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title: 'The National tribune. (Washington, D.C.) 1877-1917, April 29, 1882, Page 7, Image 7',
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THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE: WASHINGTON, D. C, APRIL 29, 1882.
"mad river in the WHITE MOUN
TAINS." ?Jr. Longfellow's last poem, the proof slip of
Idrh was corrected by him only a few days before
In- death, appears in the May number of the
Atlantic Monthly, just issued. The poem has the
title, " Mad River in the White Mountains," and it
ives a dialogue between a traveler and a moun
tain stream. The pensive wayfarer desires to know
of the stream "why all ihn fret and worry?" and
the river tells him its story. After describing its
birth as a "brooklet nameless and unknown,"
it details its experience of the world, and thus con
cludes: I heard the distant ocean call,
Drawn onward, o'er this rocky wall
I plunged, and the loud waterfall
Made answer to the greeting.
And now, beset with many ills,
A toilsome life I follow;
Compelled to carry from the hills
These logs to the impatient mills
Below there in the hollow.
Yet something ever cheers and charms
The rudeness of my labors ;
Daily I water with thc-e arms
The cattle of a hundred farms,
And have the birds fur neighbors.
Men call me mad, and well they may,
When, full of rage and trouble,
I burst my banks of sand and clay.
And sweep their wooden bridge away,
Like withered reeds or stubble.
Now go and write my little rhyme,
As of thine own creating.
Thou secst the day is pat its prime,
I can no longer waste my time;
The mills are tired of waiting.
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM SAUNDERS,
Washington, D. C.
Correspondence isrolicltcd to this column. Com
muiicatlons r.ddrc5ed to the Rural Department
of Tnn National Tmnrrrs, 615 Fifteenth Street,
Washington, D. C, will be appreciated.
Seasonable Operations and Hints.
The great object of the cultivator is to secure
uninterrupted growth to his plants from the
vegetation of the seed until the crops are fit
to harvest. Indeed "cultivation," in this
sense, may be defined as a term by "which
we recognize the various operations neces
sary to mainiaiu an equilibrium in the ele
ments of plant growth. The food of plants,
of whatever kind, before it can be available,
must be in a state of minute division, or
rather, it must be in a soluble stale. This
is a result of decomposition, and the prin
cipal agents of decomposition are air and
water. It is therefore necessary to keep the
soil in a condition so that it will receive the
benefit of these agents that is, in short, to
keep it open and porous by frequent stirrings
with the plow, cultivator, hoe, or by other
means. Hence the best growers of vegetables
commence stirring the soil around their
young plants as early as they can and as
often as they can during the season of growth.
Drill culture affords the best facilities for
cultivation, and this is one of the advantages
derived from it, and it is a very important
advantage during dry seasons, for the deeper
the trround is stirred and the ofrener
drouths. Surface culture also tends to
comminute the soil, and it then acts as a
mulch, and prevents the escape of, .moisture
hy mere surface evaporation a process,
which soon extracts the water from compact
soils. On all soils, except those of a very
sandy nature, heavy showers of rain more
'or less consolidate the surface, which will
then, if undisturbed, harden under the in
fluence of the sun. It is therefore con
sidered to be a special point in good culture
to stir the surface of the ground as soon
after heavy rains as is admissible that is,
as 'soon as the soil can be worked without
adhesion, or be left in a friable condition.
"Weeds should never be allowed to gain suffi
cient headway to suggest the use of a hoe,
but cleanliness and freedom from weeds
should be a consequence of repeated surface
After the first week in May we consider
that all danger from frost is past in this sec
tion of the country. Tomatoes and egg
plants should be set out, and seeds of the
former may be sown in a frame to be set out
later, or for a main crop. Okra may now be
sown thickly in drills like peas, and when the
plants appear thin them out to stand about
two feet apart. Young okra pods are a very
nutricious vegetable, to be used in various
ways, and the plant is not cultivated so
generally as it deserves. Lima beans can
now be planted," the poles having been first
set; they should not be covered deeply,
merely pressing them in the soil will suffice.
