Newspaper Page Text
'Tw-i V-V 'v??1?t$&!Ti'isl'??r
ESTABLISHED 1S77.-NEW SERIES.
WASHINGTON, D. C, THURSDAY, OCTOBER 12, 1882.
VOL. II-NO. 9.-WHOLE NO. 61.
(pf$S ,4J Of war -rO-A p&&3ffl r &
SIEGE OF I
Tlie History of Longstreet's Campaign
THE TWO ARMIES.
Tlieir Relative Positions as
Shown "by the Records.
TTTRS CHANGE OE BASE.
General Willcox' s Masterly
Retreat from Bull's Gap.
The military events in East Tennessee, which
culminated in the so-called "Siege of Knox
ville," have been partially described in pre
ceding numbers of The National Tribune.
The advance of the Army of the Cumberland,
nnder command of Major-Gcncral "William S.
Roscerans, and of tho Army of the- Ohio, under
command of Major-General Ambrose E. Bun -bide,
resulting in the battle of Chickamauga
and the occupation of Chattanooga by tho
former, and tho unopposed occupation of
Knoxvillo and tho capture of Cumberland Gap
by tho latter, have formed the subjects of pro
This record opens with the detachment of
Lieutenant-Gcneral Longstreet's corps from
General Bragg's army in tho lino of investment
of Chattanooga on the south, east and west, and
its movements against tho Army of tho Ohio.
The advent of Longstreet upon tho field at
Chickamauga, and tho tremendous weight of
Lis veteran corps in deciding tho fortunes of
that day is so well known as to require no
iurther mention, liis failure to rc-enforco tho
solitary division sent to intercept Hooker's
march across Lookout Valley, and its conse
quent defeat at Wauhatchic and tho surrender
of tho lino across the valley to Chattanooga,
rendered his position in tho lino of investment
liugatory, and, with the blindness which
Ei nmod to characterize all tho counsels of his
commanding general, he was detached from
1 Lo Army of tho Tennesseo and, at his own
suggestion, sent up tho Valley of tho Ten
r s.fp, beyond supporting distance of the
ina:n army, at the very timo that tho garrison
r.t l l-aitanooga was daily increasing in strength
ly re-enforcements. Tho battles Of Lookout
7T tintain and Missionary Eidge, fully do-
'.i-fl in The Tribune in June last, swept
..-'s army away from its position as a bo-
. ring force and transferred it to tho banks
,.ik- these events were transpiring in front
ittauooga, Burnside, threatened by Long-
t, was withdrawing his forces from tho
rn end of tho valley and preparing, by
ntrating them at Knoxville, to oppose
jress of his distinguished opponent.
Map of East Tennessee.
lance at tho map will show the position
i ii lal Burnside's army. CumWrland Gap,
t .- northern border of the State, forty
- !i-tant as the crow flies, but double that
. by the circuitous route via Morris.
-. v. as held by LenM-rt's brigade and a few
- - of artillery. The importance of hold-
. -. ssion of this natural gateway through
i liU-rland range of mountains could not
: -,ti mated, and it was well understood
? ,c garrison of little more tlian two thou-
l i i n was insufficient against auy formid-
li :ny that might advance against it from
'in Virginia. To counterlalauce an un-
i , ti d advance of General Hansom's coni-
-i from the eastward, General Willcos, with
thn r thousand men aud sixun pieces of artil
li r . u :is stationed at Bull's Gap, with orden. if
atta' I "I .by a larger forco than he could raun-a-v
t. f.ill lck ujon tho gap and unite his
f,,r o with that of Colonel Lcmert. Kingston,
located about thirty miles west from Knoxville,
was garrisoned by Mott's brigade of White's
division, consisting of tho Twenty-fifth Mich
igan, One Hundred and Eighteenth Ohio,
r-j if I) ffM
. , ,o $. A f
Eightieth Indiana, and Sixteenth Kentucky
infantry regiments, aud tho Elgin Illinois bat
tery of artillery 1,G2G infantry, 26 cavalry,
and 131 artillery, with G guns.
