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THE SAXHHUL TRIBUIB: WAS1M($M, ffi C fHDBSDAT. APRIL 30, 139G.
ifl avail vlHfe
IVWOR K h K3k30
TVoorw-Perlniiiiiic to nil that tends to develop
ASSmcHlBci.ce oh the topic of the d.y, rmd
ti.e Xption of ways nnd means to secuie tins
d.2SS!rilH-rco... which hceiw ,jyo the hpiilt
AHhJ-1'"'vIH..B for the relief of the Miffcr-
true mid loynl mcmliers of the C. O. arccii.iuic.
Keller Corps Kccocnition of T.oyrvl Home
Workers, with Other Patriotic Orders
Teaohlnjr Loyalty to llo Fine;.
KBKP OLD GLOBY FLYING.
The National Committee on Patriotic Teach
ing. Woman's Belief Corps, have issued a letter
of aflvico to the several Departments, urging a
united effort to place the Stars and Stripes over
thosolioolhouses of tho land, aud within every
Kltool.TOom, as an object lesson in teaching
Amorican.citizcnship. The letter is counter
signed bv Rational President Lizabcth A.
Turner,' one of the charter members of the
Loyal Homo Workers, and contains this eu
conraping paragraph :
The-observance of National holidays with
appropriate exercises should be i"P"J
bv Corps in co-operation with Iho achoo s
whenever possible. Patrioticcontests in schools
should be encouraged, and small flags or badges
presented Hie winners. .
Patriotic entertainments in connection with
the societies for the promotion of patriot ism.
Ftieh as the Pons of Veterans, t he Ladies .
SociotT,DHUBl.tersof Veterans, the Loyal Homo
Wbrkors,:ind eiuiilar associations will do much
towards awakening greater interest m the Hag
am the causo of good citizenship.
When it is remembered that the Loyal
Home Workers is the only association next tho
W.R.C. to place a flag over a Southern echool
honsc, which they have just done in Cnlpener
Conntv, Va., the propriety of this haiidsomo
recognition of tho work by tho highest official
of tho greatest patriotic body of women in tho
rorld becomes at once apparent.
The Loyai Home Workers has now the direct
sanction of I tho Commauder-in-Chicf of tho
Grand Army; of the Republic and the National
Prosidout of',tbc Woman's Eolief Corps. It has
a proud plaice in tho Patriotic Primer, pre
pared by Co). George Balch, and revised and
issued' by dipt Wallace Foster, Indianapolis,
Its plans af e broad and generous, and soundly
laid; its mombers are teaching practical pat
riotism in the schools of our great country in
many States and Territories. Its fraternity is
a glowing fire; in its ranks, besides the splen
did hosts of Joyal youtbB of tho land, are Union
veterans and members of the Woman's Eolief
Corps high in the counsels of State and Nation.
AH that .remains is for every man and
woman, boyaud girl of the more than 15,000
enrolled in the Conversation Club to send in
their names and become tributary members to
an association of Loyal Homo Workers, whose
every step ifl progress and every utterance set
to the music of the Union. Write A. L. Sea
man, Secretary, 51G1 Minerva avenue, St. Louis,
ilo.. for particulars.
In the fo'.Jowing, also taken from the W.H.C.
circular, llija Loyal Home Workers will find
true inspiration :
"Much lifts been done; much remains to be
done. lian was not built in a single day;
character Hi not formed in a ruiglo hour.
Patriotism rymnot be taught in a single Feason.
Only by continued effort can wc accomplish
the good that lies within our power. Strong
forces rc at work to aid us. Other organiza
tions have taken op this liue of tvtik and
should rccpii'O our approval and co-ojicration.
" We should exalt our country's fine in every
possible inani&er. The salute to the flag, which
is an introductory step in Patriotic Teaching,
has heoii w-ll received, but there arc innumer
able school into which It has not been intro
duced. White the American flag floats over
thousand? f school house?, there are thousands
more that await its introduction.
"See to if, too. that when flags become tat
tered and weather-stained, that they are re
plarcd by tycw ones. Let the children have no
cause tobcafchntned of their flap. Insist that
teachers mad ehlldrcn take caro of flags pro
cntcd tlieM. Let them never become common
In their oitimation. Tho salute of the flag
may. owing to the crowded conditions of school
work, fall into disuse. Urgo its cojitinnance
Etui proviso additional means for teaching
lessons of patriotism."
; KA1XKS Or A LADT. "
" What r re tho markB of a lady?"
This is 'question that has recently come to
the Editor;, the writer meaning by ' lady," no
donbt, a well-bred, womanly woman.
WoH. lhn, a well-bred woman, one who will
be received at all times into the refined home
circle, at face value, can be told not only by
what ebc does and what she does not do; by
what she is and what she is not. Here are
smnc of the marks of her type:
She doct not overdress or wear things out of
season, ihe is not noisy or familiar, and never
sacrifices tidiness to fhow.
She doc not go about the house in a fronsy
dress and nri-papots, and she is as careful not
to get groi&c ou her kitchen apron as she is to
keep it offlicr company gown.
She doc not draggle around in shoes down
nt the heel or bursting at the tides, but is care
ful that lMr foot covering :i larger than her
feet, thus obviating such a slatternly catastro
phe. She does, not scream with laughter, or slap
you on the hack, or nudge you with her dhows,
or gossip about her neighbor, or sit in front of
you nt church or entertainment with a hat that
obstructs your vision.
She does not wear gloves ont at the fincers,
and bor rout is always brushed, her rubbers
washed, and her boots blackened. She remc-tn-bots
that iicHtuces and hvrechieps sre woman's
best adornment, mid no qnantily of jewelry
or fnss a Kid furbelow s can makeup foraslouchy
habit or ja coarse demeanor.
Intorfliiainco or Thought and Sentiment by
tlto CO. AIL
IMtmfUke Oub.. Write briefly. 2. Write only
on oncTif . iltc paper. 3. mc tt ilio iolut. .
Write ou'Mtic nUject. C. Write your bent. fi.J&ich
week IhfmiiK-.tf (lioic Milling the heat IeUcm
i'tc. nMsii obiiu. ii. fuelling, eiiiiiiuij.lnn mxi gen
eral U'vrU roftsideicd-niil lw named iilUiehnd
of tltU HitMi oi the JJmor Itoll. l"lmt honor
wlH iml,' U of I hoc rcqiiiirmeniK. econd
bonoi Wil inoludeadeneiciiey iiiHouiu one point.
