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THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE: WASHINGTON, D. 0., THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 15, 1883.
Some Practical Suggestions for Our
We were recently asked the question : " What
is agricultural education in schools, and how
does it differ from ordinary education?" Pat
in this direct manner wo were rather puzzled,
and in thinking tho matter over we were led
into a train of reasoning somewhat as follows:
Metaphysicians havo shown that there are
certain faculties, or, as they express it, elements
of knowledge, which must exist in the mind a
priori, in order to our forming a judgment upon
any subject or ohject. Tho agriculturist, above
most others, must possess a greatly varied
knowledge, in order to exercise a proper judg
ment or approach to uniform success in his
varied operations. Ho must bo conversant
with the principles of cultivation, and before
he can perceive tho rationale of his labors ho
must have a knowledgo of tho laws the defi
nite and unvarying principles of physical
science so far as ascertainable. Tho field of
study thus becomes one of immenso magnitude.
How plants grow, how thoy feed, and what
they feed upon; why somo arc fruitful while
others are barren ; the exact specific relations
that exist between them and the soil upon
which thoy are growing, and the different de
velopments induced by the unequal distribu
tion of the elements of growth, are the subject
matter of physiology a science that compre
hends a knowledge of chemistry, botany, and
tho greneral principles of natural philosophy.
The constituents of soils, their numerous com
binations, and the sources from which thoy
have been produced, are taught by studying
mineralogy and geology. it
Economy of labor depends npon the skillful
application of tho laws of mechanics. A Knowl
edge of the laws or principles of hydrostatics
and hydraulics is necessary before he can un
derstand the science of draining lands, or pro
vido for its proper application or execution.
To guard against attacks of insects and repel
those which may have found a lodgement in
his crops, involves an acquaintance with ento
mology, and the complicated influences of cli
mate brings him in contact with meteorology
and climatology. In short, there is no branch
of knowledge but will contribute to his aid,
and may be productive of suggestions applica
ble to somo one or other of his varied pursuitB.
Who can decide as to what is and what is not
included in agricultural education, and its
practical application to the cultivation of plants?
BEilAKKS OX VEGETABLES.
The following notes on vegetables are briefed
from remarks of 13. P. Ware before tho Massa
chusetts Horticultural Society: Beginning with
squashes, a variety called Butman was said to
bo of cxcellent.quality, but not very productive.
The Marblehead squash is a selection from the
Hubbard, is generally higher priced, but does
not crop so well. The Essex is a cross between
the Turban and Hubbard, and unites tho form
and fine quality of the Turban with the good
keeping properties of the Hubbard. It is a
rapid grower and may be planted late, and thus
avoid tho maggot It is the best early variety.
As to cabbages, Fottler's Improved Brunswick
was at one time tho best early cabbage, but it
has gained in size but lost in earliness. The
Stone Mason is the best -variety ever intro
duced, making solid heads of excellent quality.
The American Improved Savoy has a small
Btump and large head, and has preserved tho
fine quality of tho old Tariety. The Danvcrs
carrot was originated in Danvers, as also tho
Danvers onion, tho onion of tho world for
general growth. Tho Long Orange carrot is
too long, and the Early Horn not productive,
but an intermediate variety has been intro
duced, of which tho speaker had raised thirty
five tons on an acre. Of sweet corn, the Mar
blehead is tho earliest, tho stalks are small,
and the ears are produced near the ground.
Three or four varieties should bo planted at
the same time, 60 that they would come in uso
in succession, and in this way two plantings
would bo enough for the season. Next after
the Marblehead comes Crosby's Early, the
Moore's Early ; and for late varieties tho Mar
blehead Mammoth, the Burr's Improved, or
Stowell's Evergreen. As to potatoes, tho Early
Eose .may be considered as tho basis of all tho
good potatoes that we have. Burbank's Seed
ling is a better cropper, keeps well, and is of
excellent quality. The Early Ohio is earlier
than the Early Bose, and has tho requisites of
a first-class variety. Tho Bell is probably the
best new variety. Those who have tested it
thoroughly claim for it better qualities than
are possessed by any other. Concerning toma
toes, ho places the Acme and Paragon ahead of
any others for the table. With regard to peas,
the American Wonder is a sweet, wrinkled j
variety, and a great acquisition. For the ear
liest green pea, Dan O'Bourke, or any of its
class, is recommended; then American Won
der, McLean's Advancer, and Champion of
England for tho latest. Mr. Ware makes three
plantings; the late ones aro quite uncertain,
are apt .to mildew, yet it is worth while to try
them, since nice green peas late in tho season
are a greatluxury. Of turnips, the White Egg
is the most reliable for a crop. It is a flat
variety, and is better than the Purple Strap
Leaf, though not quite so early.
rHYLLOXEBA OB GRAPE LOUSE.
Prof. A. J. Cook, of the Michigan Agricul
tural College, gives in he Xew York Tribune
6ome of his observations, as follows: "The
insect Phylloxera xastatrix, one of the plant
lice appears on the leaves of the grape and
forms galls, but ia this form it does little harm.
Hardy grapes, like Clinton, often show these
galls on leaves, and the vines continue healthy
and vigorous. Another form of this louse
works on the roots of the more tender grapes,
like Iona, Catawba, and Delaware, causing tho
plants to die. It is this form that has tormented
the grape growers of Europe." If the Profes
sor was better acquainted with the diseases of
grapes he would not thus merely repeat the
sayings of others. Tho Iona, Catawba, and
Delaware arc not tender grapes in the vicinity
of Cayuga Lake, tfor example,; in the State of
New York. Yet, perhaps not two miles from
that lake, or even a less distance, following the
line of Pleasant Valley, in the low grounds, ho
might call them tender, because there the mil
dew attacks tho leaves. It is fashionable to
attribute all grape troubles to phvlloxera,
while, as a matter of fict, the only serious i
drawback to grape culture arises from mndew
and fungus growtlis, of which the phylloxera
is mostly a consequence and not a cause. When
mildew is prevented, or absent, all of our na
tive grapes are equally hardy, so far as can be
shown, in their several climatic localities, and
it is only those persons who have no practical
experience in grape culture, and having but a
superficial knowledge of the progress of this
industry, who continually intrude their crudo
ideas and notions whenever they can find a
HOGS AJTD OTUEB ANIMALS IX OKCHABDS.