Flat Dutch, Drumhead, Savoy, and other
kinds of cabbages for late and for winter
crops should be sown during May, early in
the month in northern localities, or when
sown in beds to be transplanted, later if in
southern localities, or when sown were they
are to remain. Many partial failures in cab
bage crops would be avoided if the practice
was more general to sow the seed very thinly
in drills and thin the young plants to proper
distances apart, thus obviating the unavoid
able check to growth which the plants re
ceive when transplanted during hot and dry
weather. Tho extra amount of seed which
is required in this method is largely com
pensated by the greater certainty of crop.
Indeed most failures in transplanted crop3
are due to the necessity of removal of young
planta; even under the best conditions for
success these never reach the perfection of
those which have not been removed when
treated alike in other rcEuects.
Celery seed should be 'sown for the main
crops. Select well-en riched, friable soil, sow
on the surface, and after pressing or rolling
over the seed cover the whole with a very
sngui. aprjiiKiiug oi rotted and disintegrated
manure, and water if the weather proves dry.
An earlier dish of peas or tomatoes may
be secured if the points of the plants arc
pinched off after flowers appear, a slight
check to growth having the tendency to
Those who are unsuccessful in raising
plants from seed arc very apt to blame the
seed, including the seedsman who supplied
it. but it is safe to say that good seeds are
the rule and bad seeds the rare exception.
Every respectable seedsman in the country
uses all the precautions that experience
sharpened by business competition suggests
in order to secure seeds of the best quality.
Most of seed failures arc due to improper
management; and of all causes of failure,
especially with small seeds, that of planting
them too deep is the most frequent Where
the covering is too heavy the seeds either
rot, owing to being kept too wet, or
rthe feeble germ is unable to overcome
ihe weight of coil it lias to move before
reaching the light. The greatest difficulty
is in the case of very small seeds, which
succeed best when merely scattered on the
surface and pressed into the soil by tramp
ing with the feet, or firmed by beating the
ground with the back of a spade or trowel.
In sowing annual flowering plants, like
mignonette or petunias, in small patches,
they can be covered with a piece of paper
until they vegetate.
Complaints are also frequent concerning
seeds that purport to produce double ilowers.
In regard to these it should be understood
that they cannot be guaranteed to produce
none but double flowers, no matter how
carefully they may be saved. The tendency
is to run back to the single iorm, and if
50 per cent, show double flowers it will be
a fair average with most kinds.
In setting out plants in the flower garden,
such tender kinds as colons, dahlias, and
heliotropes should be kept until the last.
Verbenas and petunias may be planted
earlier, but any plants that have been
brought forward in frames or in greenhouses
should undergo a ''haulening-olV" process
that is, they should be gradually exposed
until they become accustomed to the weather
before being set out to full exposure to sun
light and cool nights.
The grouping or planting of ornamental
and flowering plants calls forth much in
genuity; it is oftentimes overstrained and
meretricious. Simnliciiv is one of the ele
ments of beauty. A centre of broad-leaved
cannas surrounded by petunias mako a fine
bed ; so docs a group of scarlet geraniums
surrounded with white Drumraond phlox
or white verbenas. A bed of white tea
roses carpeted with scarlet verbenas forms a
pleasing combination. Nothing can well be
more satisfactory for flowering than a bed
of portnlnccas, with a plaut or two of
abntilon to relievo it? flatness.
Since lavrn mowers have become plentiful
and cheap the keeping of good lawns has
been vastly simplified; it required skill in
the use of the scytho io keep lawns closely
cut with that implement. The grass should
be cut once a week in good growing weather.
It has been recommended to leave the cut
grass as a mulch, but this is only allowable
when the weather is dry and the grass thin ;
if continued it will destroy the lawn.
Evergreen trees and shrubs are most suc
cessfully transplanted just as they begin to
make fresh shoots. These should not be
mixed indiscriminately with deciduous
trees; neither should large growing ever
green trees be placed close to dwellings on
the south side. A dwelling-houe nestling
on the sunny side of an evergreen plantation
is cheerful and comfortable looking on a
wintry day, but when the evergreens are on
the south front the effect is gloomy and
This is the best season for clipping ever
green hedges, and for trimming box edgings.
