerous nature, and Ave are
glad for the sake of our Nation's honor that there
is but one such one Guiteau between the tAvo
oceans. We do not believe that Avere the con
tinent to be searched over his like could be
found. We hope Ave may soon be rid of him;
chosen to avenge the death of General Garfield
would dishonor our Government and bring limine
upon our people. Let us be patient, therefore,
and in good time Ave shall be able to prove to the
Avorld that the Government lives though its
Chief Magistrate was A-ilely slain, and that Ave,
as a Nation, can be eminently just even to the
greatest criminal among men.
'The Government at Washington still lives."
An Extra Session of the Senate.
It is reported, upon what is considered good
authority, that in due time, as soon as affairs
have become somewhat more settled, President
Arthur will convene the Senate in extraordinary
executive session in order that a presiding officer
may be chosen, and that other matters requiring
attention may be disposed of.
The Post-mortem Examination.
The official report of the post-mortem examina
tion of the body of the deceased President, if cor
rectly stated, reveals a singular condition of af
fairs. The assassin's bullet was found to the left
of the spine, back of the heart, while all along,
according to the statements of the attending sur
geons, the track of the leaden messenger of death
was down the right side, resulting in a wound
more than sixteen inches in depth, and which
terminated near the groin. If medical science
can furnish no more correct diagnosis than was
made by Bliss and his colleagues, then, indeed,
were we better oft without doctors.
We publish in another column a list of National
Cemeteries, with the number of interments in
each, which will afford food for reflection to every
citizen in the land.
Three hundred thousand men lie buried at dif
ferent points men who died that the Nation
might live. All the money spent in the prosecu
tion of the war becomes as dross when compared
with the rich gift of so much of loyalty, man
hood, and patriotic devotion.
It would have been more satisfactory to the
people of the United States had some reputable
and well-known surgeons outside of those who
i were or had been in attendance upon President
eighty days is not calculated to strengthen the
faith of the public in the correctness of subse
quent statements made by the same parties in
relation to the matter.
A Government founded by the people, for the
people, and resting upon a foundation laid in the
hearts of the people, cannot perish while the peo
At the graves of their dear ones members of
the same family should forget all former differ
ences. President Garfield died upon the anniversary
of the battle of Chickamauga, in Avhichhe plaj'ed
a prominent part.
Messages of condolence and sympathy have
been received by the Secretary of State for Mrs. j
Garfield from all parts of the Avorld.
The question " Avhere must Guiteau be tried ? "
is being discussed. We have no choice, so that
he only be convicted and properly punished.
Mrs. Garfield did not return to the White
House, but during her stay in the city was dom
iciled at the residence of the AttorneA'-General.
A irs cavity sixteen inches deep upon the
right side of the patient's body is always a sure
indication of a healthy condition of the Avound,
Avherever it may be located.
The right iliac fossa lies back of the heart and
under the left shoulder-blade, as has been recently
ascertained by a free use of the induction balance.
So sensitive is the induction balance that it
Avill lie Avorse than the attending physicians, in
order to mislead.
THE MORGAN COUNTY EAGLE.
We have received the first number of the Mor
gan county Eagle, published at Jacksonville, Illi
nois, Avhich Ave gladly Avelcome to the field of
journalism. It is a bright, neAVsy sheet, eA'idently
aliA'e to all public and local interests, and has a
gallant soldier, Mr. John S. Harper, for editor,
Avhich is a sufficient introduction for us. 1 Tore's
our hand, comrade.
SERGEANT MASON'S CRIME.
There has been more or less discussion as to
Avh ether the civil or military courts would try
Mason. The fact that a court-martial has been
appointed to meet at Washington, has misled
the daily papers. This court-martial has been
called for routine business, and Avas ordered
before Mason committed his offense. Besides, a
court to try Mason would manifestly have to be
constituted someAvhat differently. General Han
cock has received the charges against Sergeant
Mason. There are two, as folloAvs: First, con
duct prejudicial to good order and military dis
cipline; second, attempting to shoot a prisoner
Avithout orders from a superior officer. Doubt
less a general court-martial Avill be organized for
Mason's trial next Aveek under the sixty-second
Article of War. We repeat that the violation
of duty by Sergeant Mason is one for Avhich
there is no excuse. He detested Guiteau ; but
he had no monopoly of detestation, for every
right-minded citizen feels the same sentiments.