I?nwlol.Wt v.. menu velcnui's on. r.d. vt:r
tiVtnupfitwmitl v.vr. vclcruiiu-lan-; niciiilH-rc
vf ein,foh wltt be marked S.V. and D.V.J
Anna Xjyolf, v.d., Seville, Ore.; G. W. Gregg,
jr., GnwtiW Nob. Total, 15,335.
To oxc itnge: Postal autograph and stamp
pbotngr; s with (.".. uienibonf and L.H.W.
l''iank il cil. 110x7-12, Tecuiuv.di, Mich. Lut
Urs exch ngod, prcfv-reitcc for those lend of
dr&wiu fji jmiuling. Gurttudo Heath, 1J5
Wost PrAikJtn Ktrpet, Jvuiiton. O. Siniupa,
foroign m: J United States, and hooka for Iidi:m
srrow-Mje ana curios. Jiulnu Thorsas, una
....., ., ..
--. -S Hl- r.'-f-V---t! Vv
-WBtOTTO. PRO PTRIA,
CFLOWEa- Forget -me-not.
2?- Orjects Progress. patrio7.5m
rrowr.n sror or oregon'.
Dear C.C. Fjuf.nds: Ever since coming hero
I have wanted to tell you of my new home. I
left Tennessee Jan. IS. hound for the ''Great
West,' and have- found it about as it was repre
sented to he. 1 have also found this part of
Oregon the "Flower Spot" of all the country I
Thcro is certainly n great fuluro for this
country, :is it has all tho natural rcsonrces
that any country is in need of, and the climate
Of coutsp. I was somewhat homesick for a
while, but I expect to make this my future
home. Any one desiring to know nioro of
Oregon, can write mc. Your C.C. friend
C Hanking, Yoncalla, Ore.
AX OPKN I.KTTKB.
To tUc President of Lotfd Jiomc Waiters;
''There is that scattcreth yet incrcascth ;
nnd there is that wiihholdelb more than is
meet, which tends to poverty."
This is the Bible quotation to which Thk
National Tunirxic of recent date calls tho
attention of the Nation's representatives.
Does Til k National Tiuijunk mean there
is that Ecatiercth wretchedness broadcast
among tho helpless; that incrcaseth their de
spair because it is universally indorsed by
Surely this must be the true interpretation
of the text, or it could not apply with such
exact fitness to the filuation of those aged and
gricf-stricken veterans, who have no more boys
for sacrifice in case of war, or to voto those
Congressional Representatives into office.
Onco upon a time tho press was filled with
laudation of a pension bill that would shower
innumerable blessings on the dependent parents
of deceased soldiers. They were assured of
the Nation's care in headline, chapter, and
Then a great hush fell around tlu.se old'
folks without a home, whose mission of useful
ness to country and office seekers had been
accomplished. They dropped out of language
as well as tho newspuper columns. Even those
clergymen who preach Memorial Day sermons,
oiuy invoke Divine protection for dependent
wives and children of comrades who have
answered tlto last roll call. Then they stop as
if they had throat trouble.
I havo listened and searched for five years,
but have neither heard a prayer nor mad :i
plea for any kind of recognition of these surplti3
fathers and mothers, except the few residing
in State or National Homes. What is the cause
of this reticence? Is it shame, because thcro
is that withholdelh more than is meet; that
tendeth to dire poverty and neglect of those
almost in the shadowy valley to poverty of
heart aud poverty of patriotism?
Loyal Home Worker.
INEQUALITY OF rEVRIONE.
Dear L.H.W. and CO.: Yesterday I picked
up an old newspaper, aud about half way down
a column my eye fell on the following words
in largo tyjic: "What a miserable, mean Gov
ernment wc have got." Instantly tho patriot
ism in mc, and I am brim full of it, took offense,
and I wtnt right to the foot of the article tosco
who was thus maligning " Uncle Sam," and dis
covered tho writer to bo "Bab." 1 thought it
could not be so very dreadful if it was from
"liab's" pen. so went on to read:
"The Army is, to a degree, our aristocracy.
We want the men who so from West Point to
be a credit to us, and to he Bjiokcii of whoever
they may bo as American gentlemen. And
what do wo do? (When I say ' we,' J mean the
Government.) Expect tiicra to livo well, en
tertain well, dress well. And for this they ate
given well, not tho amount of money that a
good mechanic would earn. It is a disgrace."
I could not help saying "Atncu" to this.
There is no other country that I lovcio much,
yet it Is a burning disgrace that actual parsi
mony 13 embodied in tho matter of officials'
salaries. Not only docs this hold good in tho
treatment of the Army, but after a soldier hai
become disabled so that he has to be discharged '
so broken in health tliHt he cannot earn a
living what does this gre:t Government do
but refuse to pension hici, except in approxi
mately rare cases.
Or, if a pension is granted, it is done after a
long delay, and tho pittance raises his ire in
stead of his gratitude. As one lady remarked
tome, "It was nothing but an insult to give
hun (her husband so paltry a sum for bis
Then, too, there is such a discrimination in
the granting of pcusiuuf. The most prompt
and munificent of these arc given to those
must tunvorihy. Three petitioners present
themselves to my mind. Tho first, that of a
soldier who responded to tho call of 'Gl, and
who was in active service in various capacities
until the cltuc of tiic rebellion in '(5. As long
as he had the strength to cam a living for him
self a::d those depending on him, be asked
nothing of the Government; but nt last sick
ness and other misfortune overlook bitn, and
nearly six years ago he asked for help. Did he
get it? Nothc; nor is ho likely to do so. aud
had it not been fur the kindness of a neighbor
in advancing supplies he and his family would
havo suffered the past Winter for tho barest
necessities of life.
.More than o'uee the potato bin has been
empty, tho pork barrel the same, and tho last
dust of flour used up. Bnt, no thanks to
Uncle Sam, before the family became very
hungry there wsue something el&o to eat. Yet,
in this family patriotism is their religion. Tho
babies, three and fivo years old, know bow to
sing "Tramp, Tramji, Tramji," and "Marching
Through Georgia," and they look at the pict
ures in Tin: National Tut bunk, asking
which are tho "old robols" and which are the
'"nice soldiers with bluo clothes, like papa."
