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ESTABLISHED 1S77-:NEW SERIES.
WASHINGTON, D. 0., THUIISDAY, APRIL 30, 1896.
VOL. XV-NO. 29-WHOLE NO. 763.
A Beautiful Pastoral Land, and
TEJE ADVENT OF
'-yi VyjC JLM Written by'Hsmself "
CHAPTER II (continued).
Tcry "well, soon
after our arrival,
that we were all
invited to witness
a play called
"Adam and Eve."
Eve was personated
by a pretty young
girl known as
who, however, was
dressed very unlike
Eve, for she was
covered with a pet
ticoat and spangles.
Adam was per
sonated by her
brother , the
same who has since become somewhat
famous as the person on whom is founded
the McGarrahan claim. God Almighty
was personated, and Heaven's occupants
geemed very human. Yet the play was
pretty, interesting, and elicited universal
applause. All the month of Eebruarv
we were by day preparing for our long i
AH the month oi February
etay in the country, and at night making
the most of the balls and parties oi the
jnost primitive kind, picking up a smat
tering of Spanish, and extending our
acquaintance with the people and the
codumbros del pais. I can well recall
that Ord aud I,
IMPATIENT TO LOOK INLAND,
got permission and started for the Mission
oi can ouan .uauusia. iuouiueu on
r o ... t tj...j!.i -x r . i ... i
horses, and with our carbines, we took
the road by Li 1 oro, quite a prominent
", uiuuim iwiiu pa uu iuuu iu tiie ;
south, following the Salinas or Monterey
River. After about 20 miles over a
sandy country covered with oak-bushes
and scrub, we entered quite a prcttr val
ley, in which there was a ranch at the
foot of the T oro. Resting there a while
and getting some information, wc again
started in the direction of a mountain to
the north of the Salinas, called the Gavil
lano. It was quite dark when wc reached
the Salinas River, which ivc attempted to
pass at several points, but found it full
of water, "and the quicksands were bad.
Heariugtbe bark of a dog, we changed our
course, in that direction, and, on hailing,
were answered by voices which directed
us where to cross. Our knowledge of the
language was limited, but we managed
to understand, and to flounder through
the Eand and water, and reached a small
adobe house on the banks of the Salinas,
where wc spent the night.
TIIK HOUSE WAS A SINGLE ROOM,
without floor or glass; only a rude door,
and window with bars. Not a particle
Df food but meat, yet the man and woman
mlertaiued us with the language of lords,
put themselves, their house, and every
thing, at our " disposition," and made
Gkn. John C. I'-ekmoxt.
little barefoot children dance for our
entertainment. We made our supper
of beef, and slept on a bujlock's hide
on the dirt floor. In the morning
we crossed the Salinas Tlain, about 15
inHes of level ground, taking a shot oc-f
casionally at wild geese, which abounded
there, and entering the well-wooded
ria tmm s- -"-- - -- -----
Published by pornilfcbton of I). Applcton &Co.,
pubitbhors of the Pcitoual Wcuiolia of Gcu. W. X.
a Happy Primitive People.
valley that comes out from the foot of
the Gavillano. "Ye had cruised about
all day, and it was almost dark when
we reached the house of a Senor Gomez,
father of those who at Monterey had
performed the parts of Adam and Eve.
His house was a two-story abode, and !
had a fence in front. It was situated
well up among the foot-hills of the
Gavillano, and could not be sean until
within a few yards. AYc hitched our
horses to the fence and went in just as
Gomez was about to sit down to a tempt
ing supper of stewed hare and tortillas.
"We were officers and caballcros and
could not be ignored. After turning
our horses to grass, at his invitation we
joined him at supper. The allowance,
though ample for one, was rather short
for three, and I thought the Spanish
grandiloquent politeness of Gomez, who
was fat and old, was not over-cordial.
However, down we sat, and I was helped
to a dish of rabbit, with what I thought
to be an abundant sauce of tomato.
Taking a good mouthful, I felt as though
Jiaa MKeu liquid nre ; the tomato was
Me Colorado, or red pepper, of the
j purest iiina. j.d neany Killed me, and 1
saw Gomez's eyes twinkle, for he saw
that his share oi supper was increased.