It seems to be a well-attested fact tljat frnit
orchards where pigs, chickens and other kinds
of poultry aro allowed to ramble at will are the
least troubled with insects and produce the
fairest fruit. The lnrva of the coddling moth,
curculio, and similar insects which infest fruits,
are kept in subjection on account of these
animals eating tho injured fruits which fal
from tho trees and by picking up stray bugs,
moths and grubs. Wo " rcccutly attended a
meeting of fruit growers where the subject of
insects in orchards was discussed, and we were
forcibly impressed with tho evidenco brought
forward to show that where hogs aud poultry
were allowed in orchards the fruit was com
paratively free from insect injuries, and brought
an advanced price in market on this account.
Jn the application of remedies which in
volves tho manipulation of each tree, cither by
dusting powder over tho foliage or spraying
with jtoisonous liquids, few farmers will give
the necessary attention; but to fenco in an
orchard and turn stock into it is so practicable
aud economical in every respect that it can bo
urgently recommended to tho attention of
tvery farmer who hns a fruit orchaid of value.
Where it is in contemplation to plant trees
during the coming spring the holes should bo
prepared as soon as it is practicable, or the land
will admit ol working. It is of tho first im
portance to havo tho soil well pulverized before
planting. If a frost should occur after the
nolcs aro prepared, it will havo a decidedly
beneficial cflbct in loosening the soil at the
sides and bottoms of them, and thosoil which
hns been thrown out will also be benefited in a
similar manner. It will also become dryer and
consequently wanner, all of which will bo in
favor of the treo when set out. Most of tho
failures of spring planting are owirg to tho
coldness of tho soil at that season, together with
tho rapid advance of tho heat of the atmos
phere; these conditions have tho effect of ex
citing the buds into growth, and tho leaves
expand and demand moisture from the treo,
which becomes exhausted before the roots are
sufficiently active to supply the demand, and
when dry weather is long continued under
these cirenmstances tho plants aro severely
checked, and oftentimes succumb. Fall plant
ing has advantages in this respect, in so far as
at that season the above conditions of soil and
atmosphere are, in the main, reversed.
OBANGE CULTUBE IN THE AZOEES.
About thirty years ago orange trees in the
Azores were found to bo disappearing from
somo unknown reason. It was observed that
all tho trees affected produceed a very heavy
crop the very year that tho disease appeared,
the leaves became yellow and fell off, tho bark
on the trunks and stems opened, and drops of a
kind of yellow gum exuded. Many orangeries
were quite destroyed, and opinions as to tho
cause of tho disease were much divided. Seed
ling trees were attacked as well as those which
had been raised from layers the usual method
of propagation in theso islands. It was discov
ered that by removing every part where tho
disease appeared that tho tree would revive;
thoso past recovery wero dug up and burnt,
As a .remedy, at first, tho trees wero highly
manured and heavily sheltered, but without
any advantage. Now it is acknowledged that
thorough drainago is at tho foundation of suc
cessful orange growing; that next to this,
trenching to a great depth is essential; and,
thirdly, that manure must bo applied, but with
discretion. Although .the disease still con
tinues to somo extent, the orange gardens now
look very prosperous. Tho thick shelters have
been thinned out, andtho trees composing them
aro not allowed to grow high. Propagation by
layers has been abandoned, and good kinds aro
grafted upon seedling stocks.
This is also called the turnip cabbage. It is
generally assumed to bo a variety of tho com
mon cabbage, but in culture and use it is more
nearly allied to the turnip. It receives its
name from a protuberance or swelling in tho
stem abovo the surface of tho ground. Some
times theso swellings reach considerable sizo,
so that the crop will bo as bulky as that of an
averago yield of turnips. For table use it is
best for eating when the bulb is about the sizo
of a hen's egg. At this period of growth, if it
is cut into pieces and well boiled, the flavor is
between that of the artichoke and parsnip. It
is largely grown in somo countries as winter
food for cattle, and has the reputation of being
as nutritious as turnips, and also that, unlike
tho turnip, the kohl rabi imparts no taste to
the milk of cows which aro fed on it. The cul
ture of this plant is in all respects similar to
that given to cabbago.
We have in a former paper mentioned tho
success of keeping green food in a cheap silo.
Wo see it stated that Dr. W. A. Pratt, of Elgin,
111., tho owner of one of tho largest herds of
fine cattle in tho country, says that tho feed
from his silo comes out in excellent condition
and pleases his stock. His silo is one of the
cheapest of the cheap kind. It is simply an
excavation in a soil naturally well drained. It
cost but a few dollars, yet answers him as well
as though he had expended a thousand dollars
in brick and cement work.
NOTES AND EXTRACTS.
A Digest or Information Collected From Y&rlous
There is a constant and increasing demand
for forest products, and a growing necessity
for the prevention of the wholesale destruction
of woodlands by fires. As a matter of dollars
and cents, we cannot afford to have forests
burn. The actual losses from this source are
truly enormous. The census for 1830 will soon
teach in larger figures tho extent of this de
struction. Inl8S0 there weronearly 14,000 acres
burned over in Massachusetts alone. In Penn
sylvania, where the lumber interests are second
to.Michigan, the losses for the same year were
abovo $3,000,000. Forest fires not only destroy
the trees, but burn up tho fertility of tho soil,
which is a greater loss than the wood. If only
a part of tho wood alono was destroyed, the
same kind of trees would continue to grow;
but when swept clean of everything it requires
ages to bring back the same kind of conditions
and tho same kind of trees. For example, in
case of the white pine the most valuable for
est tree in New England weeds spring up on
the burned soil, followed by brakes, and later
by willows, &c. In this way tho Boil is again
clothed with vegetation, and after generations
the pines may again come in. Forests are sub
ject to many dangers, but fires lead tho list.