Within :itoiic's throw of litis man's house
lived another soldier who served OOdays in tho
war of the rebellion, and whose papers'wero in
snrh a shape that he could not gum admittance
into a Grand Ai my Pos-t. Less than a 3ear ago
be died. His widow is able bodied, in vigorous
health, with no one depending on her. Sho is
undeserving in the extreme, having a scanda
lous tongue that will blacken tho character of
even her own mother and sisters. This woman
immediately applied for a pension, and tho
Commissioner, like tho unjust judge gave her
a good sura. because of her much asking." At
least, that is the only apparent reason; that
was very apparent.
The third case is that of a lady in delicate
health, who has two little sirls depeudini: upon
her. Her husband was ptuminunt in Grand
Army ciiclcs. having been a Dcparimutit officer
tcveral times. Tho character of this Jndy is
above reproach. 1 havo known her personally
for 10 years, and never knew word or act of
hers at all uu worthy of a perfect lady. When
her husband died, n little more than a year
Eiuce. sho applied for a pension, hut her appli
cation was rejected on the-snitiud that site had
loo much projicrty. The property brought her
no income, and how sho can live is a problem
I wish Mr. Lochren would solve.
These examples of discrimination arc not
overdrawn nor in the least highly colored. I
can furnish names if debited, and tho facts can
be verified by responsible parties. May June.
passing in Ri:vri:v.
Mary A. Stewart, Huff, Colo., writes that hor
beloved liu&land. Efislia C. Stewart, a veteran
of Co. F, 4th Jowa, who served four years and
two months, was in "G engagements, and
marched with Sherman to the Sea. answered to
the last roll call ou cartii March '27, lEtHi. She
asks tho sympathy :ind prayers of all The
National Tuiuunk family, aud will not be
John A. Soldncr, who is enrolled in the Con
vciFHtion Club, is interested in drawing, and
would be glad to hear from others who draw;
also, exchange postal autograph?. His sisters,
Mary A. aud Ulla A. Soldncr, would like to ex
John Brunuy, Fort Scott, Kan., docs tho
most exquisito card-euibr;ssiug as a diversion
from the daily exactions of a busy life. He is
a bora artist, as his work attests.
Mattio A. M. Groynm, formerly of Ever
green, O., is now. with her parents, residing at
223 South Exchnngo street, St. Paul, and con
gratulates herself upon being ready for tho
next Reunion of CO. and Loyal Homo Workers.
Of two tracers scut out April, 1S9J, ono has
been icturncd to her full, but the other is miss
ing. She hopes the ono who holds it will mail
it to her npon reading this.
F. E. Allison, Welcome. O.. replying to Cora
Davidson, says that Christians are justified in
going to war in defense of their rights and lib
erties, though few wars since the beginning of
the Christian era have been waged to this end.
S. E. Johnson, Harlem. Ind.,son of a veteran,
is trying to put himself thiough college by
teaching shorthand. For particulars, send a
self-addressed envelope, stamped, to Box 33.
Cud 31. Kepucr, Independence, Iowa, sends a
welcome to "Southern Girl," and wishes old
timo writer?, like May Sparks, Rose Janscn,
Daisy Deighton. and others, would let them
selves be heard from. Sho urges the cultiva
tion of jatriotism and :i first place for tho
Union veterans in the hearts of all tho C.C.
GOOD READING FOR L.TI.W.
Dkar C. C, Fuilnds: I wonder how many
of you are admirers of tho Ijthci, published by
the Arena Publishing Co., of Boston, Mas?.?
To my mind it ranks among the best all-round
monthly magazines in this country. It is ed
ited by 3IY. B. O. F'owcr, talented, broad
minded, highly cultured, j radical, progressive,
and loyal to tho conviction of a lover of coun
try. God, and truth.
-Mr. Flower is a sturdy and inimitable cham
jiion of woman's cause, a tireless defender of
tho oppressed and a peerless advneito of such
methods of reform as he believes will make our
country greater, grander, and happier. He is a
man who is loved by his countrymen becauso
of the enemies ho has made in the giant trusts
and monopolies, that, octopus-liko, have been
gnawing at the vitals of our country these last
t"vo or three decades. Tho price of tho maga
zine, happily, lias been reduced since January,
so it is now within the reach of nearly every
family. Its able and brilliant corns of contrib
utors from mouth to mouth is perhaps tho best
recommendation it has. You would all profit
by reading the January, February. March, and
April numbers, for they all hristlo with inter
est. Yours, Pro Patria
Julius W. Gogarn, Grand Rsp:d3, Mich.
TIIH TOWKB OP EN KEG Y.
Dkar C.C.: How many of U3 understand
fully wliat is meant by that word energy. It
seems to me our whole life, our fate, if you .vi!l
call it so, is founded and huildcd on two essen
tials. They are these: Decision and energy.
Success in life depends utterly on these. Wo
must havo a fixedness of purpose; there must
be a clear conception of an ideal character
which wo would establish. It is necessary for
ns before we undertake to do, to know what is
to be done. From this cint on, I rely on tho
old adage of "Be sure you aro right, then
Daniel Webster had made his decision,
whereby his mother had said. " he would be
come a somebody or a nobody," before his dc
cl'iiiug the appointment of the clcrkshipof tlio
Court of Common Pleas in his native County of
Hillsborough, N. H.; saying to his father. "I
intend, sir, to use my tonguo in court, not my
pen; to he an actor, and not a register or other
men's actions." And nobly was that piedgo
But energy is tho point I wish to present.
By this I mean application, activity, industry,
never-tiring execution in whatever may ho
Stephens has said: "Motion is tho law of
living nature." Well, then, to bo inactive is to
1 e dead. Energy is tho motive power of intel
lectual activity. Wo must have a propelling
power, and energy is this power.
Peril ap3 tho most striking characteristic of
great minds i3 tho application of this power 10
their views, their ideas, and their opinions,
which havo impressed upon us tho valuo of
their actions aud tho glory of theif names.