I contented myself with bits of the meat,
and an abundant supply of tortillas.
Ord was better case-hardened, and stood
it better. We staid at Gomez's that!
night, sleeping, as all did, on the ground,
and the next morning we crossed the
hill by the bridle-path to the old Mission
nr qn i.,..:,.,
The Mission -was in a
)eautiful valicy;very JeVel, and bounded
on all ddcs by m&J Th(J am CQV
ere1 ,v,M.ras5cs anil muslan1 and
imvi iiuujiu.uji, iwiLi-i. viiiLiu aim Jiuiaes
were seen in all directions, and it was
manifest that the priests who first oc
cupied the country were good judges of
land. It was Sunday, and all the peo
ple, about a hundred, had come io church
from the country round about Old
was somewhat of a Catholic, arid en
tered the church with his clanking spurs
and kneeled down, attracting the atten
tion of all, for he had on the uniform of
an American officer. As soon as church
ALT. HUSHED TO THE VARIOUS SPOP.TS.
I saw the priest, with his gray robes
tucked up, playing at billiards, others
were cock-fighting and some at horse
racing. My horte had become lame,
and I resolved to buy another. As
soon as it was known 'that I wanted a
horse, several came for me, and displayed
their horcs by dashing past and hauling
them up short. There was a fine black
stallion that attracted my notice, and,
after trying him myself, I concluded a
purchase. I left with the seller my own
lame horse, which he -was to bring to
me at Monterej', when I was to pay him
S10 for the other. The Mission of San
Juan bore the marks of high prosperity
at a former period, and had a good pear
orchard just under the plateau where
stood the church. After spending the
day, Ord and I returned to Meniere-,
about 3o miles, by a shorter route.
Thus passed the month of February,
and, though there were no mails or
regular expresses, we heard occasionally
from Yerba Buena and Sutter's Fort to
the north, and from the army and navy
about Los Angeles at the south. We
also knew that a quarrel had grown up
at Los Angeles between Gen. Kearney,
Col. Fremont, and Commodore Stock
ton, as to the right to control affairs in
California. Kearney had with him only
the fragments of the two companies of
dragoons which had come across from
2?ew Mexico with him, and had been
handled very roughly by Don Andreas
Pico at San Pascual, in which engage
ment Capts. Moore and Johnson aud
Lieut. Hammond were killed, and
Kearney himself wounded. There re
mained with him Col. Swords, Quarter
master; CapL H". S. Turner, 1st Dra
goons; Capls. Emory and Warner,
Topographical Engineers; Ass't Surg.
Griffin, and Lieut. J. W. Davidson.
Fremont had marched down from the
north with a battalion of volunteers;
rl o Mtl t t i iitufAM "' I i 1 n M . A 1.
Commodore Stockton had marched up
from s.m Di (0 Los Angeles with
Gen. Kearney, his dragoons, and a bat
talion of sailors and marines, and was
soon joined there by Fremont, and they
Jointly received the surrender of the in-
to" w v- ,
surgents under Andreas Pico. "We also
knew that Gen. R. B. Mason had been
ordered to California ; that Col. John D.
Stevenson was coming out to California
with a regiment of New York volun
teers; that Commodore Shubrick had
orders also from the Navy Department
to control matters afloat; that Gen.
Kearney, by virtue of his rank, had
the right to control all the land forces
in the service of the United States ; and
that Fremont claimed the same right by
virtue of a letter he had received from
Col. Benton, then a Senator, and a man
of great influence with Polk's Adminis
tration. So that among tlic younger
officers the query was very natural,
" Who the devil is Governor of Califor
nia?" One day I was on board the
Independence frigate, -dining with the
wardroom officers, when a war vessel
was reported in the offing, which in due
time was made out to be the Cyane,
Capt. DuPont After dinner we were
all on deck to watch the new arrival,
the ships meanwhile exchanging signals,
which were interpreted that Gen. Kear
ney was on board. As the Cyane ap
proached a boat was sent to meet her,
with Commodore Shubrick's flag officer,
Lieut. Lewis, to carry the usual messages
and to invite Gen. Kearney to come on
board the Independence as the guest of
Commodore Shubrick.- Quite a number
of officers were on deck, among them
Lieu ts. Wise, Montgomery, Lewis, Wm.