It is a rare sight to see a well kept edging
of box; the plants are either allowed to grow
tall and straggling, or cut square on top, and
given the monopoly of both borders and
walks, as if the sole purpose of the garden
was that of growing box hedges. As a mar
ginal line, defining the garden walk from
the plant borders, and where the climate
suitable for its healthy growth, no other
plant is so useful as box, but it should never
be.allowed to exceed six incTfes70iri'-lieight;,
and be kept cut so as to appear like an in
verted V. The most beautiful box edging
we ever saw looked, like a thick rope laid
alongside of the walk. The true dwarf va
riety can readily be cut and kept in any
In planting a vmeynrdr-rin arbor, with
grapes, the young plants should be cut down
within two or three inches of the ground;
then when young shoots begin to grow rub
them all oft except one or two. If two arc
retained, pinch the point out of the weakest
in the course of two or three weeks, but al
low the main shoot to grow uninterrupted
during the season. The more foliage the
plant makes the more roots will be formed;
nothing is more certain in the management
of all kinds of plants than this, that the
more foliage a plant produces the stronger
will be its root formation.
In the management of bearing grape vines,
the first attention required after tho shoots
have made two or three inches of growth is
disbudding; that is, where clusters of shoots
appear, to rub them off, except the strongest
one. It is better to remove them at this
time than to leave them for six or eight
weeks, and then prune them off. Many
grape vines are ruined for the season by this
kind of summer pruning. If buds appear
where shoots are not wanted rub them off;
this operation does not, check the growth of
the plant, because there is no sensible re
moval of foliage; lint let it be delayed until
each bud has grown to a shoot eighteen
inches in length, and if they are then re
moved great injury will be the result. For
the same reason, as soon as the shoot will
allow tho selection pinch out the tips four
leav beyond the fruit bunch, and in this
way all growths can be managed without
paralyzing the plant at midsummer by prun
ing out a mass of healthy foliage.
Strawberry beds should not be disturbed
by hoe or plow until the fruit has been gath
ered. If weeds require removal, pull or cut
them up with as little disturbance to the
soil as possible. No plants show the good
effects of irrigation so much as strawberries
in dry weather when the fruit is forming.
Some kind of mulch, to keep the fruit
clean as well as to preserve moisture around
the plants, should be employed. The short
grass from lawn cuttings, straw, or chaff, if
laid carefully around the plants, will more
than repay all trouble in the increased crop,
and particularly in tho cleanliness of the
fruit. Strawberries gritty with sand and
soil are unfit for use.
Planting Street Trees. The best trees
to plant in streets and on the sides of public
roads, and how far apart from each other
they should bo set, are matters of particular
inquiry at the present time. Like many
other questions pertaining to rural affairs, a
definite answer can only be given where a
definite statement, embracing all tho partic
ulars of the case, ia furnished. Country
roads are frequently too narrow, and too
badly kept, to admit of shade trees of any
kind being planted on their borders, as they
will prevent the drying up of the muddy
roadway after rains aud winter snows. If
trees aro planted on the borders of such
roads, they should be set about fifty feet
apart, and such varieties selected as are
either of upright habit of growth, as tho
Carolina poplar, or an open-headed kind, as
tho silver maple.
The same remarks will apply to narrow
streets in cities, where dense masses of foli
age are more injurious than useful or sani
tary. Too much shade in the close vicinity
'rcvenis the admission
Vi mrnnlntinil of air.
which are of such vital importance to health.
In this respect many errors have been com
mitted in tree planting.
In the width and keeping of the streets,
and their ornamentation with trees, no city
on tliis continent can compare with the eiry
of "Washington. To this extent it is tho
model city of the United States. The great
and unusual width of the street", which was,
at one time, almost a matter of reproach, is
now a matter for envy by strangers and so
journers, who acknowledge that the arboreal -
embellishments of other cities are insignifi
cant when compared with those of the Capi
tal of the Nation. The ample width of the
streets, as originally planned, makes these
improvements possible. Recent improve
ments have abridged the roadways to con
venient breadths, varying from forty to sixty
feet, which has left spaces from twenty to
thirty-five feet in width from the buildings
to the curbstones, where lines of trees are
planted. This anangemcut secures all the
most valuable sanitary effects of trees in
cities, and affords shady promenades, with
out an excess of shade on dwellings. This
is a feature of tree planting in cities which
will probably be more thoroughly appre
ciated in tho future than it is at the present
Street trees in cities encounter many evils
from which country tiees are exempt. The
soil in cities is generally unfitted to their
growth. Holes about 18 inches in depth,
and wide enough to contain a cubic yard of
good surface soil, should be considered of
minimum size. After tho tree is set the soil
should be made quite firm around aud over
the roots, and the surface left somewhat
lower than surrounding levels, so that it
will intercept and receive all the water with
Attention will be required, from time to
time, to maintain this depression of surface,
as dust will settle around the trees and fill
up around them so that water will be thrown
off instead of being retained. To prevent
the tree from injury it should be surrounded
by a box, and secured to it with leather
That the branches may not annoy pedes
trians, they are trimmed off for a height of
at least 7 feet; if making a good growth, the
top will become too heavy to be supported
by the tall, slender stem, hence the necessity
for pruning arises, in so far as to thin out
the branches, that winds may pass through
them. The necessity for high trimming the
stem, and thinning out the tops, are evils
which cannot well be avoided.