It had boon tho intention of General Burn
Fide to hold the line of tho Littlo Tennessee, but
the advance of Longstreet's army, estimated r.t
25,000 men, decided him to evacuato Loudon
and adopt as his line of defense tho Tennessee
River from Kingston to Lenoir's Station, where
a pontoon bridge was thrown across the river,
thenco by the right bank of tho Littlo Ten
nesseo to Kingston, a point sufficiently near tho
mountains to render a movement in forco by
the confederate commander around that flank
impracticable. The obvious advantage of this
line was that a much smaller forco was re
quired to hold it, particularly as tho autumn
rains would render the Tennesseo a formidable
defense. Captain O. M. Poe, now on the staff
of tho General of tho Army, was then acting as
chief engineer of tho Army of tho Ohio. To
this accomplished officer General Burnsido was
indebted for his successful defense of Knox
ville, and to his elaborate report of military
operations in tho portion of East Tennessee
occupied by that army, the writer is indebted
for tho minute details of thoso operations. By
direction of General Burnside, Captain Poo
took up tho bridge at Loudon on tho morning
of tho 25th of October, immediately after tho
rear-guard of Burnside's army had crossed it,
and, loading it upon cars, took it to Knoxville,
occupying tho entire railroad transportation
two days. Tho bridge was thrown across the
Ilolston at the mouth of First Creek, whero it
proved to bo of inestimable valuo to tho Union
forces. The bridgo at Lenoir's was constructed
out of material at hand by Lieutenant-Colonel
Babcock, Assistant Inspector-General of the
Ninth Army Corps.
Tho following extract from tho returns of tho
Army of tho Ohio gives officially tho strength
of tho forco which General Burnsido was ablo
to oppose to tho advance of General Longstreot
from tho south, while at tho same timo main
taining a sufficient forco on tho northwest to
hold in check the cavalry command of Genoral
Ransom and tho infautry, which latter, al
though withdrawn to Abingdon and tho Salt
Works, was supposed to bo held in hand for a
hostilo demonstration in conjunction with tho
force advancing from Chattanooga :
Army, or the Ohio. Maj.-Gcn'l Ambrose E.
November 30, 18G3.
Tiztnly-iMrd Army Corps. Brig.-Gcn'l M. D.
Iftntft Anny Corps. Brig.-Gen'l R. B. Potter.
Present for Duty Equipped.
Abstract Fnoa Offi
Mott's Brie, Kingston
Chapin s Brig., Knox-
Bander a Ihvimon.
Woolford'B Brie, t'av
Bvrd's Cav. and M't'd
Pennebaker's Mid. Inf.
1,CR7 22 CSS 2
JFosVr'a Division, nearl
Garrard's Cav. and'
Graham's Cav. and
31C 53, 723
Nrsrn ahmy Corps..
Morrison's Brigade.-...; 6T!
Chrjt'rt Erigalc ! .V
Humphrey s Brigade.-! 69
Loniert'B Brig., Cum
Total Ninth A. C.
Artillery 2 KM
13 20S' 16
Iloskmn's Brigade 34, 1,178;
A illi a liiv., near
Cumberland Gap 103. 2,643 i
10712 313 16
Total Army of the I !
Ohio IS66 18.663 24C 3,934 76 1 ,506 130
Deduct Wnioox'a Com.
" I-meit'M Brig.
" Fobter's Cav....
Total at Cumberland
103 2.643 4, 10712 313 16
71 1,670 ' 13 32S 21
43 7101271,964 8 230 10
Gap- - 217, 5,032 131
Leaving at Knox-! I
Villeand Kingston 649 13,63i:il5!l,R63 43. 635' R3
Ajeky or East Tennessee. Lieutenant-Gcneral
J. FL Loti'jatreet.
December 31, 1UG3.
Effective Total Present.
Inf'try. Cav'ry. ArtU'y.
Abstract Phok Offi
cial Obtcbhs. .
e c- i c- jlL-L
o o o' -
a c: 3
o 5 o
LoNsrrBKET'H Corps 15
Ker.-baw's Brigade ....
Total 338 6.5U7
Briitiing'tt llrigade ......
Total ... ... 418 4,821
Vaughn a Brigade.....