Put in this class Washington, Luther, Abe
lard, a Kcmpis, Cromwell, Franklin. Fulton,
Edison, and othera, and we have a marked ex
ample in the life of Livingstouoand of Napoleon
Bonaparte, who sacrificed everything to his
One cannot comprehend the fullness of mean
ing of energy unless ho can draw conclusions
from its value; and its value must bo based
upon what has been accomplished through it.
Oar history is pregnant with lis powerful in
fluences. Our Nation is to-day a living monument of
facts to prove to us the value of energy, and I
believo it is not given the consideration that is
duo it by an advanced and learned people.
Yours iu P. P. and C. Seneca.
Report No. 21.
Win. C. Peck, Troy, N. H.; Lizzie E. Shaw,
Garrison, Iowa; J. T. Uoothhy, Lexington,
The resignation of Rctla Hagcman as Assist
ant Secretary of Nebraska is herewith an
nounced and regretfully accepted. Jeanniu
Watson, of Lincoln, Neb., has been appointed to
succeed lid la Hngonan.
Will P. Mart3cb, Secretary of California, has
resigned. No one has been appointed to suc
Both Secretaries resign, owing to intentions
to leave their respective States. Both havo
been faithful officers, and their resignations
were regretfully accepted.
Amos L. Seaman, .Secretary.
i ... m i-
Buy a dozen Holland herring and soak them
21 hours, wash them well, leaving the hoadson,
nnd place them in a jar. with thin slices of
onion, apple, and lemon hotweot. Heat enough
vinegar to cover, in which may bo thrown n
littlo whole pepper and a few hits of mace.
Cover, and in two days or less they will be
ready for use.
Fish for pickling should not be cooked, un
less eaten at onco, as tho vinegar has the same
In preparing Holland- herring for present
use tho white melts should he bruised and
mixed with a littlo vinegar and turned over
them; or lemon juice and onion juice iu small
quantities may bo added.
So I married ilnry Jane. I told her how
weakly I was the fust thing, thai I couldn't
stand confinement in shops, nor lon hours,
nor too much exercise; all the Snydcrs had
been that way. Uncle Job's first wife's
cousin had died of small-pox, and his wife
died of jpillopiu' consumption and cancer.
I told her workin' mon hadn't no rights
nowadays; I never got no job that suited me;
tho men I worked for never treated me right;
they hadn't paid, mc what I was wtith, and
they all had a spite ag'in' me. Alary Jane
-was a sensible woman and seed how it was
from the fust ; besides, she was a fust-class
washer. She kept up her washin' right
straight along when sho found I was weakly.
Sho wani't no financier. Women isn't.
'Tain'l a good plan to trust them with money,
so 1 took the money and spent it. Mary
.lane hadn't no reason to complain; I ahvavs
spent the money just like I had earned it.
Well, jestaswewasgillin'on in the world,
Mary Jane up aud died. I never did sec how
she came to do it without git tin' my opinion
on it, and 1 ort to bear her a grudge for doin'
it and lixivin' me with the children to pcrvidc
It is a hard world for a poor man with six
motherless children to look arter, and none of
'em big enough to help him, and some years
before they would be old enough to work.
"What's this I hear about the phi ruber
and the paperhangcr in the next block?
Jlnve.thcj' been trading houses?"
"Not exactly. They did a lot of wotk for
each other, and each had to take the other's
bouse for bis jiny."
Won't Tobacco-Spit or Smoke Your t-Ife
Name of tho little book just rccolved tolls
about Kolobac, tho wonderful, harmless, eco
nomical euro for chewing, smoking, cigaret, or
snuff habit. You run no physical or financial
risk, for Nolobnc is absolutely guaranteed to
cure or money refunded. Your druggist's got
it or will get it. Write for tho'book mailed
free Thk Sterling Eemedv Co... Bor 3, In
diana Mineral Springs, Iud. Agents wanted.
A Shiny of llio -International Sunday
School Les,soii Appointed for May
of Uio I'ubllcnn and
St. I.tilte, IS: 9-11.
fOno rendins thc& noU dmiiltl firt awenilly
Mndy tho paragraph from tho Holy Scriptures ns
This paragraph illustrates somo of tho prin
ciples lo bo observed in Prayer. It is import
ant sinco Prayer plays a large part iu a normal
Tl7ia is TraycrJ
Saint Augustine said : " Prayer is tho Key of
Another said: "Prayer is tho Key to open
the day and tho bolt to shut in" the night."
Anonymous: " What tho key is to tho watch,
that Prayer is to religion ; it winds it up and
sets it going."
Dr. McCosh wroto: " Prayer is like a man in
a small boat laying hold of a largo ship; and
who, if he docs not move tho largo vessel, at
least moves tho small vessel toward the largo
An unnamed poet declared :
"Prnycr U tho unburdening of tho soul'
The simple net by which wo loll
Kncli trbil, trouble, crois sum! care,
On shoulders able all to be.ir."
This Parablo illustrates tho true spirit of
Prayer. It should ho reverent, not vain, ar
rogant; not KcIf-rightcous, but with conscious
sense of tin worthiness; ingenuous, not super
cilious. Self-exalting prayer is debasing to tho
petitioner; humblo prayer is elevating.
Tub Paeaqlr of the Puiilic.vn and the
Wo havo only the ono account, St. Luke,
Tho Parablo was spoken March, A. D. 29.
Ciirist docs not point lo any particular timo
in verso 10. stating when the two wont to the
Temple. This 13 a parable, a mcro illustration,
a supposablc case. It was probably constantly
occurring in spirit and fact. Tho parable hero
is a narration in which the person?, places, cir
rumstances, etc., arc probably fictitious. It is
a fable. The moral is tho latter part-of verso
M "for everyouo 3 exalted." The prin
ciple of said moral is tho lesson specially ap
pliod to the duty, privilege, and spiritor prayer.
Tho facts stated by Christ woro doubtless true
to li'c ns daily happening in tho Temple.
Christ may havo had no particular parties iu
The hours of daily prayer at tho Temple
were 9 a. in. and 3 p. m.