But he has succeeded in inflicting a severe IjIoav
on the honored reputation of the Army for being
a body that could be trusted to execute the laAvs,
no matter what Avere the swayings of popular
passion around it. Army and Navy Journal.
We again impress upon our patrons avIio Avish
to continue their subscriptions to The Nation
al Tribune the importance' of sending on the
additional amount of one dollar before the 20th
GENERAL SHERMAN'S LETTER.
Washington, D. C., Sept. 19,1881.
Hon. Geo. C. GORHAM, National Ecpiiblican.
My Dear Sib: You and I have been comrades
in civil broils and strife in California, when vigi
lance committees assumed rule, and we know, or
think Ave know, how good, honest people have
done some acts of violence under an honest con
viction that they were doing the right thing, and
we believe that Time, the great physician, will
cure all things to the patient.
I have occasionally and recently heard the
same arguments on the streets, the same scraps
of wisdom enunciated, and now, at the dread hour,
when our noble, brave President is lying in the
very agonies of death at Long Branch, and the
cowardly, miserable wretch Guiteau is cowering
in his cell at the public jail, it occurs to me that
you and I should in our respective spheres make
profitable use of our past experience.
No man on earth holds in higher esteem the
noble qualities of James A. Garfield than myself.
I was on the point of starting for Chattanooga
to-night to do honor to the heroes of Chicka
mauga, of whom he was one most prominent,
but was stayed by the unfavorable report from
his bedside at noon, and I shall remain here at
my post of duty till the last moment of hope.
At Chickamauga, eighteen years ago, Garfield was
chief of stall' to General Rosecrans, whose right
wing was broken back by the vehement charges
of Bragg's forces, and was carried along with the
broken masses almost into Chattanooga, when he
begged for the privilege of returning to join
General George H. Thomas, whose guns told him
that that heroic man stood fast with his left
wing. General Rosecrans gave him leave and he
did return, running the gauntlet, joining General
Thomas and serving close to his person till night
enabled them to fall back in good order to Chata
nooga. That was General Garfield's last fight,
in which he felt especial pride; and I know that
he intended to be at Chattanooga next Wednes
day to celebrate the event. But it is ordered other
wise, for he now lies by the seashore on his death
bed from a wound inflicted by the miserable
For this man Guiteau I ask no soldier, no citi
zen to feel one particle of sympathy. On the con
trary could I make my will the law, shooting, or
hanging would be too good for him. But I do ask
every soldier and every citizen to remember that
we profess to be the most loyal Nation on earth
i to the sacred promises of the law. There is no
merit in obeying an agreeable law, but there is
glory and heroism in submitting gracefully to an
oppressive one. Our Constitution reads: "No
i person shall be held to answer for a capital or
t otherwise infamous crime unless on a present-
! ment or indictment of a grand jury," and "in all
criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the the chairmanship of General Schenck, and was
right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial j of great service in carrying through the measures-
. jury of the State and district wherein the crime
shall have been committed." This is the solemn
contract of Government, binding on the con
sciences of all. Should our President die the mur
derer is entitled to a speedy trial by a jury, and
j I hope he Avill haAe justice done him.
But it is not my office or yours or anybody's
except the regular courts of this District, which
are in undisputed power. Violence in any form
: Avill bring reproach on us all upon the country
I at large, and especially on us of the District of
All the circumstances of the shooting, of the j
i Irmor Iiprfiir. strncvirlo firvr l?fcv i"mrrPQs; mr en l
strongly that I Avould be ashamed of my country
men if they mingled Avith their feelings of grief
any thought of Arengeance. " Vengeance is mine,
saith the Lord."