TotaI........ 47H 2,730
Cavalry Corps ....... 4
J. T. jlorjnn'a Division.
HuMli'b Brigade 1782,614 5129 A
Crews m Brigade
Diblirell'a Brigade 1093 066 B 10G 4
UarribonV Brigade "' iwAw OIUO 4
Giltnrr'tf Brigade 1 1C1180 310" 4
W.JZ. Jones's Brigade; ,mi-,ibo Jio- -1
Total Cavalry .... COl'o.SOO
six lwiltorieM.. ...... 17 103 22
Total - Jlffl 1,061 !50l'(5,6SO 30 SW'Si
To this aggregate must bo added 7S2 killed,
wounded, and taken prisoners at the storming
of Fort Sanders, making 2-1,293 eflectives in
lino in front of Knoxvillo on the 30th of No
vember. The object of the latter bridge was to provide
communication between the Union forces on
each side of the bridge, and was destroyed on
their retreat. Somo correspondence passed be
tween Generals Grant, TIalleck, and Burnsido
as to the proper points to be held in East Ten
nessee, which resulted in a visit to Burnside's
headquarters from Mr. Dana, Assistant Secre
tary of War, and Colonel Wilson, of Grant's
staff. General Burnsido gave his reasons for
desiring to hold Knoxville instead of Kingston,
which latter had been recommended by Grant,
and, upon investigation, Dana and Wilson con
curred in tho plans of General Burnsido.
Gen. Parko was left in command at Knox
ville, with Hascall's division of tho Twenty
third Army Corps. Genoral Sanders, with his
division of cavalry and mountod infantry, was
south of tho Ilolston. Generals Totter, with
the Ninth Corps, and White, with Chnpin's bri
gado of his division, woro at Lenoir's, with
outposts south and west.
Hoskins's brigade w:is detached from Willcox
and ordorcd to Knoxvillo on tho approach of
Longstreet, leaving Willcox at Bull's Gap with
his infantry and Foster's division of cavalry,
consisting of Col. Graham's and Colonel Israel
Garrard's brigades. This command, though
composed of good men, was in bad condition
for want of almost every necessary supply.
Four of his infantry regiments wcro six
months volunteers, tho One Hundred and Fif
teenth, One Hundred and Sixteenth, Ono Hun
dred and Seventeenth, and Ono Hundred and
Eighteenth Indiana infantry. lie had thrco
batteries, tho Twelfth Michigan, Twenty -first
Ohio, and Twenty-third Indiana, and two com
panies of tho Third Indiana cavalry. After
the battle of Blue Springs Willcox took post at
Greenville with Hoskins's brigade, advanced to
Rheatown, supporting Shackelford's cavalry
operations in tho direction of Abingdon. About
tho 1st of November, owing to reports of a
largo confederate forco concentrating at Zolli
cofler and Abingdon and about to advance,
Schakelford drew in his outposts from Kings
port, Blountsville, and Carter's Station, and
fell back to Rheatown, whence, by direction of
Gen. Willcox, ho again advanced his pickets to
Jouesboro. This movement left tho road by
Kingsport toward Rogcrsvillo unguarded,
and on tho morning of November O'th Gar
rard's brigado, stationed at the latter place, was
caught napping and completely routed by a
cavalry force under Gen. Wm. E. Jones and
Col. Giltncr. Garrard fell back with his shat
tered command to Morristown, leaving eight
hundred and fifty of his men, ono thousand
horses aud mules, four pieces of artillery, and a
supply train of sixty wagons in tho hands of
Hearing of this oxploit, Gen. Burnside sup
posed tho cavalry forco that had performed it
to bo tho advanco of an army under Maj.-Gcn.
Sam Jones in co-operation with that under
Gen. Longstreet, and at once ordered General
Willcox to fall back upon Morristown and de
fend it. Willcox, however, seized tho passes in
the Bull Mountain from the ilolston opposite
Rogersville to (,'hucky Bend, and commenced
fortifying Bull's Gap.
Loyal Tennesseeans reported the confeder
ates to be concentrating in heavy forco at and
below Kingsport, Greenville, and Newport, and
every indication pointed towards a concerted
movement between Jones and Longstreet.
Having determined to hold Knoxville and
Cumberland Gap, General Burnside, fully alive
to tho peril of hia situation, determined not to
risk an engagement on either flank of his ariny
in tho open field, but to conceit tratn his com
mand at thoso two points, extending his line
on tho west only as far as Kingston.