The reflection of heat from the buildings,
the want of water, and the exhaustion of the
soil, as time elapses, have a tendency to
check, growth and encourage disease and
insects. The bark scale is the worst enemy
of the street tree ; the most effectual remedy
for destroying this insect is to cover the stem
and branches with lime wash.
To be continued.
Cabbage Growing J. J. H. Gregory
the popular seedsman, in the Fruit Recorder
says: "I have raised many acres of the large
drumhead varieties on land that had been in
j, tillage and well manured for several, years,
by starring well into the place for each hill
a round handful of good phosphate, to be
followed by half a handful of unleached
ashes at the first hoeing. Plant the seed, by
all means, where the cabbages are to grow,
and don't have the trouble and risk of trans
planting. Just as soon as they begin to break
ground and watch sharply for this sprin
kle with fine plaster, and this will protect
them from the black fly."
Large Corn. We lately received a few
grains of corn of very large size, and which
is represented to be a new variety, from
which great results are anticipated in the
way of crops. This is nothing more than a
sample of South American corn, which is of
no use in our corn-growing sections, as the
climate is too cold, and the growing season
too short for it to mature. It will grow to a
good height, and might bo useful as on ensi
lage crop, although, even for that purpose, it
would probably be too watery, and thus be
inferior to the best kinds now used for fodder
purposes. The large grains of these tropical
varieties, contrasted with the small grains of
varieties which mature in the most northern
corn-growing regions, give evidence of the
influence of climates upon seeds, which have
doubtless started from one origin. Farmers
should be careful in investing in these large
seeded varieties from tropical climates, as
the plants will not mature to the extent of
even forming an ear in this country.
Care of Horses. A writer in the A mcr
icaJi Farmer has the following remarks on
two points in horse management:
1. The so-called disease Lampas never ex
ists. The arrangement of the palate is just
as it should be, as it enables the animal to
gather the grass more readily. ' The molar
teeth may require attention, but not the in
cisors or their surroundings, whose functions
are prepension and not mastication. If,
then, the horse is off his feed, in most cases
the use of a slight alterative medicine, with
soft and easily digested food, will effect a
cure. Do not inflict that barbarous, terrible
punishment of burning out the gums, and
thus disable the poor brute from afterward
performing those natural functions which
2. Another mistaken kindness is horse
shoeing. It is not only injurious but is a
great tax, a two-fold reason why it should
lie discontinued. Much time and ingenuity
have been expended in tho effort to mako a
shoe free from objections; but all produce,
more or less, physical injury, and do not
prevent tho horse from slipping. When a
shoe does prevent slipping, it is from high,
sharp heels; but such shoes strain his foot,
cut his ankles, cork his hoofs, make him stiff
and sore, and cause him to wound his mate.
All the best authorities declare that nine
ten ths of the diseases of horses proceed from
their feet as a consequence of shoeing.
A physician in Virginia, Dr. Perkins, of
Hanover county, says that for a number of
years ho has not shod his horse, believing it
to be the shoe and not tho road that injured
the foot. He rode and drove, in his daily
practice, a horse for eight years without
shoes, and during the whole period the
hoofs were sound and good and less liable U
slip on tho ice than a shod horse. A slight
rasping to keep the feet in shape was all the
care bestowed upon them.