There is now very little inducement to plant
trees, and this will continue so long as public
sentiment is such that authors of forest fires
are not responsible for their destructive work.
Capitalists will not risk money in New Eng
land in forest growing when it is open to such
destructive influences. Forest fires could be
much reduced in number by proper precautions.
Locomotives originate the larger part of the
forest fires. These should all be provided with
spark consumers. A legislative act to this ef
fect is needed. Another should provide that
all parts of trees loft in tho woods should be
gathered and carofully burned. A criminal
act is also needed for tho punishment of all
who shall maliciously set fire to growing wood.
It is still more important that public opinion
bo educated. A full understanding of tho forest
question is the best guarantee that the woods
will bo protected and receive the attention that
they deserve. Prof. C. S. Sargent's lecture on for
THE SUGAR CBOP.
The season has been unusually favorable for
the growth and maturing of sugar cane, and
one of the largest crops of recent years is as
sured. Tho Department returns of results have
not yet been received, as it is yet too early to
obtain full data of the manufacture. The indi
cations, however, favor an aggregate of tho
Louisiana crop exceeding 200,000 hogsheads
of sucar, probably not les3 than 250,000,000
Tho sorghum experiment has resulted tho
present season in the production of a good grade
of sugar, manufactured at an apparent profit, in
three factories, one of which produced 319,000
pounds, and in experimental production of
small quantities at several points in the North
west. The aggregate will exceed 500,000
Beet sugar has been made successfully for
three successive seasons in California, at one
factory. The Maine factory, which was in ope
ration three years, producing in one season
1,200,000 pounds and in another 1,000,000
pounds, was obliged to suspend operations for
want of beets, which farmers, inexperienced in
sugar-beet culture, thought they could not af
ford to produce at the prices, viz, $5 to $0 per
ton, the average production being ten tons par
The season has been favorable for the pro
duction of a good quantity of sorghum sirup,
and the reports concerning quality indicate
gradual improvement in the methods of defeca
tion and clarifying. There has been a marked
increase in area in some sections of the South
and West. From Jlcporl of the Commissioner of
Agriculture for 1SS2.
Speaking of the curculio, Prof. Riley says the
plum curculio is found and easily shaken down
from the tree, while tho apple curculio hangs
on and 13 dislodged with tho greatest difficulty.
The plum curculio transforms in tho. ground,
the apple curculio in tho fruit. Insects of this
character can bo trapped by laying pieces of.
bark or wood around tho trees early in spring.
The curculio will gather under them, and can
be easily destroyed. The work of tho curculio
is principally done during tho night; thoy
work some also in daylight; but many more
can be caught by the shaking-down process at
evening and early in the morning. Shaking is
the great and only efficient remedy yet discov
ered, and if faithfully performed onco a day,
from tho time tho fruit is formed until it is
ripened, will probably save, in most seasons,
more fruit than would be profitable to leave
upon the tree. Ho recommends tho same treat
ment for peaches also, whore the curculios pro
vail. BITTEE MILK.
Bitter milk is a matter of frequent occurrence
every fall and winter, or soon after tho cows
are off from grazing. It is caused first by bit
ter herbs in the hay, such as May weed, Johns
wort, &c, and also by tho use of too much over
ripe food, such as straw, corn stover, or late cut
hay. It never occurs when cows aro fed on
good food, and aro thriving, or even holding
their own and are kept comfortably warm.
A Texas farmer, by turning his sheep in his
wheat in the autumn, and allowing them to
graze during tho winter and spring when the
soil was in condition, says : "The last piece of
wheat I grazed will mako twenty-fivo bushels
to tho acre, aud it would havo made more, but?
it wa3 badly damaged by tho worms. Now, I
don't think my wheat was materially injured
by grazing, and yet my whole lamb crop was
raised on wheat." Ex.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.
Our Agricultural Editor's Weekly Chat With HLj
Is it absolutely necessary to prune or shortrn tho
branches of trcos at transplanting? Amateur, Troy,
Ans.: All depends upon tho amount of roots
which are secured; if all the roots are preserved,
theoretically there would be no need to pruno
the branches. It is always a safe thing to thin
out tho weak branches or shoots, and at the
same time shorten the long shoots, when a tree
is removed, but tho exact extent of top pruning
will bo guided by tho condition of tho roots.
There is decidedly less risk of loss when the
tops aro well cut back.
I nojice that it is advised to put half an ounce of
sulphur under the roots of strawberries, which wJl
keep away white grubs. IVry opinion is that grubs
and the like pay no attention to sulphur applied in
that way. I have seen them covered nil over with
it without caring for it; and even if they wero to cat
it what harm would it do them ?
Ans.: Wo consider your opinion correct.
John C. Jarvis, Jr., X. 11 The uso of Paris
green a3 you propose will bo of no value.
Poisons of this kind ars only useful in tho de
struction of leaf-eating caterpillars, bugs, and
beetles, but have no effect upon insects that live
only upon tiie juices of plants. To destroy
bark lice, wo find nothing at onco so simple,
cheap, and efficient as to whitewash tho aflected
J. Dorscy, Md. The results of experiments
seem to show that it makes no differenco which
end of a Post is set in tho ground. Tarring tho
bottom ends of posts is an advantage if tho posts
are well-seasoned and dry beforo tho applica
tion ; otherwise, it is not so valuable. The last
ing property of woods depend somewhat upon
tho soil upon which they havo been grown.
THE FAR WEST,
And the Jinny Inducements it Oifers to Settlers
From tho East.