As before stated, Col. Hoskins'3 brigade, con
sisting of his own regiment the Twelith Ken
tucky, tho Eighth Tonneeo, and the Ono
Hundred and Third Ohio infantry -lJOO
strong was ordered to Knoxville, leaving Will
cox with tho remainder of his command, con
sisting of the six months Indiana ttoops a-.d
the batteries before mentioned, together with a
skeleton regiment of North Carol ina recruits, and
Foster's cavalry. Tho Thirty--erond Kentucky
infantry, tho Eleventh Michigan battery, and
two battalions of mounted Tennessceans, under
Colonels Davis and I'atton, were at Morristown
and Mossy Creek. With this heterogeneous
command, mostly raw troops, with tho excep
tion of tho cavalry and artillery, the latter out
of all proportion and more an incumbrance
than a bcncilt, cavalry horses without shoes
and worn down by incessant scouting, an im
mense wagon train, a great portion of which
belonged to tho troops which had been with
drawn to Knoxville, Gen. Willcox was directed
to move to tho vicinity of Cumberland (Jap.
On tho Kith of November General Parke tele
graphed him that in tho event of communi
cation being cut ofF between them, he was
relied upon to unito with Lcmert in defense of
Cumberland Gap, where lOO.iHM) rations wero
said to bo stored for tho use of the army. Ho
had to retreat fifty-two miles in the face of a
superior force, guard an immense train of artil
lery and baggage wagons, cross tho Ilolston
and Clinch Rivers, two rocky, deep, and rapid
streams, over a muddy road blocked tip with
thousands of refugees traveling with every
conceivable vehicle There were ox trains
toiling slowly and laboriously, dragging farm
wagons loaded with furniture; mules and
broken down horses loaded with women and
children, all fleeing from confederate wrath to
Covering tho retreat of his infantry and
trains towards Bean's Station by an advanco
movement of his cavalry in an opposite direc
tion on every road leading towards Greenville
and Kinsport, Willcox ordered the Tenneseo
battalions at Morristown and MoBsy Creek to
join him at Bean's Station, where lie expected
an attack tho next day. During tho night tho
cavalry camo in, leaving pickets on tho vari
ous roads, and tho position being favorable,
General Willcox waited ono day to accept
battlo if it should be offered. Parties of cavalry
were sent out to repair tho telegraph wires to
Knoxville, but tho first message from Army
Headquarters was a reiteration of the order
requiring Willcox to move on in tho direction
of Cumberland Gap.
a Dirrrcui.T tafk.
On tho afternoon of the l'Jth ho began lite
diflicult tusk of moving his artillery over tho
steep and rocky pas3 of the Clinch mountains,
above Bean's Station. This was effected, and
on tho morning of tho 20lh the column was in
motion, preceded by the cavalry, which, ad
vancing as rapidly as possible, seized the passes
in tho direction of Rocorsvillo and Jonesville.
Ono party, commanded by Captain Hammond,
scouted as far as Mulberry Gap towards Jones
ville, and surprised Slemp's Sixty-fourth and
Sixty-fifth Virginia in their oauips, charged,
and drove them three miles, capturing and de
stroying most of their arms and camp equipage.
Arriving at Tazewell. General Willcox found
that Colonel Lcmert had, instead of 100,000
rations, no more subsistence stores than would
bo required for his own command for thirty
days, and that rain had rendered tho roads to
tho baso of supplies at Camp Nelson, in Ken
tucky, impassablo for loaded wagons. Ho was,
therefore, obliged to scatter hi3 command up
and down tho valley in front of tho Gap in
search of forago and provisions.
Meauwhilo General Ransom, in command of
tho confederato cavalry which had defeated
Garrard at Rogersville, had learned of tho
ovacuation of tho country about Morristown
and Bull's Gap, and at ouco moved his com
mand forward through Kingsport, on tho
Rogersville road, with tho intention of watch
ing tho proceedings of tho Union troops in tho
direction of Cumberland Gap.
To hold him at a respectful distance, Foster,
who, with his dismounted cavalry, had his
headquarters at Ta.owcll, sent Garrard, who,
notwithstanding his misfortune, was entrusted
with another brigado, to camp near Evans
Ford, with scouts near Bean's Station, and
Graham with his brigado to occupy tho
Walker's Ford road to Knoxvillo. Willcox
encamped his infantry at Cumberland Gap,
(Powell's bridge,) and on tho Jacksboro road.