This gentleman gives tho examplo of a
bold -riding fox hunter who would leap
fences and ditches and gallop on ice to show
tho superiority of a baro-foot animal to ono
shod, which feats his companions riding shod
horses dared not imitate.
of dwelling ho-"
of sunshine .: l
Summer Fallowing of Land. Though
it cannot be desirable to see the practice of
bare fallows extended, it must yet be borne
in mind that it is not in the mechanical
sfrnctuio alone that heavy soil differs from
light soil; their chemical difference, which
is quite as great, Ycs in that essential par
ticular that the clay soil is naturally richer
in the mineral constituents required by your
crops. Potash, soda, and phosphorous, which
f you must supply to a light soil before you
4 put in a crop, yon have only to develope in
a clay soil by deep and frequent stirring, and
submitting to the oxidation of the atmos
phere. The green crop, with its caibon
obtaining leaves, will no doubt supply or
ganic wealth to either; but inorgauic food
can come from the soil alone, and if the soil
be able to supply it from its own resources,
f one-half the value of the crreen cron. as a
fertilizer, is renounced. Its remaining value,
as a collector of organic matter from the
fatmosphcre, is the point upon which the
question will be poised, of its adoption on a
fsoil which, after effectual drainage, sub-pul--vcrization
and liming, still retains the char
acter of a clay. Even upon such land, expe
rience has yet to prove how far, by deep
plowing and subsoiling immediately alter
lihrvest, and making the most of suitable
-weather between that time and the follow
mg season, the green crop may not come in
before fall seeding with wheat or other grain.
The bare fallow system is too ancient, too
prospectively laborious and patient, not to
have deep reason at the bottom of it. Chem
istry has discovered tho truth which practice
has attested. The question may be not
whether the fallow shall be abandoned, but
whether its objects can be achieved at a less
sacrifice of time. Chronicles of a Clay Farm.
Indian Rice. The water oat, or Indian
rice, is a native plant which grows abun
dantly on the banks and shallows of rivers,
where it forms dense masses. The leaves
are from two to three feet in length, and are
greedily eaten by cattle. It is said that
cows which pasture upon these leaves have
their flow of milk increased in quantity and
improved in quality. The seeds are a val
ued and important article of food with the
Indians of the north and west, who collect
them in canoes, paddled through the dense
growth of tho plants, by slightly bending
the stems and striking the ripe heads, caus
ing the seeds to fall into tho bottom of the
canoe. Many bushels may thus be collected
in a dhy. The hus-k is removed by partially
parching the seeds over a slow fire, aud when
sufficiently heated, the husk is finally re
moved by beating and winnowing.
The parched grain is carried for food on
hunting expeditions, and is said to be very
palatable when roasted until it bursts and
shows the white floury part within the dark
skin. It must be kept perfectly dry when
in this condition. Boiled like ordinary rice,
it:is equal to it in taste and quite as nutri
tious. The kernels are larger than those of
common rice, and when boiled and then left
to cool they form a consistent mas3 like
bread made from wheaten flour. The bo
tanical name of the plant is Gizania aqnaliea,
and both as a forage plant for cattle and as
a nutritious food for man it is worthy of
experimental culture and investigation in
retard to its value as afood plant.
-Hilling Potatoes. Most cultivators
appear to suppose that the roots extend only
a few inches, and that by heaping up mounds
of.earth at the foot of tho stems, they furnish
a bed of mellow earth as far as the roots go,
and, positively assist the growth, while on
the. contrary the hilling process buries at an
unnatural depth a short portion near the
stalk, and lays nearly bare the great mass of
the roots at a greater distance. In all the
experiments which I have tried, the practice
of hilling has proved a positive loss to the
crop. This loss varies with the depth of the
hilling, the dryness of the season, and with
the depth of the soil and planting, but has
usually averaged a loss of one-fifth or one
sixth of tho crop, when compared with the
results of flat culture. There may be extreme
cases, where the soil is deep and moist, with
little difference. Country Gentleman.
The Bone Tree. On Jervis Island there
is a tree called tho bone tree, which picks up
bones. It is described as a kind of banyan,
or fig tree, which sends down long tendrils,
or aerial roots, from its upper branches;
these run along the ground and twine round
any small obstacles in their path, such as
bones and other unconsidered trifles. The
roots afterwards contract, and draw up what
ever is attached to them. What use, if any,
the tree makes of the things it gathers is not
EATING ANL DRINKING WISELY.
The Farmers' Club, at a racent meeting in
the Cooper Institute, New York, was enter
tained with a highly interesting lecture "On
the Relation of Food Products to their
Phj'siological Action," by Dr. Hubbard W.