Chapman, and others, noted wits and
wags of the navy. In due time the
Cyane anchored close by, and our boat
Santa Barbara Bay.
was seen returning with n stranger in
the stern-sheets, clothed in army-blue.
As the boat came nearer, we saw that
it was Gen. Kearney with an old dra
goon coat on, and an army cap, to which
the General had added the broad visor,
cut from a full-dress hat, to shade his
face and eyes against the glaring sun of
the Gila region. Chapman exclaimed :
"Fellows, the problem is solved; there
is the grand-vizier (visor) by !
Iin IS GOVEKXOK OF CALIFORNIA."
All hands received the General with
great heartiness, and he soon passed out
of our sight into the Commodore's cabin.
Between Commodore Shubrick and Gen.
Kearney existed from that time forward
the greatest harmony and good feeling,
and no further trouble existed as to the
controlling power on the Pacific Coast.
Gen. Kearney had dispatched from San
Diego Ills Quartermaster, Col. Swords, to
theSandwich Islands to purchase clothing
and stores for his men, and had come up
to Monterey, bringing with him Turner
and Warner, leaving Emory and the
company of dragoons below. He was
delighted to find a full strong company
of artillery, subject to his orders, well
supplied with clothing and money in all
respects, and, much to the disgust of our
Captain, Tompkins, he took half of his
company clothing and part of the money
held by me for the relief of his worn-out
and almost naked dragoons left behind
at Los Angeles. In a few days he
moved on shore, took up his quarters at
Larkin's house, and established his
Headquarters, with Capt. Turner as his
Adjutant-General. One day Turner
and Warner were at my tent, and, see
ing a store-box full of socks, drawers,
and calico shirts, of which I had laid in
a three years' supply, and of which they
had none, made known to me their wants,
and I told them to help themselves,
which Turner and Warner did. The
laller, however, insisted on paying me
the cost, and from that date to this
Turner and I have been close friends.
Warner, poor fellow, was afterward
killed by Indians. Things gradually
came into shape, a semi-monthly cou
rier line was established from Yerba
Buena to San Diego, and wc were
thus enabled to keep pace with
events throughout the country. In
March Stevenson's regiment arrived.
Col. Mason also arrived by sea from
Callao in the store-ship Erie, and P. St.
George Cooke's battalion of Mormons
reached San Luis Rey. A. J. Smith
and George Stoneman were with him,
and were assigned to the company of
dragoons at Los Angeles. All these
troops and the navy regarded Gen.
Kearney as the rightful commander,
though Fremont still remained at Los
Angeles, styling himself as Governor,
issuing orders and holding his battalion
of California volunteers iu appaient de
fiance of Gen. Kearney. Col. Mason
and Maj. Turner were sent down by sea
with a Paymaster, with muster-rolls and
orders to muster this battalion into the
service of the United States, to pay and
then to muster them out ; but on their
reaching Los Angeles Fremont would
not consent to it, aud the controversy
became so augry that a challenge was
believed to have passed between Mason
and Fremont, but the duel never came
about. Turner rode up by land in four or
five days, and Fremont, becoming alarm
ed, followed him, as wo supposed, to over
take him, but he did not succeed. On Fre
mont's arrival at Monterey, he camped
in a tent about a mile out of town and
called on Gen. Kearney, and it was re
ported that the latter threatened him
very severely and ordered him back to
Los Angeles immediately, to disband his
volunteers, and to cease the exercise of
authority of any kind in the country.
A NATURAL CURIOSITY TO SEE FREMONT,
who was then quite famous by reason of
his recent explorations and the still more
recent conflicts with Kearney and
Mason, I rode, out to his camp, and
found him in a conical tent with one
Capt. Owens, who was a mountaineer,
trapper, etc.', but originally from Zanes
ville, 0. I spent an hour or so with
Fromoijt in his tent, look some lea with
him and left, without being much im
pressed with him. In due time Col.
Swords returned from the Sandwich Is
lands, and relieved me as Quartermaster.