Tho country into which six thousand men
weie thus suddenly thrust, with no provision
made for their subsistence, had been gleaned of
supplies by successive raids by tho cavalry of
both armies for two successivo seasons. Corn
was scarce; the hogs thoy had collected on tho
French Broad river, and driven with them,
wcro dying of cholera. There was somo wheat
in Powell Valley, but Ransom controlled it
with his cavalry, and tho mills woro aban
doned or destroyed.
A MOVCMErCT AGAKfST ABINGDON.
In this strait General Willcox communi
cated with Genoral Grant, who advised a
movement against Abingdon, and with General
Hallcck, who directed him to render every
assistanco in his power to General Burnside.
Neither made any suggestion as to how ho was
to procure food for six thousand empty
In response to his requisition, ono thousand
horses wero sent hint from Kentucky, with
which to remount his cavalry. Major Behr, of
the Fourteenth Illinois cavalry, with threo
hundred mon belonging to Lemert's command,
attacked tho confederato command at Jones
ville and drovo it across Powell river, releasing
tho mills upon its banks, and they were at
once set to work grinding wheat for tho half
Five hundred of Foster's dismounted cavalry
wero remounted upon horses received from
Kentucky, and strenuous efforts wero made to
fit out tho exp dition against Abingdon, Va.,
with tho intention of drawing off Ransom's
force from co-operation with Longstreet in tho
siege that had now commenced.
A drove of hogs from Kentucky that had
been halted by tho sicgo in the vicinity of
Jackloru, were suddenly pounced upon by tho
confederate cavalry, but tho game of tho raid
ers was spoiled by Colonel Davis, who, with
his T nncfrsce cavalry, attacked them, and in
a brisk engagement drove them oS".
The movement into Virginia was abandoned
in favor of ono directed by General Burnside,
communicated through scouts who had found
their way into Knoxville, now invested on tho
south aud west by Longstreet. General Buru
side'd orders called for an immediate advance
of the forces under Willcox towards Knoxville.
Major-Gene nil John G. Foster, on his way ro
Knoxville to relieve General Burnside, arrived
at Cumberland Gap on the 30th of November,
and the movement commenced on tho follow
Graham's brigado was ordered forward to
Bluiue'a CrK-s Roads, where, in the event of an
attack from General Wheeler, he was directed
to lull back towards Tazewell aud draw as
l.ugt; a poi tinn of the confederate cavalry after
him as po--ible. Garrard's brigade was left
at Beau V. Station. On the night of December
ltit courier from Graham reported a heavy
for e in bis front pressing him back towards
Maynardsville. Next morning General Will
cox moved with the infantry division under
command of Colonel Curtin, Forty-lit'th Penn
sylvania, towards the Clinch river, with orders
from General Foster to go as far us Walker's
Folk. Jackson's brigade, of this division
marc'ied by the direct route to the ford, with
PatUrson's Twenty-first Ohio battery, with
orders to put his artillery in position at the
ford imd either cross over to the assistanco of
Graham or cover his retreat across tho river, as
chcu instances required. Tho fords above
Walker's weie protected by the advance of tho
remainder of tho division.
Daring the night Graham left his camp-fires
burning, guarded by one company of his com
mand, and withdrew.
General Martin, in command of Wheeler's
cavalry of Armstrong'sdivision, and Jones's bri
gade of Ransom's cavalry, advanced to attack
the position on the following morning, drovo
out the rear-guard, and soon came upon Gra
ham's main fom. Graham fell back slowly,
fighting at every advantageous point. About
three miles from the ford a message readied
htm from General Willcox that re-enforcements
were at band. Jackson sent two regiments of
infantry across tho river to his assistance,
which relieved an equal number of Graham's
men, whoso ammunition was exhausted. Mar
tin now sent Jones's brigade to tho right to
endeavor to effoct a lodgment between Gra
ham's position and the river, whilo Armstrong
advanced against his front.