Tho Pharisees were accustomed to fast twice
each wrek Monday and Thursday. It was
their belief Moses ascended Mt. Siuaion Thurs
day to receive the Law, and returned ou Mon
day. So say Epiphanios and tho Kabbis in
The abasement of the proud nnd the exalta
tion of tho good'7(humbIc) will bo specially at
tho Judgment occasion. "Shall
M relates probably to said time. This abase
ment and tlio extitatfon arc acts of God's mind
(.decision) in relation to the two characters, and
they muse, lhcreo're,"bc immediate acts of said
divino Will, but the expression of such de
terminations will be made, become known, be
promulgated, anijoUnccd to tho respective par
ties at tlio Judgment Day.
To some cxteutho good effects of humility,
and tho evil consequences of pride are often
apparent in thi-j Hfe. ' God is all the time lower
ing the self-exalted and lifting up the humble.
Every life bIiows this on the long run. The
principle is true .also of bodies of persons, na
Christ was going frpm Ephron to Jericho ri
Pcrea. When uttering this parable he was
probably. in tho vicinity of Jericho. There was
a custom oiiico Uierf. and probably a goodly
number of publican.s.ifrequeutpd tlio place.
Tho Pharisco and Publican went to tho
Temple. That wasjat Jerusalem, ou Mt. Moriah.
The Jews had hut single Temple, and hence
wo can with certainty Jocita tho sceuo of tho
parablo in tho Capital of Palestine
Tho two men "went up," ver3o 10; "went
down," verso M. Tho Temple was on very ele
vated ground, whilo parts of tlio city lay in
valleys. Perhaps "his house" (V. 14) was in
How shall wo locato tho "far off" inverse
13? We may in a rough and general way repre
sent tho Temple in tlio following.way :
1 2 b :-. a 5
Lei 1 represent tho Holy of Holies;
Holy PIrco; 3, tho Court of tho Women; ,
the Court of tho Gentiles; o. Onto blitisliuu ;
, the Beautiful Gate; ;. Gate of Nicauor.
Notice views as to '" far ofT."
a. Perhaps "far off" means a goodly di3lanc?
from tho Holy of Holies, or possibly from tho
Holy Place. If " far off" from tho Pharisee ho
meant, we are fair in believiug tho two in op
posite parts of the same Court. Tho Publican
ventured only inside the Court of the Women
near the Beautiful Gale. Tin's view supposes
tho Phuriseo was at the other end of tho Court
at Gate Nicanor, to wit. JUS cubits off; that is
to say. 2IfI.2i feet away. A cubit is 1.824.
(decimal; fed. 1.S2I X 135 216.24 (decimal)
Wo do not know whether both wero Jew.
Only Jews wcro permitted to enter tho Court
of the Women, which was the common gather
ing phtco in tho Temple. Tho Pharisco was a
Jew ; tho Publican may not have been a He
brew. b. If the Publican wero a Gentile ho prayed
in tho Court of thu Gentiles. But if this be &o,
how can it be said the Pharisco saw him,,a fact
implied in V. 14? jTu' Publican. Wo would
not expect such words if it be a fact tho Phari
sco was in tlio i.ourt of the Women, and the
Publican in tho Court of tho Gentiles. We
may, if wc accept the condition of thing", sup
pose (ho Pharisee saw tho Publican praying m
the Gentilo Court as ho (tho Pharisee) passed
through from Gato Shushau into the Court of
c. In verso 11 wc have" this (outos not cxeinos)
Would not this lead us to suppose tho two
were quite near to ench other?
Wcro they two alone in said Court? If so,
the expression. " this," would ho appropriate,
no matter at what part of the Court tho Publi
Was ho tho only Puilican present?
Probably, ns tho'PliAriseo said "thisPnbli
can," he pointed his liiiKer at him. Isa.,59:9.
The nccouut leads us to supposo tho two
prayed in the satuo Chart, l'rob'ibly. then, it
was tho Court of tho Women, Iu his humility
tho Publican hardly presumed to enter tho
Court so near to tlio Holy Placo.
Ouo fact is certain! tho Publican was not
far off" from God. Ps., 31 : IS; Jsa., 57 : 15.
The .icoierj of the Parable.
Tho context shows plainly tho Parablo was
uttered by Christ.
1. It is evident tho parable is aimed at thoso
Pharisees who wero proud of thoir piety and
puffed up with sdf-rlyhteousuess. Wo notice
"unto" iu verso 9. The original is proa, and it
is a fact proa is oft)hf rendered concerning.
y l news.
a. A numbor of such Pharisees woro present.
SosayBengel, Barnes, Dr. James Strong iu Har
mony. b. No. So say Bloom field. Whodon.
It would seem that Christ wished simply to
teach his Disciples tiio spirit of true prayer,
aud used tho Thamco aud Publican parablo
for illustration. Wo hardly think He would
make such an unfavorable comparison iu tho
presence of both Pharisees aud Publicans.
These, too, were already very euomous toward
each otiicr, and such lauguago would loud to
create greater unpleasantness. Christ could
well take advantage of both to tench au im
portant lesson to his Disciples.
If Pharisees alouo woro present Christ could
do them no good by unfavorably contrasting
-them with hated and outlawed Publicans. If
only Publicans wore present then Christ's lan
guage might seem flattery. If both were pres
ent, tho uaraVlo would seem unwisely timed.
Christ had great knowlcdgo of human nature;
knew how to reach and haudlo men; under
stood by omniscience the methods of oratorical
persuasion. Courses of conduct and spirit of
words that now touch men favorably would
havo had similar effect ou Christ's audiences.
Comparisons, however, and specially between
parties who nro greatly, bitterly at variance,
arc hardly wise in him who would win souls.
2. The Pharisees wcro the purists, separatists,
perfectionists of tho Jewish Church.
3. The Publicans were tho tax-gatherers ap
pointed by the Roman authorities to collect
moneys to bo paid over to said heathen govern
ment. Some wcro Jews some Gentiles.
Explanations of Words and Phrases.
1. Iu themselves. V. 9. In their own good
ness or righteousness. Ezc, 33: 13.
2. Trusted. V. 9. Trusted for forgiveness
of sin, acceptance by God to eternal life, for
merit in God's sight trusted for all these in
their confidence in God's good opinion of thoir
3. Despised. V. 9. Counted for nothing.
4. Prayed. V. 11. Bragged, boasted. Bead
in verse 10; ono (Pharisee) went up to brag;
the other (Publican), to pray.