Capt. William G. Marcy, son of the
Secretary of War, had also come out in
one of Stevenson's ships as an Assistant
Commissary of Subsistence, and was sta
tioned at Monterey 'and relieved me as
Commissary, so that I reverted to the
condition of a company officer. While
acting as a staff officer I had lived at
the custom-house in Monterey, but when
relieved I took a tent in line with the
.other company officers on the hill, where
wc had a mess.
Stevenson's regiment reached San
Francisco Bay early in March, 1847.
Three companies were stationed at the
Presidio under Maj. James A. Hardie ;
one company (Brackelt's) at Sonoma ;
three, under Col. Stevenson, at Monterey;
and three, under Lieut.-Col. Burton, at
Santa Barbara. One day I was down
at the Headquarters at Larkin's house,
when Gen. Kearney remarked to me
that he was going down to Los Angeles
in the shipLexington, aud wanted me to
go alongas his Aid. OF course this was
most agreeable to inc. Two of Steven
son's companies, with the Headquarters
and the Colonel, were to go also. They
embarked, and early in May wo sailed
for San Pedro. Before embarking, the
United States linc-of-baltlc-ship Colum
bus had readied the coast from China
witli Commodore Biddlc, whose rank
gave him the supreme command of the
CoMMODoni: II. F. Stockton:
navy on the coast. He was busy in calling
in " lassooing " from the land-service
the various naval officers who, under
Stockton, had been doing all sorts of
military and civil service on shore.
Knowing that I was to go down the
coast with Gen. Kearney, he sent for
me and handed me two unsealed par
cels addressed to Lieut. Wilson,
United States Kavy, and Maj. Gil
lespie, United States Marines, at
Los Angeles. These were written orders
pretty much in. these words: "On re
ceipt of this order you will repair at
once on board the United States ship
Lexington at San Pedro, and on reach
ing Monterey you will report to the
undersigned. Jambs Biddle." Of
course, I executed my part to the letter,
and these officers were duly " lassooed."
Wc sailed down the coast with a fair
wind,- and anchored.- inside the kelp,
abreast of Johnson's' house. Messages
were , "forth with dispatched up to os
Angeles, 20 miles ofl'and preparations
forjiorses made for us to ride up. Wo
landed, and, as Kearney held to my arm
in ascending the steep path up the bluff)
he remarked to himself, rather than to
me, that it was strange that Fremont did
not want to return north by the Lexing
ton on account of sea-sickness, but per
ferred to go by land, over 500 miles.
The younger officers had been discussing
what the General would do with Fre
mont, who was supposed to be
IN A STATE OF 3IUTINY.
Some thought he would be tried and
shot, some that he would be carried
back in irons ; and all agreed that if
anyone else than Fremont had put on
such aire, and acted a3 he had done,
Kearney would have shown him no
mercy, for ho was regarded as the strict
est sort of a disciplinarian. We had a
pleasant ride across the plain which lies
between the seashore and Los Angeles,
which we reached in about three hours,
the infantry following on foot. We found
Col.. P. St. George Cooke living at the
house of a Mr. Pryor, and the company
of dragoons, with A. J. Smith, David
son, Stoneman, and Dr. Griffin, quarter
ed in an adobe house close by. Fre
mont held his court in the only two
story frame house in the place. After
some lime spent at Pryor's house, Gen.
Kearney ordered me to call on Fremont
to notify him of his arrival, and that
he desired to see him. I walked round
to the house which had been pointed out
to mo as his, inquired of a man at the door
if the Colonel was in; was answered
"Yes," and was conducted to a large room
on the second floor, where very soon
Fremont came in, and I delivered my
message. As l was on tne point or
leaving, he inquired where I was going
to, and I answered that I was going
back to Pryor's house, where the Gen
eral was, when he remarked that if I
would wait a moment he would go
along. Of course I waited, and he soon
joined me, dressed much as a Cali
fornian, with the peculiar high, broad
brimmed hat, with a fancy cord, and we
walked' together back to Pryor's, where
I left him with Gen. Kearney. We
spent several, days very pleasantly at
Los Angeles, then, a3 now, the chief
pueblo of the south, famous for its
grapes, fruits, and wines. There was a
hill close to the town, from which we
had a perfect view of the place. The
surrounding country is level, utterly
devoid of trees, except the willows and
cotton-woods that line the Los Angeles
Creek and the acenuias, or ditches,'
which lead from it. The space of
ground cultivated in vineyards seemed
about five miles by one, embracing the
town. Every house had its inclosurc of
vineyard; which" Tcscmblcdji miniature"
orchard, the vines being very old, ranged
m rows, trimmed very close, with irri
gating ditches so arranged that a stream
of water could be diverted between
each row of vines. The Los Angeles
and San Gabriel Rivers are fed by melt
ing snows from a range of mountains to
the east, and the quantity of cultivated
land depends upon the amount of water.