Jones was met by Colonel Capron with tho
Fourteenth Illinois cavalry, armed with Henry
rifles, and handsomely repulsed. General
Martin sayrf: "A force of tho enemy prevented
Jone's success." Armstrong pushed forward
and encountered two regiment.-, of tho Indiana
troops, who btood up well in this their first
battle, and in about twenty minutes repulsed
an attack made by a veteran division. Martin's
artillery was silenced by tho Twenty-first Ohio
battery firing over tho heads of the Union
General Martin fell back half a milo before
dark, and at iniduight was in full retreat
toward Knoxville, leaving ono hundred and
twmty-five stragglers along tho road, who
weio picked up by Willcox's advanco on tho
The Union loss in this engagement was
about fifty, in killod, wounded, and missing.
General Martin is silent upon his losses in this
engagement, but acknowledges tho sudd on ter
mination of the expedition.
To bo continued.
Tlio Best In tho Countrr.
i'Yom the Holly (Mich.) Register.
The National Tiunuxn is tho best news
paper in this country untrammeled by party
and dovoted to the interests of all soldiers.
BRAVE LITTLE RED GAP,
The Young Orderly of Monster Wirz at
FIRST NIGHT THERE.
TTie Stockade as It Appeared
in Its Unfinished State.
THE TWO PBISCM GATES.
How the First Inmates Fared
and. What They Suffered.
Continued from last icccl;.
Andersonville at tho time of which I write
was a small railway station in lower Georgia.
It contained some half dozen shabby houses,
and a dilapidated depot but little more than
an open shed. Front Macon it is distant about
sixty miles, and tho railroad, which passes
through it, connects tho former city with
Albany, tho head of navigation on tho Flint
river. The site of tho prison was a thick pine
forest, remoto from any town of importance.
The nearest Federal forco was Sherman's army,
at that timo operating in Tennesseo, and somo
thrco or four hundred miles away. Wo
seemed to bo, indeed, beyond the palo of civili
zation. Whilo at Belle Isle, we could see the
flag flying on the confederate capitol, aud war
like preparations were going on everywhere
about us. At Andersonville the sceuo was en
tirely changed ; wo wero in the midst of a
wilderness, whero tho boom of Federal
cannon had never been heard, and where it
seemed impossible that friends could ever
reach us. " Who enters hero leaves hope he
hind," might well have been inscribed over the
gates of tho stockade, for life and hopo both
seemed about to end for us forever.
When I left Belle Isle, it was with the idea
an idea which the confederates never failed to
impress upon their prisoners when about to
remove them to somo new scene of torture
that I was about to be exchanged, and, indeed,
I managed to securo a place with a different
squad, the members of which were entire strang
ers to me, instead of waiting until my own com
rades left, in tho expectation that my chances of
being exchanged would in that way be bettered.
It was not until two or three weeks after my own
departure tluit the members of my own com
pany were taken to Andorsonville. I well re
member the night of our arrival there. Worn
out and exhausted with our long and weary
journey of 950 miles from Eichmond, we were
content to make our beds in tho sand and
take our rest as best we could. When we
awoke in the morning, and had an opportunity
to look about us, we found that we were in an
immense pen, enclosing about sixteen acres of
ground. The stockade wh ich formed this pen
was built of pine logs, hewn square, about two
feet in diameter, and securely driven into the
ground. They were placed so closely together
that it was impossible even to obtain a glimpse
of tho exterior through the cracks. The
stoekado rose above us about twenty feet
high. It seemed apparently unscalable, and
certainly proof against any efforts to under
mine it or batter it down. At the time of our
arrival tho stockade was not entirely finished.
CLOSING Ur THE G VP.
At the southwest corner some two or threo
hundred negroes wero still at work on it, en
gaged in closing up tho last gap, and in that
quarter of the prison a number of guards were
stationed to thwart any attempt of the inmates
to escape. I learned that they were members
of the Fifty-fifth Georgia regiment. The ex
treme length of the pen was due north and
south. A shallow stream of water, ten or
twelve inches deep, and about four feet in
Avidth, divided the prison, and on er-eh side of
it was a slimy bog, some iit0 yards in width,
and of such a treacherous nature that you were
liable to sink to your waist if you attempted to
cross it. From the edges of this swamp tho
ground rose north and south as far as the
stockade. The ground had nearly all been
cleared when we reached there, tho trees hav
ing been used in the construction of the stock
ade. There were two gates to the prison, called
respectively the north and tho south gate.