I trust the public press will use its pOAverful in
fluence to maintain the good order and decorum
which have prevailed since the saddest of all days
in Washington, July 2, 1881. Sincerely your
W. T. Sherman.
THE TRUTH OF HISTORY,
The latest ansAver to Mr. Black comes from Mr.
Henry Janney, avIio Avrites to the Baltimore
American that Avhen the ship for the relief of
Major Anderson sailed, a member of Buchanan's
Cabinet telegraphed to Charleston: "The Star of
j7 ITT A m A "11 4- ".-.
me nesi , crneiiug jum itaiuui u, piu isiuii
Fort Sumter. Sink her." He throws the re-
sponsiumty ior tne uispaicn upuu au oi Jir.
Buchanan's advisers by asking, "Who can say
that the telegram Avas not sanctioned by the Cab
inet?" In another place he is more specific
Avhere he recalls a conversation of his Avith "Clem
Yallandigham and Jere Black,' Avhen the latter
tAvo "tried to coiwince him" of the virtue and
poAver of the rebellion, "the Judge" saying:
"As a Virginian you should be ashamed of your
self not to espouse the cause of your section and
THE DORY LITTLE WESTERN.
The dory Little Western, manned by George P.
Thomas and Fred. Norman, arrived at Gloucester
on the 15th, luwing completed a round trip from
that port to London and back. She is VSl feet
keel, 2i in depth, 6 feet S inches in width, and is
the only dory that eer crossed the ocean both
Avays. She Avas built in Gloucester in May, 1880,
and sailed from there June 12, 1880, touched at the
Scilly Islands Avhen ie hours less than forty
four days out, arrived at Cowes July 28, and
Gravesend August 1. Her average progress Avas
sixty-three miles per day and her best run 163
miles. After being on exhibition in various
British jorts for ten months she sailed from Lon
don on the 14th of June, passing the Lizard on
the 27th, and, after a rough passage, touched at
Point Mirthan, Cape Breton, August 28, and ar
rived at Halifax September 2, sailing thence for
Gloucester six days later.
The Little Western is the third Gloucester
built dory to cross the Atlantic, Alfred Johnson
crossing alone in the Centennial in 1S76 and
AndreAvs and Boos in the Nautilus in 1878. The
Little Western an ill proceed to New York.
The Avill of the late Hendrick B. Wright, of
Wilkes-Barre, Pa., who advertised himself during
life as the people's friend, and said he was not
afraid to be called a demagogue, leaves all his
large property in equal parts to his four children.
Not a cent is left to any public use. Buffalo Ex-preHa.
6ARFIELDS EARLY LIFE,
James A. Garfield was born in Orange, Cuya
hogo county, Ohio, November 19, 1834. His
father died during the following summer, leaving
his widow with four children, the eldest a girl,
Mehitabel, bearing her grandmother's Puritan
name; the second, Morris, called after his uncle;
the third, Mary, and the blue-eyed baby, James
Abram, christened for his great uncle. His
father left but little means, and the widow, with
the assistance of her older children, managed to
keep her family together, and allow young James,
who seemed to have an earnest desire to acquire
an education, to go to school a portion of the
time. His early struggles at the trade of a car
penter, chopping wood, on the canal-boat, &c,
were all fully set forth in the various sketehes of
hislife that were published during the presidential
campaign, and are already familiar to every one.
They serve to show the indomitable energy of the
man, and his longing for a thorough education.
He was graduated at Williams College, Masschu-
I setts, and the trip that was to have commenced on
July 2 included a visit to ins alma mater and a
reunion of his classmates. On the 11th of No
vember, 185S, he was married to Miss Lucretia
Rudolph, to whom he had been engaged in 185-1,
who was first his pupil, then his friend, and
finally the Rev. Dr. Hitchcock, president of the
Western Reserve College at Hudson, Ohio, made
her his wife. Garfield became professor of Latin
and Greek in Hiram College in 1856, and between
that and 1859 he taught, lectured, and preached,
at the same time mingling actively in politics.