This did not seem to be very large; but
the San Gabriel River, close by, was
represented to contain a larger volume
of water, affording the means of greatly
enlarging the space for cultivation. The
climate was so moderate that oranges,
figs, pomegranates, etc., were generally
to be found in every yard or inclosure.
At the time of our visit, Gen. Kearney
was making his preparation to return
overland to the United States, and he
arranged to secure a volunteer escort out
of the battalion of Mormons that was
then stationed at San Luis Rey, under
Col. Cooke and a Major Hunt. This bat
talion was only enlisted for one year,
and the time for their discharge was
approaching, and it was generally un
derstood that the majority of the men
wanted to be discharged so as to join
the Mormons who had halted at Salt
Lake; but a Lieutenant aud about
40 men volunteered to return to
Missouri as the escort of Gen.
Kearney. These were mounted on
mules and horses, and I was ap
pointed to conduct them to Monterey
by land. Leaving the party at Los
Angeles to follow by sea in the Lexing
ton, I started with the Mormon detach
ment and traveled by land. We aver
aged about 30 miles a day, stopped one
day at Santa Barbara, where I saw Col.
Burton, and so on by the usually
traveled road to Monterey, reaching it
in about 15 days, arriving some days in
advance of the Lexington. This gave
me the best kind of an opportunity
FOR SEEINO THE COUNTRY,
which was very sparsely populated in
deed, except by a few families at the
various Missions. We had no wheeled
vehicles, but packed our food and
clothing on mules driven ahead, and
we slept on the ground in the open
air, the rainy season having passed.
Fremont followed me by land in a few
days, and by the end of May Gen.
Kearney was all ready at Monterey to
take his departure, leaving to succeed
him in command Col. R. B. Mason,
1st Dragoons. Our Captain (Tomp
kins), too, had become disconted at his
separation from his family, tendered his
resignation to Gen. Kearney, and availed
himself of a sailing vessel bound for Cal
lao to reach the East. Col. Mason se
lected me as his Adjutant-General ; and
on the very last day of May Gen. Kear
ney, with his Mormon, escort, with Col.
Cooke, Col. Swords (Quartermaster),
Capt. Turner, and a naval officer, Capt.
Radford, took hi3 departure for the East
overland, leaving us in full possession of
California and its fate. Fremont also
left California with Gen. Kearney, and
Continued ou ecoml pago.)
OUR SOLDIERS' HOMES.
Something About Their Location and
How They Are Conducted.
THE SOUTHERN BRANCH.
The Comfortable and Attractive
Haven at Hampton, Va.
A CHARMING SPOT.
Everything Possible Done
Improve the Condition
of the Veterans.
1NTCLE SAM has
provided seven Na
Home3 for his brave"
soldiers and sailore
who, from age or
disability of any
kind, are incapaci
tated from earning
their own living.
The first Home was built at Dayton, O.,
in 18G7, and since that time others
have been built from year to year, a3
occasion demanded, at the following
named places: Hampton, Va.; Augusta,
Me. : Santa Monica. Cal. : Milwaukee.
Leavenworth, Kan. ; Marion,
The annual report for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1895,show3 as follows:
n pt If
Dnyton Home............ 0,012 SS2 20-1
Hampton Home 4.0.55 62!) 205
Leavenworth Home...... 3.363 231 16S
Milmuikeo Home 2.882 219 118
Auiriutu Home 2,523 257 139
Mnrfoti Home- 3,819 197 71
Sniitn Monica Home. 1.73G 13i 79
Tofnl 22,3'JO 2,512 1,032
These Homes are all under the man
agement of one Board of Directors, of
which Gen. William B. Franklin, of
Hartford, Conn., is the President. On
the Board is one man from each State
in which these Homes are located.' He
is the Local Manager (for the Board)
for that particular Home. In the case
of the Home at Hampton, Va., which is
the only one in any Southern State, Gen.