They were on opposite sides of tho creek, and
about midway between the ends of the stock
ado. The gates did not open immediately into
the forest surrounding tho pen, but outside of
each was another and smaller stockade also built
ot logs and upon the same plan as the pen itself
These small enclosures wero wide enough to per
mit the entrance of a team, and their purpose
was to prevent the prisoners from making a rush
through the gates every timo it was necessary
to admit new captives or receive supplies. The
usual procedure was this: Whenever a squad of
prisoners or a supply train arrived they were
first admitted through the outer gate into tho
enclosure, and when tho gate had been securely
fastened again tho inner door was opened and ad
mission given to the prison itself. At regular
intervals along tho stoekado were sentry-boxes,
to which access was had by the guards by means
of rude steps leading up to them from the exterior
of the prison. From theso boxes tho guards
wero ablo to keep a close watch upon tho move
ments of tho prisoners iusido. I shall have
something to say hereafter about tho sort of
watch they kept. Snflico it for the present
that they shot down many a helpless and un
offending man merely to gratify their thirst
for blood. Tho stoekado was so high and the
logs of which it was composed wero driven so
closely together that it was almost imponsiblo
to obtain a view of tho surrounding country.
There were, indeed, ouly two points from which
a glimpso could bo caught of it. By standing
on tho highest points on tho north side and on
the south side it was possible to look across a
swamp into tho adjoining woodland, and from
the north side ono could discern a log building,
which had tho appearance of an old-fashioned
country barn, and which subsequently became
famous as tho headquarters of tho monster
Wirz. Thero was an archway in tho centre of
tho building which apparently had been used
in former times to drive teams through, but it
had been boarded up whilo tho building was
being repaired for use as headquarters.
A more uninviting spot than Andersonville I
had noyer seen, but at first wo were not in
clined to complain of our lot. The debris of
tho forest gave us an abundance of fuel, and
every squad had all tho firo it wanted.
THE FIRST DAY'S RATIONS.
Wo had scarcely completed our inspection of
our new homo when a wagon was driven in
with our day's rations. They consisted of
about a quart of meal for each man, a sweet
potato, and a small pieco of salt beef. Tho
timio camo when this would havo been consid
eredi a very liberal allowance indeed. As it
was., we wero disposed to think that wo wero
to ho moro favorably treated than whilo at
Belli 5 Isle, but at that time our numbers wero
small, and the great size of the inclosure gave
us plenty of elbow room. This condition of
things, as you know, did not last long. As
soon as they had received their rations tho
boys sot to work to cook their first meal.
They were almost entirely without means of
cooking their food, and it proved a task of
considerable difficulty. Half canteens and
every piece of tin that could be con
verted into a pan were confiscated for cook
ing purposes, and many of my comrades were
in sort straits for something to carry water in.
In ma ny cases coats and pantaloons wero
pulled off, and the legs and arms used to carry
meal ii 1. Our most familiar utensil for carry
ing water was a boot. After the foot of
tho boot had disappeared, wo used to mako
leather buckets out of the legs. Those who
were so fortunate as to still have pocket knive3
with tlmm were able, of course, to make littlo
tubs and buckets for thentbt-lves, and, as for
tho rest. Yankee ingenuity sufficed in tho end
to overcome all obstacles. Wo talked the situa
tion over at breakfast, and finally concluded
thero was nothing left for us but to make tho
best of .it. After breakfast the confederates
divided -us into squads of 100 men each, and
these ware again subdivided into messes of
twenty-ftve. A sergeant was appointed for
each squad, and eacl' mess selected a sergeant
also. His duty was -to attend to tho drawing
During tho first nij-ht that we wero thero a
few of our boys mauag ed to make their escape.
They toro a blanket into strips, and, using tho
strips as a rope, managed to scale the wall. At
that timo tho guards Wire few in number, and.
tho feat was accompliihed when tho sentry
was at tho other end .of his heat. But one,
however, of the refugees ever reached our
lines, and even he was re aptured a few months
later, at ono of the battb -s before Atlanta and,
sent back to his old quarters at Andersonville.
I remember well how .strong and well ho
looked in comparison with the rest of us when
ho was brought back, anil we all envied him.
the good square meals wliich. he had had in.