In 1859 he was elected State Senator to represent
Summit and Portage counties, although at that
time but twenty-eight years of age. He was
holding this position when the war broke out,
and he entered the army as colonel of the Forty-
second Ohio Volunteers. His career as a Union
officer is well known, and his fame is inseparably
connected with the history of the valiant deeds
of the Army of the Cumberland. He was pro
moted to the rank of brigadier-general January
10, 1862, was appointed chief of staff of the Army
of the Cumberland, and promoted to be major
general September 20, ISO". While in the field
he was elected a member of the Thirty-eighth
Congress from the Nineteenth Ohio district, and
he left the army to assume his duties as a legis
lator. The record of his services in the Thirty
eighth, Thirty-ninth, Fortieth, Forty-first, Forty
second, Forty-third. Forty-fourth, Forty-fifth, and
Forty-sixth Congresses is a part of the history of
the action of the Republican party during the-
trying period of reconstruction, and the earnest
j attempt to bring up the credit of the Nation,
until, finally, specie payment was resumed.
Shortly after taking his seat in Congress he
, was appointed on the Military Committee, nnder
j which recruited the armies during the closing
years of the Avar. At the same time he began a
course of severe study of the subject of finance
and political economy, going home CA-ery evening
to his modest lodgings in Thirteenth street A'ith
his arms full of books borrowed from the Con-
' gressional Library. He soon took rank in the
! House as a ready and forcible debater, a hard
( worker, and a diligent, practical legislator.
In his third term he was chairman of the
Committee on Indian Affairs : in 1868 Avas made
chairman of the Banking and Currencv Com
mittee. and in 1871 appointed to the chairman
ship of the Committee on Appropriations, Avhich
he held until 1875, when the Democrats took con
trol of the House. He Avas elected to the Senate
to succeed Stanley Matthews, but before he could
take his seat he Avas nominated at Chicago to be
the standard-bearer of the Republican party in
j the presidential contest. The memories of the
j campaign, the successful result, and the triumphal
inauguration are fresh m the minds of all. No
i President ever entered upon his term of office
j under more favorable auspices. The Avhole Na
i tion seemed to rejoice in the result of the electionr
1 and the inaugural festiA-ities Avere more elaborate
and more heartily indulged in than that of any
j former incumbent of the office.
General Garfield has five children liA-imj. and
! has lost two, who died in infancy. The two
j older boys, Harry and James, are noAv at school
in Xew Hampshire. Mary-or Molly, as
bwly calls heris a handsomCj rosvciieek,
of about twelve. The tAvo younger boys are
named Irwin and Abram. The General's mother
is still living, and has long been a member of his
family. She is an intelligent, energetic old lady.
Avith a clear head and a strong Avill, Avho keeps
Avell posted in the neAvs of the day, and is A-ery
proud of her son's career, though more liberal of
criticism than of praise.
General Garfield's property may amount to
20,000. It consists exclusively of his farm in
Ohio aud his house in Washington, and eA-ery
dollar of it has been earned by his OAvn exertions
He has saved a little every year from his salary,,
and this, Avith an occasional legal fee, has made
up the bulk of his estate. When he entered
Congress he OAvned a little house in Hiram,,
worth, perhaps, $1,500. General Garfield's dis
trict lies in the extreme northeastern corner of
Ohio, and noAv embraces the counties of Ashta
bula, Trumbull, Geauga, Lake, and Portage.
With the exception of the coal and iron regions
in the extreme southern part, the district is a
rural one, and is inhabited by a population of
pure NeAv England ancestry. It is the most in
telligent congressional district in the country.,
having less illiteracy in proportion to the popu
lation than in anr other.
The National Tribune Avishes full and early
reports of army Reunions, Grand Army, and other
meetings of general interest to soldiers, for pub
lication, and asks that some of our friends will
please be kind enough to see that they are sent
to us at the earliest possible moment.
Those avIio have not the means to subscribe for
The National Tribune should remember that
any person sending us ten subscribers Avith $12.50,
Avill be entitled to a copy of our paper for one year
free of charge. The names need not all be sent at
one time. When the number is complete the ex
tra copy will be sent to the gettcr-up of the club.