Last November a lettor appeared in The
Tribune from Mr. Theodore Hoagland, of
Palouso City, Whitman county, Washington
Territory, in which was given n description of
the Territory. The article attracted wide atten
tion among ex-soldiers, and sinco its appear
ance Hr. Hoagland has received many letters of
inquiry, which, owing to want of time, ho tc
grets ho is unable to answer. In lieu of it,
however, ho sends us tho following further de
scription, in which is embodied answers to the
questions usually asked. "It would require
a volume" he says, " to givo a full description
of Washington Territory, distinctly pointing
out both its good, and bad features. Parts of it
are mountainous, parts of it aro hilly, parts
timbered, parts prairie, and- parts level. The
hilly land, near tho mountains is the best Foil.
Tho level land, though rich, is generally moro
or les3 gravelly. Somo parts are adapted to
stock raising almost exclusively, others almost
exclusively to agriculture, and still others to
both. Wheat, oats, barley, ryo, potatoes, tur
nips, rutabagas, carrots, parsnips, onions, beets,
peas, and many other things can bo raised in
abundanco. No irrigation is needed. Corn,
pumpkins, squashes, cucumbers, melons, beans,
tomatoes, and tender vegetables are liable to be
cnt down by the frost almost any time in tho
summer. Somo years they are raised vcrysuc
ccsifully almost anywhere, and in favored
localities are raised quite successfully almost
any year. The winters are sometimes severe
but no ono of the seven winters experienced
by myself was as severe as winters ordinarily
are in central Hlinois. Plowing has been done
this winter up to the loth of December. The
country, go far as I know, is everywhere well
watered. Timber is plentiful in some places,
but scarce or altogether lacking in others. It
is very healthy. I have never heard of any
fever or ague, but diphtheria has at several
times been prevalent and fatal in Walla Walla
Valley, which is one of tho best frnit regionB
in the world. Somo think the country abovo
Snako River will yet be as good. Others doubt
it. The majority of the people living hero
think there is no better country on the globe,
a few think there is no worse. Wo havo 'the
North Pacific railroad, and many othera aro
projected, which will sooner or later bo built.
Government land can be had by going some
distance from timber. It will all in time bo
very valuable. Unimproved railroad land, I
am informed, can bo bought at from three to
seven dollara per acre. "Unimproved Govern
ment land in private hands a little higher. Im
proved deeded land ranges all the way from
five to fifty dollars por aero, the price depend
ing upon the locality, the amount and kind of
improvement and the quality of tho land. Any
description of this country, however accurate,
would bo sure to mislead, a wrong interpreta
tion being certain to be put upon the language
used, for the simple reason that it is unlike any
other country on the face of tho earth. To all
old soldiers I say, you must run your own risks,
as you used to when you went into battle."
A subscriber at Grange ville, Idaho Territory,
writes us : " There are fovr ox-soldiers in this
vicinity, but moro aro coming in, and there is
talk of organizing a Grand Army Post here soon.
This is a magnificent country It is a high
rolling prairie, with black, rich soil, and pro
duces the finest grains and vegetables in tho
world. It is also a fine stock raising region, and
large herds live on the range the year round.
This is the natural home of timothy. It grows
on lop of the mountains, down the slopes, and
in fact everywhere. The climate is nearly as
mild as California, and wo raise fruit of nearly
every kind. I should bo glad to hear from
any old soldiers who would like to settle in this
country." D. L. Greene, Grangeville, Idaho
The Thrto-Lpjgeil Jim.
From Vie Boston Herald.
Mr. .Tames Barnes, keeper of a light-house,s
near Westport, on Lake Champlain, is a pen
sioner of the Government, having lost his leg
during the late war. A group of four men was
in tho trenchps during tho artillery engage
ment. They were lying on the ground, chat
ting and smoking, out of the reach of direct
fire. Suddenly a. shell exploded over their
heads and so seriojisly injured three of the men
that it necessitated amputation of the left login
each instance. The Christian name of these
three men was the same, James. The fourth
man, who was untouched, though lying hard
by, wa3 not named James. Mr. Barnes is in com
munication with his comrades, who always call
ono another tho " three-legged Jims."
Where Knives Wero Srarco.
From Uic Panama Star and Herald.
Passengers on the Peninsula and Oriental
steamer JIalwa wero placed in a strange predic
ament recently. An Indian kni re-cleaner on
board got drunk, tied all the table-knives (up
ward of 600 in number) round his waist, and
jumped overboard. Tho ship was stopped and
turned round, but all efforts to rescue tho un
fortunate man with the much-needed table
knives were unavailing, and the passengers
wero compelled to cat with penknives and
other substitutes until the vessel reached Alex
andria. X Valentine.
By Elizabeth Cumings.
The fierce winds blow,
And the drifting: snow
Has buried the garden,
And hidden the wall,
And the moon in the sky
With her great white eya
Sees snow on the hilla
And tho mountains high.
But the winds may blotr,
And the snow may fall ;
1 don't mind the weather
"When we are together.
For if 1 could waken a bobolink,
If I could gather a sweet grass pink,
The song nor the flower
Would not be ns sweet
As the gift of love
Hay at your feet;
For I love you true ,
As tho sky is blue;
Though I'm most sixty
And you're only nine,
My dear little,
Sweet little Valentine.
Wide AtcaJzafor February.
Dn. R. V. Pikece: Bear Sir Death was
hourly expected by myself and friends. My
physician pronounced my disease consumption,
and said I must die. I began taking your
"Discovery" and "Pellets." I havo used nine
bottles and am wonderfully relioved. I am now
able to ride out.
ELIZABETH THOBNTON, Montonso, Ark.
Aunt Helen's Home Talks Tabbie's
Table Our letter-Box, &c.