5. Stood. V. 11. No other attitude (posture)
was ritualistirally allowable among the Jews.
St. Mark, 11:25. Stood, in V. 11. means iu
original, took his stand, stationed himself.
Standing, in V. 13, has a different meaning.
Tho Pharisee's poiition was a studied one (a
sort of posing), seem iiiejy calculated for lengthy
occupancy. That of tho Publican scctns nioro
extemporized, not so bidding for attention and
There are times when standing 13 now ad
nfissihlo iu prayer. Somo denominations pray
in tint attitude as a eencral practice. Kneel
ing is thought by many as nioro reverent.
1 ho Christian at Work was asked as to too rof
rcct posture for prayer, and replied: "Tho
only pasture is bo avoided is imposture. Let
tho heart be in tho sarvico as well as the lips
and a prayer on tho back, or tho head, or tho
foot, or the side, is all tlio same."
fi. With himself. V. 11. Notice view?.
a. Connect "with (by) himself" with
"stood" stood by himself. The very word,
Pharisee, means separated ( Hebrew paicraicsh).
So tho Syriac, Wojstcin, Whcdon thy prefer
ence), Dr. James Strong in Harmony.
To stand by himself, apart from other?, was
Pharisee-like. Isa., G5:5.
b. Connect "with himself" with "prayed."
Probably his lips moved but he did not speak
aloud. Bloom field thinks that if "with (by)
himself" wcro intended to he connected with
"stood " wo would havo had htth, instead of
Tho following take this second viow : Bloom
field, Beilgel. Barnes (by preference). Bulk
ley and Dr. Maltby render, "mental prayer."
Wctsteiu has "secum tacitu3," silent with
c. Bengcl gives tho cxprcs3ion a slightly
different turn "with himself." ns dependent
on self. This agrees with "trusted in self."
V. 9. a. His prayer reached no further than
self. God did not heed if. h. His prayer ap
plied to self was not intercessory was sd
lhh. 7. Extortioners. V. 31. An extortioner
(arpox) is one who injures by force a robber.
An oppressor of the ncedymay besostyled ono
who takes advantage of the poor a usurer.
Publicans had the reputation of being often
extortionate. This accounts for what ZaccheU3
said, 19 r8. Compare 3tl2, 13.
Tho word extortion conies from ex and
tnrqneo, to wrest from. It relates to any
illegal manner of wringing anything from any
body; as. e. g., by physical force, threatening,
violence, confinement fdure3s).
8. Unjust. V. II. Not guilty of fraud not
dishonest through a pretense of being just
9. Givo tithes. V. 12. . Give tenths. He
gave ouc-teiith of each income ho received.
Nu.. 33:21; Lev.. 27:30; Neh., 10:37;
12:44; Heb. 7:5, 8, 9. Thoso versos show
that law and custom demanded of all to givo
one-tenth income to roligious.purposcs.
Tho Pharisees were very particular, paying
tithes on the least production; as, e. g., spear
mint, anise (dill), cummin. St. Mt., 23r23.
Euo and all kinds of herbs. St. Lu., 11 :42.
10. Not lift up a 'eyes. V.13. Tho Greeks
and Banians, iu praying, used to lift up their
hands and raise their eyes. Tho Rabbis taught
thu opposite of such attitudes; that when pray
ing tho devotee should cast his eyes dowr and
raise only his heart to God. Why did the Pub
lican not raise his eyes? From low opinion of
self, shame on account of his sins. Ezr., 9:6;
Ps.. 40 : 12 ; Jer, 3 : 25 ; Dan., 9: 5.
Wo infer from the account that the Pharisco
threw back his head, extended his hands, raised
his eyes was pompon?.
11. Smoto breast. V. 13. Sin produces in a
man, whose conscience is aroused, a pain. Early
philosophers located conscience in the breast.
It is natural nil over the world thu3 to smite
one's self iu conscious guilt. It is a kind of
attempt at Hetf-nuuishmcut. The practice 13
sometimes carried into the confessional, tho
penitent using thfs gesture as an accompani
ment of confession of guilt. 23:48.
12. Bo merciful. V. 13. Be propitious let
reconciliation take placo between thee uud me
by reason of my sacrifice. Probably ho bad
offered a sacrifico (the Greek implies this),
pointing ultimately to the atonement to bu
effected by Christ. Thus tho Publican looked
for Imln out shir, of himself. There was no dr.
pendcuce on his own righteousness. Justifica
tion with God i3 secured only by tho shedding
of blond, or by faith in said doctrine JIcuco
the Publican departed from tho Temple justi
fied. V. 14. j,
13. Justified. V. 14. Accepted, approved,
regarded ns just. After "justified" add by God.
Tho act of justification is a Divine act. The
Publican was justified by God ; the Pharisee,
by his owu self-consciousness. 10:29; 10:15.
34. For every ono exalted. V. 14. A
common saying, proverb, among tho Jews. St.
Mt.. 23: 12; St. huki 14 :11.
Tho principle is this: Exaltation is a Divine
prerogative, and tho Divine condition, or re
quired prerequisite, for God to clovato a per
son, is human meekness, humility. If we at
tend to humility. God wilt look to our exalta
tion. Humility is about as much as a mortal
Tho great object of the parable ia to teach
humility. Away with hypocrisy. Avoid in
vidious comparisons. 2 Cor., 13:52; 1 Cor., 11 :
28. Self-complacency is offensive. Do not bo
extortionate. Pay your fair share toward reli
gious concerns. Do not try to ho "over-much
righteous" so to speak, too good. Fast, bnt,
doing so. do not make tho act an exercise in
ostentation. Be just. Maintain fidelity to tho
seventh commandment. John Wesloy expresses
the general idea of tho parablo iu lines ad
dressed to our Savior:
Just nnd holy It thy nnine;
urn nil iinriplitcoii-ttic.iH;
Fnl.ii!. nnd full of ttin 1 a m;
Thou nrt full of troth unci jrrnce.
Hood's Sarsapii'illn possesses peculiar buildinjr
np powers. It makes the wcakstroiignud healthy.
Tlio Christian Commission.