" God's country," as the boys termed it. Old
Wirz himself recognized h im upon his retnrn
and vented his spleen in :;onie surly rein?. ..
The first thing that wo turned our 1 s
to after breakfast was t'he erection t
place of shelter. Wo had no tools
sort, but a lew of us, as I have y.." :. i
managed to conceal their pock' t i- s
when they were searched by th
crates, and they wero promptly .il! '
requisition. Withes and polos were
swamp, and wo managed to fasten i .
gel her securely enough to form a ru-'.
tiou against the elements. Some oi
rades covered these shelfs they eon'..
be called tents with their blankt :-. .
ma jority of us had no blankets to spa r .
put pose, and were compelled to t, :
domicils with a long-!cavcd pine, wh.. ' :
season, afforded a very fair protect: n i
the rain. Wo thought that our lot .: .. . 1
enough then, but it was not lone V-
came to look back to those days with 'iv .." i
regret, for we enjoyed rainy privihv -. ul. . i
the thonsands who camo after us w.r n- r
permitted to indulge in. This was d.:o to .
fact that as yet we wero iew in nn:.i' r. 1
had abundant opportunity to secure tl:c 1 .
left by the negroes while they weie b..l
the stockade. Very soon we had a r
little village of sheltered tents of the k
have described, for even under stuh :,.;,
circumstances our industry brought forth ;.
We had not been long at Aitdersonv.lh
Gen. John II. Winder paid u& a visit. II.- u
the confederate commissary ger rai of t ' ,. j
oners, and was notorious for t io d.
took in starvinz them to d :at . It i
during the month of August. 1 tfl, L l
down upon 3,0?1 graves n u
mouth, and remarked that '.
for tho confederate cause L
intents! Officially Ander-..i ,
to the confederates as (.i:n;
was not so called except in '
reports, and orders.
Although I was a stramrer to
my squad they treated nu- w r
and consideration, and ml. a
me as far as lay within tin i r ;
we had been at Anderson .V
. C'.u' i:i
a doi: r
i. tv - -
. , V. !, I.'
s imi- r. '
-il ilu '1!
rreat k i
ed to .
it -is!.. :
.if aijr o ..
i wen-q ii ,!'
My ( n .
a I ha.! 1
. t riends t
when twenty of tho nieinK t
pany arrived from Belie Isl . .i
on the sonth side of the pri i.
ters were on the north s.ih , r
so much attached to my i.. .
remained with them ami i' i
comrades on the south sMe. W
overv dav at the creek and ..i'.i
i .t n ' .n i
I ei Li -
uation together, and nr.i-i.ni y we pi. i a
viit to their cmarters.
The first incident of not-- t! ir l n.m
was the loss of reason by .i i i. yan.- :
from Uniontown, lVnna. li ."as O. i;
both in mind and hotly, and I. irvi'.e.I
short time. Six months later bat n j
besides myself, oat of twenty-two nun :' , v
company who were taken to Anders. , ' -,
was alive, and I am not sure that e- -i i .s
more fortunate comrade ever reached our
Certainly I never heard of him again.
To be continued.
Tho Owner Found Tor a Soldier's l'lpe.
Tho curious bowl of a wooden pipe recently '
found in Hatcher's Bun, with the various bat
tles in which tho owner participated cat npon
it, has been claimed by the owner. He prove?
to bo John H. Van Houton, of Patterson, N. ,T.
Ho was drummer of Company I, Second rr - .
meut of New Jersey volunteers, Gen. K. t
ney 's old First New Jersey brigade, First I n -ion,
Sixth Army Corps. The finder, J. Mui- ..U
Donnelly, of Concord, Franklin county. l'i,
will forward the pipe to the former owm r. v h j
will greatly priza his old friend.
As Lons as the Stars Shiae.
To tho Editor National Tribcjie:
Plcaso Snd enclosed ono dollar for the sol
dier's stauuch friend. I will not and cannot
do without it, as it is the surest way to hear
from my comrades and our rights. I am wait
ing very eagerly to hear that the long delay in
granting pensions is ended. With success to
The National Tribune as long as the stars
may shino, I remain, yours,
MlLLSBOUO, YA. Wit. GlIIGSBY.