Mitchell. Some of the convivial members
were rather disturbed by this reference to
alcohol. He said it was essential to the idea
of food that it should maintain or increase
vital or physiological actions, while drugs or
medicine may increase, but usually lessens
some of them. A combination of foods is
necessary to maintain all the vital processes.
If this were not so a single article must suf
fice for all needs. There are foods which
are more valuable than others, because they
supply a greater number of substances that
the body needs, and hence are called com
pound foods, Avhile others, which supply but
ono element, are called simple foods, aud
usually arc incorporated into the body with
but little change. Some foods arc classed as
animal or vegetable, according to the source
whence they arc derived ; others as liquid or
solid, according to the density of their sub
stance. Both solid and liquid are absolutely
essential to the maintenance of life. Foods
are necessary to generate animal heat and
to promote growth of the body. Heat i3 the
more importaut, for tho body may waste a
long timo and live, but if heat is withdrawn
It is necessary, continued the Doctor, that
the body be supplied with certain salts, as
those of potash, lime, soda, and sulphur, and
some acids. Experieuce has taught us how to
combine these for our proper needs. Food
must be supplied regularly, although the
effect of the supply is temporary. Tho sense
of hungor is tho sentinel that tells us when
we requiro food, and this is done through the
agency of tho pneumogastric nerve. Our
food is digested and assimilated to maintain
tho functions of life. Physiology tells us
what is best for onr needs, and the most im
portant aro substances that are nitrogeneous
and nofl-nitrogencous. Of thefirst aro fleshes,
fruits, Icoreals, vegetables, tea, coffee, and
milk; if the second aro butter, lard, oil,
starch, sugar, sago, and tapioca. These are
a few of the best. Beef is the most nutri
tious meat, mutton next. Then comes poul
try, game, eggs, and fish. These are all
wholesome, palatable, and nutritions. Eggs
are especially nutritious. Milk is the most
important article of all that nature has sup
plied to man. since it coutains in itself every
needed clement. Among vegetables, potatoes
take the first rani:, and should be cooked
with great care. Of liquids, coffee and tea
are very important. Coffee is almost a uni
versal beverage, and when roasted and mixed
with cream and sugar, is wholesome and
nutritious. It is also a harmless stimulant.
The Doc for referred to several diagrams in
colored chalk which he placed on the black
board, and described digestion in the fowl
and human being, the circulation, assimila
tion, and the action of alcohol on the brain,
showing how this poison affects the brain
cells through the cerebellum.
FURNISH YOUR OWN WITNESSES.
Robert Toombs, of Georgia, was on ono
occasion retained as counsel in a case which
he saw would require uot only a good deal
of hard swearing on the side of his client,
but suppression of testimony on the opposite
The judire was a erreat admirer of Mr.
Toombs, and believed implicitly in his
knowledge not only of law, but upon any
The day for the trial came on, and Mr.
Toombs soon saw that his antagonist, a
shrewd lawyer, relied upon proving the jus
tice of his case out of the mouths of Toombs'
witnesses in cross examination. Calling the
judge aside, Mr. Toombs said : " Now, judge,
you, of course, know all about law and
equity, and when a case is laid fairly before
you, I would rather have you decide a case
in which I am engaged than any judge on
this judicial circuit, but you arc so honest
nd upright yourself that yon aro not up to
tricks of some of these city lawyers.
w, here is my client, a poor man, who ha3
.pent a good deal of time and money in
winging witnesses here to testify in his be
'half, and what do you think those other
fellows are going to do ? You would scarcely
believe it if I were to tell you ; you are such
a fair and upright man yourself. Why, sir,
they are laying their plans to use my client's
witnesses; they are going to let him bring
men here to swear for him, then use the
same witnesses over again on their side. It
is an outrage on justice, judge, and I hope
yon will put your foot down, and not allow
such proceedings in your court."
"What is that you say Bob Toombs; going
to use your witnesses on their side; not
much ; they must furnish their own witnesses
or none they can't use yours."
The case was called and one of the wit
nesses placed on the stand. He gave his
evidence straight to the point, and was told
by Mr. Toombs that he could stand aside, at
the same time instructing the sheriff to call
" Not so fast," said the lawyer on the other
side ; "I have a few questions to put to this
j' ' No yon don't," said the judge. " No, you
don'tj it is a rule of this court that every
man must furnish his own witnesses. Go
on with the case Mr. Toombs." Mr. Toombs
FARM AND WORKSHOP NOTES.