Editou National Tkibuxe: Will you
give mo the origin of the Christian Commis
sion in the late war, by whom, and the data
thereto? O. P. Warner, Emporium, Pa.
The Christian Commission was organized
a-year later than tho Sanitary Commission,
nud grew out of tho efforts of the Young
Meu's Christian Associations to provide for
the spiritual needs of the soldiers. The
first suggestion came from Vincent Colyer,
the artist, who had been in the field, de
voting himself to the work. Iu May, 18b"2,
of whom 10 were clergymen. It soon had 400
in the armies, and more than 1,000 at work
at home. During its existcuce it had 0,000
"delegates," none of whom received any
pay. and 120 were women, mainly employed
iu the "diet kitchens." George II. Stuart,
of Philadelphia, was Chairman of the Exec
utive Committee; Joseph Patterson, jliensV.
nrer; and Lemuel Moss, Secretary. Tho
Commission distributed hundreds of thou
sands of Bibles, hymn-books, etc., and mill
ions of paper.?, tracts, eic. It opened schools
for the colored children, maintained "diet
kitchens" in many of the hospitals, and
kept trains of wagons following the armies
with comforts for the wounded and sick.
Among these was a ''coffee wagon" invented
by Jacob Dnnton, of Philadelphia, and pre
sented by him to the Commission. Editor.
Armonia ia not a thoroughly Christian
country, as is generally believed. Out of a
population of 3,510,205 nearly five-sixths
are Mahometan, the exact number being
2,900,414 to only 009,791 Christians. I
Every render N Invited to send dilutions and
oridniil contributions, mid to compete fr prfzn
offered. Definition followed by mi natcrl.-fc ('J
are of o'olotc word. Addrc nil commiintaa
Hons lo Puzzle Editor, Titi: National Tiuncssf
Washington, V. C.I
A NSW Kits TO NO. 231-FEII. 27.1S9G.
2C51 Ivswihoe, by Sir Wnltcr Scott.
A H A QUA
K TOO AHS QIABTBB
A PO LOG UBS QBAUTBIiON
A .V A a O C. I K S ASTKROII1S
S I! 17 .V IKK HBKOIC8
SIS S Y S
22T Tlob-gob-lln. -aT Stop; Spot.
22350 L K A T K S 225G S O .1 E R 3 II
LA LOAN J OR-AN AT K
K L b 1.VOE J A K A T R A
A O I S T 0 It EN'ACTOi:
T A N T A R A RATTANS
SJKKADZ II K A U S A Y
2259 Vanquishes; Squash-vine.
2U5S O 2260 I
-V A L JAR
REDACTS .1 A V A C A T
DKCfMBTBtt TAJ A N B L t A
CALAJf I STKATBD 5 ALOMBTRY
A T T K R A T K S ASTORIA.
n 22G1 Break-ranks.
22C3 F 22Gt N
P K B BAP
GLOTTAL CAS. ANA
r B A T ft K R STAR X A 3 B K L L A R I A
KXTKRMKT3 1 KARL I TBS
T A S S B T 5 S N B A T II B
CKTT3 A r. R K E
S A S (MS
22C5 S 22GG R
-r CVJl L I 3
B I. A I It D B M B D
ROOD LBS DRAWBAR
OI.OL'DI, B T S L K A T if K R R D
S WA DDt.BISI L L T I'M WII ISKIKS
31 I L L K I O R A S K B K S T K X S
SLA D K S
Authors of word-forms: Eugene (2). A. Dandy
(2), l'alln.4. Keiinclh, Kulceoy, Primrose, C. Saur
NEW PUZZLES. 0. 240.
SO. 23G3 CUAKADK.
We nil would see fair Cuba free
P'rom Spanish rule nnd tyrnnny.
And FISK in sweet of liberty
Oil. would not I fin I lw jolly?
If it pleuic Smin our (!'; to burn,
Or our "kind oflices" to spurn,
Then it is time for her to learu
The nature of her folly.
If this bot-hended-Matador,
Whose brutal TOTAL all abhor.
Should train hi-t pijjmy doga of war
To "blow im from the ocean,"
A tartar be will sure nwiike.
To sfve film osk. and no mistake.
And cause him in hf. booti to quake
lie better chance thai notion.
Hiss Kit. St. Marys, O.
NOS. 23C-1-5 DIAMONDS.
I. A letter. 2. The lobe of the ear. 3. English
architect; 131t-l?lT. 4 Glided nwny. 5. Madein
faiuou. 0. The common pondfljh. 7. .Resentful.
8. Sen. (Dnnd.I 0. Kins. 10. P. O., Arm
strong County, I'a. 11. A letter.
1. A letter. 2. The end of a thiiifr. 3. A seaport
of ricotlnud. 4. Volcanic nshc. 5. Belgian bibli
ographer; 15. IS2S. C. Boston, Main. (Fiction). 7.
A speeie of rose. 8. Dividing;. 9. Town of Bnva
rin. (Wore.) 10. Summer. (Fleming-.) II. A
letter. X. L. C. It.. Lyons, N. Y.
NO. 236G DECAPITATION.
My Wnrno Bijou ! nh. mystic friend.
For friund thou nrt till time hall rend;
P'nll deep I drink of Learning's store
Within thy liny paceV core.
And thntiks of gratitude ascend.
When T.lppincott my hopes doth end.
Oil thee I first I can depend;
Aiid-ts I Menrch T praise the mora
My Wnriia Bijou.
But though no harm I did intend
Thy useful days are near their end,
And soon, thy tilts and triumphs o'erv k
Thy wnsled form I shall deplore.
Though last 'tis plain tbou'rt"on tho mend,"
My worn Bijou.
CojtnADE, Baltimore, Md.
?;o?. 23GT-8 diamonds.
1. A loiter. 2. A town of Spain. 3. Soils -with
mud. 4. A comnii-aioii. 5. Siiitjlrou. 0. Scries
of words ho arranged that they can be read vertf
eilly nnd horizontally wiili like result. 7. The
sen-pigeon. 8. A form of clouds in which they nro
nrrnnjiod in n horizontal bund or layer. 9. Needle
fish. 10. A sheltered plnee. 11. A letter.
I. A letter. 2. A short ridse connectlnc two
higher elevalion-. 3. To benumb. 4. A aeedlip.