William J. Sewell, of Camden, N. J., is
the Local Manager and Director. This
Home is the one of which this article
will treat in detail; and, as all the
Homes are organized and managed on
the same basis, it will give the reader a
IDEA OF THEIR I3IPORTAXCE
The Hampton Home, which is called
the Southern Branch, was opened Jan.
1, 1871. It is situated on the banks of
Chesapeake.Bay, looking out on Hamp
ton Roads, and is a most delightful loca
tion. The grounds comprise about SO
acres, laid out with fine driveways and
walks, the roads made of oyster shells
and the walks mostly of artificial stone.
There is an abundance of shade trees,
Lawn View, SnowiNO Statue
and in season flowers and plants are
interspersed throughout the grounds.
Stretching along the walks on the water
front are rustic seats and benches, so
that in Summer evenings the men have
a pleasant lounging place, with a fine
view of the harbor, and generally a cool
fug" breeze wafts along the shore.
The officera of this Home, who are ap
pointed by the Board of Managers, ar:
Governor, P. T. Woodfin, with rank o
Colonel; Treasurer, William Thomp
son,' with rank of Major; Surgeon, W.
W. L. Phillips, with rank of Major;
Quartermaster and Commissary, Charle3
Candy, with rank of Colonel (this was
the rank he held in the volunteer serv
ice, otherwise his position here would
only give him the rank of Captain).
Chaplain, William Price; Engineer,
John B. H. GofF; Chief Clerk, Charles
P. Green. These three have no official
rank, being classed as civil employes.
The Governor has three stall' officers,
William P. Sands, First Lieutenant and
Adjutant; Thomas B. Toombs, First
Lieutenant and Assistant "Commissary,
and Arthur S. Gladwin, First Lieutenant
and Assistant Quartermaster. Thoso
three officers are appointed by him from'
the members of the Home, and hold office
subject to his pleasure and the proper
discharge of their duties.
All the ofneera are provided with?
houses, furnished throughout by tfiet
Government. They are
MODERN" BUILT FKAME STRUCTURES', .
neat, attractive, and convenient; lighted,
by electricity and heated by steam.
The Home Band of 2Q pieces is madev
up principally of civilians, though a few
of its members are old soldiers and mem
bers of the Home. On pleasant Sun
days and during the Summer season,
twice each week, they give open-air con
certs. To obtain admission to the Home, a
man must make application to one of
the Board of Managers, accompanied
with his discharge from the service, and
with the certificate of a physician, stating
that he ha3 personally examined him,
and finds him incapacitated by old age
or disability from earning his living.
This application is filed, and whenever
a vacancy occura at the Home ncaresk
his place of residence, he is furnished
with transportation and sent there with
an order admitting him.
At thi3 writing the Hampton Home
has present a grand total of 63,283. Of
this number all are pensioners but 592.
The men are divided into 14 companies,
each company in charge of a Captain
and one Lieutenant, appointed by
the Governor, to hold office subject to
good behavior and proper management
of their company's affairs. Companies
A, B, C, and. D occupy what is called
the Main Building as their barracks- It
i3 a large brick building, five stories
high, and was erected in 1854 for the
Chesapeake Female Seminary, and wa3
used for school purposes until the out
break of the cjvil war. When the Union
forces took possession of this section of
country it was confiscated for use as a
hospital, and has ever since been in
The building has wide covered bal
conies on each floor, running the whole
length of the front of the building, and
in the Summer season they are a favorite
lounging place for the men, as they com
FIXE VIEW OF TUE IIARBOR.
This building has a good passenger
elevator, run by steam-power.
Companies E,F, GH, M, N, and the
convalescent company, all occupy the
frame buildings, mostly two stories In
and Dome of Main Building.
hight, which have been erected as occa
Last Fall two new building3 for bar
racks were erected, and are now occu
pied by Cos. M and N. They have ac
commodations for 400 men, and cost
$1S,750. Cos. F, G and H also have a
good number of men living in large