We continue from last week our Bketch of the
home-life of tho Athortons:
Tho November fire crackled merrily, and tho
shaded lamps flooded the library with their
soft, rosy light, as tho family took their places
on tho next Tuesday evening, in evident ex
pectancy of a talk from Aunt Helen. Without
prelude tho latter opened a littlo scroll and
began to read: "' Tho angel and
apostlo of tho coming revelation must bo a
woman indeed, but lofty, pure, and beautiful,
and wise. ' Thus wrote once Sir
Arthur Helps, and tho gifted Frederick Robert
son, commenting upon this passage in its proper
relation, said: 'I think it would shed a kind
of setting light and glory upon the death-beds
of those whoso aspirations have been high and
whoso work in this world is done, if, as they
go out of it, they could see somo such hopo for
tho race coming in, as at the dawn of a former
salvation, hearts old and worn with hopeless
expectation cried, " Lord, now lettcst thou thy
servant depart in peace." Meanwhile, tho
hopo of a flash of illuminating light, coming
suddenly, yet by degrees, like the lightning
from the electricity which has gathered through
tho summer months, slowly, and from a wo
man's heart, is a very precious thought, and
one which so harmonizes with my own dim
anticipations, that I mean to let my mind
dwell on it much; for it is well to occupy ono's
self with a noblo hope.' Theso two thoughts
have always been to me full of beauty and in
spiration, and it seems to mo that if this
'hope' for the coming race, is to bo anywhere
realized, it must be in that domain where wo
man is only truly herself that is, in her home.
In tho broad and self-annihilating interests of
a homo, the shyness, tho self-consciousness, and
tho littlo uncertainties which form a large part
of the make-up of every sensitively organized
woman, disappear, and in their place comes the
fine poise of a matured selfhood. Within her
own home woman finds tho essential condi
tions for her own development ; hero sho finds
her centre, and hero will sho also find tho
means through which she may come to bo that
'anticipated hope for the coming race.' Here,
then, where so much is found, should much bo
given, and in forming a homo every woman
should aim to mako it un outlet for all that is
highest in her own character; she should make
every object in it a confession of her own
spiritual nature of her love, her faith, her
inviolable uprightness. There should be here,
first of all, a religious atmosphere not an ob
trusive, dogmatic religion, that is always put
ting itself into words and protests, but a quiet,
purifying influence, as if God wero a sweet
thought which wore always wrapped about
ono, stimulating one to all helpful endeavors.
Every homo should bo an unconscious educa
tion in all that is honest, noble, and courteous
to each who may live within it. And scarcely
secondary to these moral and spiritual princi
ples are the material aspects of a home. Among
these, perhaps none will be of so much import
ance as pure air. Nervous depression, ill
nature, headaches, and, :ts physicians have
proved, scrofula and scrofulous consumption
are some of tho evils which follow in tho train
of imperfect ventilation. Both science and ex
perience havo proved that the body is nour
ished as much by air as by food, and a prudent
housekeeper will let tho fresh out-door air
sweep through her house at least once during
tho day, whether the weather be warm or
damp and cold. The best time for this is in tho
morning, after the breakfast-fumes have hidden
themselves in the crannies and corners, and the
best part of the cofleo has boiled itself away and
found lodgment in the top of the house. Sitting
rooms and sleeping-rooms should be supplied
'with means for the constant egress of bad air and,
ingress of fresh air. For this, an open fire-place in
winter is best, but when this is impracticable,
a good method is to have an opening at top and
bottom made in a flue, and a similar opening
on the opposite side of the room. Into every
room tho sunshine should como and go as it
will; a home ought to bo a temple of light,
rather than a graveyard vault. The walls
should be hung with such pictures as will ap
peal to the highest sentiments of the beholder,
and educate him in tho noblcstdeeds and events
of the centuries. There should be plenty of
books, too, and engravings, and photographs,
chosen and distributed in such wise that all
who come may feel at onco that the home which
they havo entered is familiar and sincere.
There should bo music n the home, for nothing
so refines tho heart, soothes ill-nature, and
rounds down the corners of human character,
as melody. And flowers should not ba lacking.
A conservatory is like a little congress of choice,
genial spirits. It would bo well, if thero could
be ono in every home, and it tho children
could be taught to cultivato flowers, and send
them out to brighten tho rooms of tho sick
and tho poor. In every humane home there is
a nursery a place somewhat isolated from the
habitablo rooms where children may find un
redressed outlet for the inevitable buoyant and
boisterous life of childhood. This room should
be sunshiny, and supplied with objects to amuse
and entertain its occupants, and its walls and
doors should bo adorned with pretty pictures.
Of nearly equal importance with the nursery
are the servants' rooms. Theso ought always
to bo bri;htencd up with pretty, tasteful and
convenient objects ; provided with comfortable
beds, rugs and carpets, and means for ventila
tion. In all homes, a modified family etiquette
should be observed; salutations should bo ex
changed as tho family assemble in tho breakfast-room,
and among the members of a family
graceful little attentions should be extended,
and gratefully acknowledged; tho mistress of
tho homo should insist upon some change, how
ever slight, being made in the dress for dinner,
and always, when it is possible, there should
be in the evening, if only for a little while, a
gathering of tho family in some cheerful room.
By such means as these, arc created an uncon
scious chivalric spirit, a consideration for oth
ers, and a quiet self-respect which make dis
cord and coarseness at home almost impossible.
For general pastime, reading aloud must take
precedence for standing tyie test of repetition
and drawing the members of a family circle
into sympathy with each other. For the
mothor and daughters thero should ever be in
rcifdiness some light, pleasant home-occupation
; something that will keep tho mind from
weariness and the fingers from idleness. Lit
tle children and white-haired people are like
benedictions in a home. For both there should
always bo room and affectionate hearts. And
now, in a word, let tho Home bo that placo
where no secrets are withhold, where all splen
did qualities aro niado'to shine, where all no
ble sentiments aro quickened into life, and
where that 'hopo for the coming raco' may
take root and ripen into perfect realization."
"You have given us a substantial first course,
Helen," said Mr. Atherton, as Aunt Helen
ceased reading, " and now let us have some
thing lighter in the shapo of your Budget."
Aunt Helen now opened the packago which,
at the last meeting, Mrs. Atherton hnd carried
away unopened. It was labeled "Our Nursery,"
and contained a box of dolls dressed to repre
sent a court scene in Queen Elizabeth's timo.