1 Too much water in the flower-pot is inju
rious. Keep the earth moist only.
Cabbage will thrive on any soil that pro
duces corn, but the stronger tho soil the
Diy fish guano contains more than fifteen
times as much nitrogen as is found in stable
Underground silos, of 500 tons capacity,
with proper ventilation, are now the rago in
The Herefords are gradually gaining on
the shorthorns in favor, and are considered
by some superior to them.
Never feed decaying roots to stock, espe
cially to sheep, as they have been known to
seriously injure some flocks.
In highly-bred aud liberally-fed animals
the teeth are produced earlier than in those
living under the reverse conditions.
Plenty of sun and a warm soil are needed
for growing mangels, while swedes thrive
best in a cool, moist soil and climate.
To cement leather to metal: Wash the
metal with hot gelatine ; steep the leather
in an effusion of nut-galls (hot), and bring
the two together.
Those who have spaded their gardens will
find the action of tho frost beneficial in as
sisting to pulverize the soil.
Small, yokeless eggs, sometimes observed
in the case of fowls, denote overfeeding, most
likely an exclusive diet of Indian corn, with
little exercise and no green food.
To insure success in bee-keeping it re
quires a vigilaut eye and a proper amount of
industry, together with a good location for
bees, a good movable-frame hive and plenty
of bee pasture.
Ifen manure carries less water than stable
manure, but more nitrogen and organic
matter. As to potash and phosphoric acid,
there is a great similarity in the constitu
ents of both materials.
The exports of pork, meats, and lard from
all points in the United States and Canada,
from November 1, 1881, to January 21, 1SS2,
were 23,r)9.'3,S2o pounds, a decrease of 07,
00l,50'i pounds for tho same time tho previ
The produce of young mares are apt to be
the most healthy aud vigorous. There can
be no greater error than that of breeding a
mare when she is incapacitated for work,
either from age or accident
The following is recommended as a cure
for colic or stretches in sheep: One-half pint
of lard to which one-fourth of a teaspoonful
of cayenne pepper has been added. The at
tacks can always be prevented, however, by
giving a feeding of potatoes or turnips every
Intelligent breeders mako rigorous se
lection of breeding stock. The late Edwin
Hammond was once asked what proportion
of the rams bred by himself he would be
willing to use on his own flock, and he an
swered promptly: "Not ono in three hun
dred." In China a man who makes or sells adul
terated food is imprisoned or hanged. In
this country it is tho man who bnys the
adulterated food who has to suffer. The
other fellow acquires five inches of fat on his
ribs, and is elected to positions of honor and
CLAIMS ! CLAIMS I
in 1865 I
GEORGE E. LEMON,
Office, 015 Fifteenth St., (Citizen's National Bank,)
WASHINGTON, B. C.
P. O. Drawer 325.
If wounded, injured, or hnvc contracted any dis
ease, however slight the disability, apply at once.
"Widows, minor children, dependent mothers, fa
thers, and minor brothers and slaters, in the order
named, aro entitled.
War of 1812.
All surviving officers and soldiers of this war,
whether in the military or Naval service of tho
United States, who served fourteen (1 1 days ; or, if
in a battle or skirmish, for a less period, and tho
widows of such who have not remarried, are en
titled to a pension of eight dollars a month. Proof
of loyalty is no longer required In these claims.
Increase of Pensions.
Pension laws are more liberal now than former
ly, and many are now entitled to n liighcr rate than,
From and after January, 1S31, 1 shall make no
charges for my services in claims for increase of
pension, where no new disability is alleged, unless
successful in procuring the increase.
Restoration to Pension Roll.
Pensioners who have been unjustly dropped
from the pension roll, or whose names "have been
stricken therefrom by reason of failure to draw
their pension for a period of three years, or by
reason of re-enlistment, may have their pensions
renewed by corresponding with this llouse.
from one regiment or vessel and enlistment in an
other, is not a bar to pension in cases where tho
wound, disease, or injury was incurred while in tho
service of the United States, and in the line of
Survivors of all wars from 1790 to March 3, 1S35,
and certain heirs, are entitled to one hundred and
sixty acres of land, if not already received. Sol
diers of the late war not entitled.
Land warr.v ts purchased for cash at the highest
market rates, and assignments perfected.
Prisoners of War,
Ration money promptly collected,
Amounts due collected without unnecessary de
lay. Such claims cannot be collected without the
Horses, Lost in Service.
a Claims' of this character promptly attended to,
Many claims of this character have been erro
neously rejected. Correspondence in such cases ia
Bounty and Pay,
Collections promptly made.
Property taken by the Army in
States not in Insurrection.
Claims of this character will receive special at
tention, provided they were tiled before January 1.
1SS0. If not filed prior to that date they are barred
by statute of limitation.
In addition to the above we prosecute Military
and Naval claims of every description, procure Pat
ents, Trade-Marks, Copyrights, attend to busi
ness before tho General Land Office and other Bu
reaus of the Interior Department, and all the De
partments of the Government.
Vc invite correspondence from all interested, as
suring them of the utmost promptitude, energy,
and thoroughness in all matters intrusted to our
GEORGE E, LEMON,
As this may reach the hands of some persons un
acquainted with this House, we append hereto, aa
specimens of the testimony in our possession,
copies of letters from ssvcral gentlemen of political
and military distinction, and widely known
throughout the United States:
IIocse or ItErr.EsnsTATrvES,
Washington, D. C, March , lb75.
From several years' acquaintance with Captain.
George E. Lesion of this city, I cheerfully com
mend him as a gentleman of integrity and well
qualified to attend to the collection of bounty and
other claims against the Government. His expe
rience in that line give him superior advantages,
W. P. SPRAGUE, M. C,
Fifteenth District of Ohio,
JAS. B. STRAWBRIDGE, M. C,
Thirteenth District of Pennsylvania.
House of Representatives,
Washington, D. C, March 1, 1S73.
"We, tho undersigned, having an acquaintance
with Captain George E. Lesion for the past few
years, and a knowledge of the systematic manner
in which ho conducts his extensive business, and of
his reliability for fair and honorable dealings con
nected therewith, cheerfully commend him to
A. V. RICE, Chairman
Committee on Invalid Pensions, House Revs.
W. F. SLEMON3, M. C,
Second District of Ark,
W. P. LYNDE, M. C,
Fourth District of Wis.
R. "W. TOWNSIIEND. M. C.
Nineteenth District of JX
Citizens National Bank,
"Washington, D. C, January 17, 1S7D.
Captain George E. Lesion, attorney and agent
for the collection of war claims at Washington city,
is a thorough, able, and exceedingly well-informed
man of business, of high character, and entirely
rcuponsible. I believe that the interests of all
having war claims requiring adjustment cannot bo
confided to safer hands.
3Any person desiring Information as to my
Standing and responsibility will, on request, be fur
nished with a satisfactory reference in his own
vicinity or Congressional District.
Chills and Fever and Billions Attacks Positively
Cured by EMORY'S STANDARD CURE PILLS.
Never fail to cure the worst case. Pleasant to take.
No griping or bad effects. Prescribed by phvsi
cians, and sold by druggists everywhere for 25 cents
a box, or by mail.
STANDARD CURE CO.,
26133 Hi Nassau St., New York.
Mention this paper.
A, F.&A. M.R.A.M, &K.T.
Every Knsty Mason Needs Them.
Rituals, with Key, pocket form, morocco and
gilt, for $2. Other books, goods, etc.
Send for catalogue to
MASONIC BOOK AGENCY.
Iy33 143 Broadway, New York.
Mention this paper.
totd u fit name Oi tea pet.ous ami 2S
emts (to cover expense of packlnj; and ex
prcsiRe), nj -we will genu yoj for your
tronbla fonrvrrr taIiiaMo hooks, that anil fm
& enu, iroo, nm onr iBrjmotn Hitntnts.161 pmte CAtalosna,
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iVi Try HtfAlJBtr fr hrt tlmo In order to ;et names to esnd
nr Ctoil t. XAiirn JTndann llMinfctar1fiJ Co.. 50C4 20J
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EST EVER MADE,
9 8 & &
EMORY'S LITTLE CATHARTIC PILLS. No
family should be without them. Pleasant to take,
no griping. Druggists sell them, or by mail for 15
cents a box, in postage stamps. Standard Curb
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Mention this paper,