There was the red-haired Queen, with her
high ruff and her haughty poise, her maids of
honor, princesses, courtiers and pages, all in
dazzling court costumes, aud even tho throno
and sceptre had not been forgotten. In an
other box was a book containing tho story of
Littlo Bed Biding Hood, and figures dressed in
costume to illustrate it. Then there was adiox
of pretty transparencies, bright autumn leaves
and pressed ferns, arranged between two platc3
of glass, and framed with narrow bands of
bronze paper. Tho glazier had bored a hole in
the top, where a ring had been inserted by
which to hang them to the window-frame.
And last, an envelopo inclosing these directions
for tho nnrso : When the children aro ready to
bo put into bed, sponge tho feet with cold
water, and afterwards rub briskly with a
coarse towel. If this is done overy night, cold
feet will be unknown. Do not allow children
to eat snow. Tho most obstinate cases of
catarrh havo resulted from this practice.
When a child i3 threatened with croup, spread
a linen cloth with lard, cover it thickly with
grated nutmeg, and bind it over the chest. It
is well to do this at night in all cases of severe
colds among childron. Spirits of camphor
mixed with sweet oil, and rubbed about the
nostrils, across tho forehead abovo the nose,
and along the glands at tho tips of the ears,
will generally break up a cold in tho head.
This is a common German remedy.
Then came Tabbie's contribution:
Bill of Fare, No. 2, with recipes therefor.
Fruit. Oatmeal, Broiled Ham, Omoletto, Graham
Muffins, Toast, Griddlo Cakes, Coffee, Tea, or
Broiling. The lire for broiling meat must be
clear, and for meats it must be hotter and brighter
than for fish. Coals from hard wood or charcoal
are best. Always nsu the doublo broiler when
this is obtainable, and when this is used n knife or
fork need not touch the meat until it is served at
the table; thus much of the juice issaTCtl.ind con
sequently much of the sweetness of tho meat is
preserved. A professional cook will never run a
fork into meat while it is cooking.
Omelette. Jinny people fail in making omelettes,
usually because the pan for cooking is not hot
enough, and too much egg i3 put in at one time.
When there is too much egg hi tho pan, one part
will bo cooked hard before the other is heated
through. A pan measuring eight inches in
diameter will cook an omelette made with four
eggs; increase tho size of pan used in this propor
tion. riain Omelette. Four egg, ono tcaspoonful of
salt, one tablespoonful of butter. Beat the eggs
with any good egg-beater, and add the salt and
milk, Have the pan very liot. Put in the spoonful
of butter and pour in tho bentcn egg. Shake vig
orously on the hottest part of the stove until the
egg begins to thicken ; then let it stand n few sec
onds to brown, llusi the knife between the sides
of the omelette and the pan, fold, and turn on a
hot dish. Serve without delay.
Graham Muffins. Into a bowl put ono pint and a
half of Graham Hour, half a cupful of sugar and r.
tcaspoonful of salt. Into a sieve put half a pint of
flour, a tcaspoonful of salcratus and two of cream
of tartar. Mix thoroughly with tho flour and sift
on jo the material in the bowl. , Mis all thoroughly
while dry, and add two well' beaten eggs and a
pint of milk. Fill muffin cups about two-thirds
to tho top, and bake in a quick oven.
Indian-Jkal Griddle-Cakes. Ona cup of Indian
meal, one of flour, three of boiling milk, two eggs,
ono teaspoonful of salt, ono of cream of tartar.
half a tcaspoonful of soda, two tnblespoonfuls of
sugar. Have the milk boiling and gradually pour
it on the meal. Put the other dry ingredients with
tho flour nnd rub through a sieve. When the
scalded meal is cool, add to it tho flour nnd the
eggs, well beaten.
Graham Griddle-Cakes. Two cupful3 of Gra
ham flour, two and a half of milk, ono tablespoon
ful of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, ono of cream
of tartar, half n tcaspoonful of sodn, two egg-.
Let half the milk come to a boil. Pour it on the
Graham flour, and stir until perfectly smooth;
then add the cold milk, nnd set away to cool. Mix
the other dry ingredients with tho "flour, nnd rub
through a sieve: add, with the eggs well beaten,
to tho Graham flour and milk. Rye griddle-cakes
iiro made in the same way.
Flannel Cakes. Ono cup of Indian meal, two of
flour, three of boiling milk, one-fourth of an yeast
cake, or one-fourth of a cupful of liquid yeast,
one teaspoonful of salt, one teaspoonful of sugar,
two of butter. Have tho milk boiling, and pour it
on the meal and butter. When cool add the flour,
,1l T it.- i-i i r 5
nu.ii, auur, uuu luc yuusi, uiu inner uaving oecii i
dissolved in four tablespoonfuls of cold water. Let I
tno mmuro rise over mgnt. .try Hire gnaoie
cakca. While Aunt Helen had been reading her
paper about homes, Tabbie's great oyes had
scarcely moved from her face, and when tho
Budget wa3 ended the littlo lady pointedly
asked: "Aunt Helen, did you ever see a
homo like the ono you've been telling about?"
Aunt Helen look surprised, and the others
smiled. "Yes," said Aunt Helen, speaking
somewhat slowly. "My grandfather's home,
in which I was born, was just such a home,
and during my childhood, my own home was
much like it." The speaker's face had grown
grave, and it was a relief when Mr. Atherton's
voice broke in : " Never fear that Annt Helen's
theories can not bo put into practice, Tabbie.
And now have Johnstone bring up the tea."
The butler soon appeared, bearging the pretty
tea-service, the toast and butter, and at this
most pleasant of all after-dinner hours wo
take leave of our friends for another week.
OUE LITTLE FOLKS.
My baby boy sat on the floor.
His big blue eyes wero full of wonder,
For he had never seen before
That baby in the mirror door
What kept tho two, so near, a3under?
He leaned toward tho golden head
The mirror border framed within.
Until two cheeks, like roses red,
Lay side by side, then softly said:
"I can't get out; can you ceme in? "
Sashes are' still in high vogue for old rnd
White ottoman silk and white nuns' veiling
make a lovely combination for bridesmaids'
Gold Devonshire lace is seen upon imported
white opera hats, trimmed also with white os
trich tips powdered with gold.
Heads of Limoges enamel mounted in silver
setting are the latest French fancy for
brooches, wherewith the fashionable young lady
Crimped frills of tinted crape set against
standing, lightly-gathered luflies of Oriental
lace, are worn inside the neck and cleeves of
fastens her large bright-hued gipsy 'kerchief of
silk which she arranges over her dainty should
ers and knots in front, low on the corsage, after
the manner of these nomadic maidens.
The dark tartan-like tweeds and cheviots aro
called Braemar3; those in fine checks, in sub
dued but bright shades of color, are known a3
Invcrcaulds; and thoso of a dark brown, with
faint dashes of gold, scarlet, and dark green in
tho woof, are styled Craigievars.
Crown pieces for ornaments have taken tho
place of tho gilt sixpences which have becomo
common, and George and Jie Dragon are now
doing duty as a necklace, these pieces being
firmly linked together by tiny chains the re
verse sido of gilt, tho obverse side of highly
The long English fatigue coat, made of plaids
or checks in indistinct shades of color, with
Carrick capes edged with dark silk cording,
will be moro fashionable than the ulster this
spring. This comfortable wrap is double
breasted, half fitting, and fastens all the way
down the front with bright silver buttons.
Tho Cordova leather guipure, already men
tioned as a novelty abroad, has appeared upon
Paris-mado bonnets and hats of plush, kid, and
velvet. This decoration also extends to dress
garniture, and among tho magnificent dresses
worn by Madame Patti is ono of doe-colored
plush, with flounces and bodice made up with
bands of leather lace. Tho skirt is trimmed
with an embroidery of leather on a plush
A stylish house dress is made of dark Russian
gray cashmere. The skirt is laid all the way
down in hollow pleats devoid of trimming.
The bodice is pointed, front and back, tho pan
iers aro arranged in heavy pleats, rounding
over tho nips and joining the lightly poufed
drapery in tho back. The fronts of the bodice,
the edges of the paniers, and half tho length
of the long, close sleeves are trimmed with an
elaborate pattern in braidwork.
The styles for tweed suits are various. There
is the plain skirt trimmed around the foot with
a niching, pinked out on cacli edge, and over
this skirt is to be worn a redmgotejohu" of
tho same goods, fastened with gilt buttons, and
also trimmed down each sido and around tho
lower edge with a narrow pink ruche. Next
are kilted skirts of tweed, joined to Jersey bod
ices of a monochrome color, with a scarf dra
pery of tweed covering the joining of skirt
and bodice. Over the shoulders is a pelerine
of the tweed lined with surah the shade of tho
"A Country Girl " writes that sho is com
piling a classified cook-book for use at home,
and having now reached the department of
Soup3, she is anxious to receivo contributions
to this part of her book. For recipes under
thishead she oilers to exchango a series of
recipes beginning with any letter preceding the
letter "S," or a series of directions for making
some specific object peculiar to tho sitting
room or sewing-room.
This is a pleasant offer, and we hope that
some of our young lady readers will respond
To tho Editor National TnnnrcrK:
I havo been quite interested by the various
shadings manifest in the different recipes for
Boston brown Dread, which havo been sent from
various directions. Boston baked beans aro no
less widely known than Boston brown bread, and
I venture to send you Miss Parloa's recipa for
baked beans, with tho liwpo that I may learn
through your Drawer if thi be tho recipe now in
general use in New England :
"Baked Beans. Pick ono quart of beans freo
from stones nnd dirt. Wash nnd soak in cold
water over night. In tho mornng pour oft" tho
water. Cover with hot water, put two pounds of
corned beef with them, nnd boil until they begin
to split open, (the time depends upon tho nge of
the beans, but it will bo from thirty to sixty min
ues). Turn them into tho colander, and pour over
them two or three quarts of cold water. Put about
half of the beans into a deep tarthen.pot, then
put in the pork, and finally the remainder of tha
beans. Mix one tcaspoonful of mustard nnd ono
tablespoonful of molasses withnlittle water. Pour
this over tho beans, and then add boiling water
just enough to cover. Bake slowly ten hours. Add
a littlo water occasionally." S. E.
Washington", IX C.
"Ella F., San Francisco." In reply to your
appeal, wo suggest that among tho inexpensive
but convenient articles which may bo made for
gentlemen aro: Shaving cases, outlined on
satin, crash, linen, sateen, etc., or pricked on
leather; tobacco pouches in gntta pcrcha,
ornamented with painting or embroidery;
pipe-racks, mado of linen, lined with somo
brightly colored silk, and suspended from tho
wall by three ribbon loops; at tho top are em
broidered two interlaced pipes, and below, in
the centre, is a band of stiff material, divided,
and strongly stitched into compartments,
through which aro placed tho handles of the
pipes. Wo havo lately seen tho following
directions for making a clothes-bag, said to bo
much prized by gentlemen : A bag mado of two
yards of chintz is divided by a third yarcf,
which is gathered on a strip of wood and fast
encdwell to the sides and across tho top; tho
openings aro made lengthwise on each sido of
tho bag, and it is hung by a ring in tho centre.
Such a bag is especially valuable to thoso who
occupy small rooms. A pretty smoking set
may be made by taking an earthen cigar set,
consisting of a tray, cigar-holder, match-holder
and ash-receiver, and decorating them with
simplo black lines and dots, copying from somo
Egyptian and Grecian vasc3, leaving the pot
teryuncolorcd for background. Or you might
with advantago uso flowers against a back
ground of sepia, black and cobalt mixed with
white; or you might paint littlo landscapes in
medallions at unequal distauces, having tho
pottery for tho background. The Hungarian
peasants havo a curious and artistic way of
making reticules, handkerchief cases, and other
articles. They collect fungi and fashion all
sorts of designs out of them leaves, fruits and
flowers. They then mount them upon colored
satin, or dark leather, 2nd work round tho
leaves in silks, marking out tho veins in steel
beads. They placo little tinsel circles around
tho edges to form a sort of border, and add
tassels of bright-colored silks at the corners.
To the Editor Xmox.v, Tnincxn:
I havo been reading with much interest your
paragraphs on Color in Bres3. 1 think that thtso
hints may bo meeting the, perhnps unconscious,
nteds of many women, for it is certainly truo th.i
nothing so mam feminine beauty as on indiscrimi
nate Use of colors. Probably it would bo both un
wise and impracticable wholly to imitate tho col
ors in vogue among the old masters, but I havo
been thinking that it would at least bo interesting
reading, if your Drawer would supply us with a
series of letters describing the colors and their ar
rangement, in some of the mpst noted of classical
paintings. To your city readers, who have oppor
tunities for art study, sucli a series might not bo of
as much value as it would be to those who, with n
natural lovo for art. live far-romoved from facili
ties for its study, and it is in behalf of the latter
that I write. Very truly, yours, A. N.
SONGS OF THE CAMP.
The Blao Coat of tho Soldier.
By Bishop Burgess.
You asked me, little one, why I bowed.
Though never I passed the man beforo; .
Because my heart was full and proud
When I saw the old blue coat he wore.
Tbt- blue great-coat, tho sky-blue coat.
The old blue coat tho soldier wore.
J knew, not I. what weapon he chose,
What chief he followed, what badge he wora; -
Enough for mc, that in front of foes
His country's blue great-coat ho wore.
Tho blue gTcat-coat, &c.
Perhaps he was born in a forest hut,
Perhaps ho had danced on a palace floor;
To want or wealth my eyes were shut
I only marked the coat ho wore.
The blue great-coat, &c.
It mattered not mnch if he drew his line '
From Shcm or Ham in the days of yore ;
For surely he was a brother of mine
Who, for my sake, the war coat wore.
The blue great-coat, &c
He might have no skill to read or write,
Or he might be rich in learned lovo;
But I knew he could make his mark in a fight,
And nobler gown no scholar wore
Than the blue great-coat, &c.
It may be he could plunder and prowl.
And pcrliaps in his mood he scoffed and swore,
But I would not guess a spot so foul
On tht honored coat he so br&vely wore.
The blue great-coat, &c
He had worn it long and borne it far;
And perhaps on the red Virginia shors,
From midnight chill till the morning star,
That worn great-coat the sentry wore.
The blue great-coat, &c
When hardy Butler reined his steed
Through the streets of proud, proud Baltimore
Perhaps behind him, at his need,
Marched he who yonder blue coat wore.
The blue great-coat, &c.
Perhaps it was seen in Eurnside's ranks
When the Knppabannock ran dark with gore;
Perhaps on'tho mountain side with. Banks
In tho burning sun no more he wore -The
blue great-coat, &c
Perhaps in the swamp 'twas a bed for his form,
From the seven days' battling and marching
Or with Kearney and Popo. 'mid the steely storm,
As the night closed in, that coat he wore.
The blue greut-coat, &c.
Or when'perchance as Jackson dashed,
That collar or cape somo bullet tore;
Or when far ahead Antietnm flashed,
He Hung to the ground the coat he wor.
The blue great-coat, fcc.
Or stood nt Gettysburg, where tho graves
Rang deep to Howard's cannon roar;
Or saw with Grant the unchained waves,
Where conquering hosts the bluo coat wore.
The bluo great-coat, Scc.
That garb of honor tells enough,
Though I its story guess no more;
The heart it covers is made of such stun
The coat Is mail which that soldier wore.
The blue great-coat, &c.
He may hang it up when peace shall come,
And the moths may flncl it behind the door,
But his children will point when they hear a drum
To the proud old coat their father wore.
The blue great-coat, &c.
And so, my child, will you and I,
For whose fair home their Blood they pour,
Still bow th-3 head as one goes by
Who wears the coat that soldier wore.
The blue great-coat, the sky-blue coat,
The old blue coat the soldier wore.
Tlie above lines were written by Eihop Burges3, of
Maine, aud contributed by him to a book published nnd
sold at a Talr in li.:ltimore, for the leneiit of the soldiers
during the war, by the loyal women of Maryland. "oi
bavins; seen them in print since, and thinking it may
please my old comrades, as well as show the people of to
day what the feelings wen; towards the soldier in those
dark days, I have reproduced them as near as I can re
member, and ead them to you for publication in Tub
TniEUNn. Yours, in F. C. & L. J. W. Buker.of J, S.
Sampson Post, iNo. 31, G. A. I-, Milo, Me.
By Walter Learned. . .
With never n word she passed me by.
With never a look or a wgn ; ' f-
Sho silently went her way, and I
As silently went on mine.
No one could have breamed who saw her face,
As we so coldly met.
That her heart was touched by the faintest trace
Of memory or regret.
Nor do I think that one apart.
Who watches my tranquil brow,
Whould have guessed that tho memory stirred my
Of a faithless, broken vow.
And they needn't have guessed or wondered, you
For this was tho reason why
I didn't know her, aud she didn't know me,
And so sho passed me by.
By Emily Himlington Miller.
Now what shall we do for the baby,
To mnkc her a birthday sweet?
She came in tho wintry weather.
In blustering wind and sleet.
There is not a flower in the garden.
There is not a bird to sing.
And all in a row on the leafless vine " -
The sharp whito icicles cling. - -
Oh, what does it matter to baby I
Her world is warm :u a nest ;
The song that her mothdr sings her
Is the music she loves best.
She laughs to hear in tho twilight
Tho bleak wimts whistlo and blow,
And the small whito icicles swing and ring
Like crystal bells in a row.
Harper's Young People,
As stages aro quickly abandoned with tho
completion of railroads, so the huge, drastic,
cathartic pills, composed, of crudo and bulky
midicines, are quickly abandoned with the in
troduction of Dr. Pierce's "Pleasant Purgativa
Pellets," which aro sugar-coated, and littlo
larger than mustard seeds, but composed of
highly concentrated vegetable extracts. By