5. A piece of oak bolted perpendicularly to tho
nide of a veisel to nid in dniwiim down nnd secur
ing the clew of the mutnsail. C. Series of words
no iirmuced that Iheycan be rend vertically and
horizontally with like results. 7. White crystnllina
substances. 8. An accumulation of earth nud
Miotics carried forward nnd ileponited'by iv jjlacier.
9. To hide. 10. Eyes. (Dungl.) II. A letter.
Stocles, Mt. Vernon, 111-
NO. 23(59 SERIAL CHARADE.
T7c Triumph of Love. IV. The Victory of Love.
'Tis midnight, nnd from n steeple near
Uin out the twelvo Mtrokes". precisely dull;
But soon the echoes, mellow nud clear.
Die out. and then is thk TOTAi.ltiiI.
Ah, cpiiet the corner house to-night
So dreary and dark, except Hint thera
In the study burns a. dim, pale light
Here rests the Sage in his easy-chair.
"Never since Solomon was there known
ONE human so full of knowledge wise;
lie stands a victor, nlonc nlone!
The finest scholar below him lies 1
As rocky shores from the mountain peaks.
As Out mi's bed from tho jjood Kind's ships;
Ivich gilt-edged phraethat the jjraySnge speaks
Is a pearl of truth from Learninc'd lips!"
"Bnh! " and the paper he casts aside,
Willi columns full of their worldly prnlse;
"Compared with Nature! It wounds my pride.
While I'm sick of pearls and gill-edged phrase!"
A bust of Demosthenes the Greek
Is resting ngiiinst the painted wall;
Ami lo! iisecmeth lo fjiize um speak.
Aud to say. "Oh. wherefore comes this gall?"
The Sage be answers with woeful groan:
"My choice wasTWOwbatl thoughl'LwouIdbe,
For Life is but loveless, dull, nnuMone;
It might have been' in my dreams 1 soet
The Lover was wise iu choosing three;
Mine I'm repenting, and sadly, too.
For Ciinlil Is ever shy of me.
p'or May and December lack love truo! "
Loccst, Allegheny, Pa.
nos. 2370-71 Diamonds.
1. A letter. 2. A local impersonation of the god
of light and celestial force. (Stand.) 3. Money.
L Mixed together. 5. Smaller. 6. A sharp burst
of thunder. 7. To suppress. 8. Mule hawks. 9.
Erases. 10-To seize uud hurry ofT. 11. A letter.
1. A letter. 2. A local impersonation of the god
of light nnd celestial force. Stmid.J 3. A promontory-
4. A lia-ty flight. 5- Uriveletl. G. A nntiti-Hcri-iuiL
who has the caro of chambers. 7. To-
leeonverl. 8. Germs. 0. Sols up. 10. To close
II. Aletter. Guakdikkkr, I'oultney. Vr.
CBfAT WITH CONTKITjrrTORS.
Lawyer Simon Ense enmo over to Washington
again on Vctlncbily of Itut wcclt and spent sev.
orul hours with K. T. Did and ourselves, duriupr
which time au attempt to put together aYsnAprtD
square was made, un incident which called up
recollections of the Iongthy "square dispute" by
the selfsame pair of ve.erans buck in the days
when the Aetcarfc Puzzler flour'shed. The Philn
delphiiiu forinist left us a couple of beautiful
"sevens," nnd authorized the oiler of St for the
first WARFARE squnto contributed lo Mystery, to
contain no wordsoulaide of the Standard. Century,
International. Lippincotl or Phillips. Eugene,
who is u tobacco drummer, hns landed in Pittsburg.
Vwliere bo is quartered at the Sixth Avenue Hotel.
He will doubtless have many enjoyable chats with
tho puzzlers of the twin cities, who nre very much
alive to puzzlcisticntTilr. K. T. Did would like
to sea n square on ANYBODY, and Itex Ford sugucsts
that foruusts try n sKCWirriSAS diamond. Misi
I'Tl'afi.it has a patriotic ring ay Inch is pleasing. Ho
reports it lienrty response lo his call for contribu
tions for bis department, which is soon lo appear.
If you want n copy of No. I drop a card to J. J.
Ilollingswortb, St. Mi rt". O. Friend Chud-
bourii's column in the Inter Ocean comes to hand
with unfailing regularity mid enlists new friends
week by week. "Complications" is one of Puzzle
uum's very oldest, ns well as very best, depart
ments. Fireglow's latest slory, which is given a
prominent place lu n recent I-sue of the Youth's
Companion, is n clever bit ol work, m trie author's
l-3C-'3C. E. O. Chester.
Children Cry for
OUR RURJL TOPICS,
Somo Practical Suggestions for Oar
Polllimtlon r Vo,ae Flower.
The results of nu exhaustive Inquiry con
ducted by Merton B. Wnite hate just been
published by the Division of Pathology,
United States Deportment of gricnltnre.
In the polhnatiou work on tho penr, two
distract kinds of experiments lmve been
tried: 1. Simple bogging experiment, in
which, bags of paper, cheesecloth or netting
with meshes (10 to tho inch) wero placed
over the unopened bttds. and onfcside pollen
thus excluded. 2. Careful hand pollinations
of flowera which were einnscnlnted whilo
yet in bud, and protected from all other
pollen by pnper bugs. These experiments
were carried on in large numbers and at
four different places at Brockport in 1891,
and nt Scotland, Kochesler and Geneva in
1392, all ia New York State. The. condi
tions of the trees were widely different, as
was also the weather at dowering-time. Tho
work was dor.e on a large nnmbcr of varie
ties of pears, several of the same varieties
ocenrring iu each of the fonr series of ex
periments. The results nnder fhese'varying
conditions have substantially agreed, in most
cases being remarkably uniform. The-fruits
resulting from the different kinds of pollen
siiuwcu lLikuiesuu; uiuetence, wnicn. lenu
to corroborate the conelnsrons.
Itshonld also be noted that similar ex
periments were tried on the apple and the
quince along with tho pear work The
varieties of apples arc more inclined to be
sterile to their own pollen than the pears.
With the former, in the great majority of
rases, no frnit resulted from self-pollination.
The results as a rnle, however were less
ciear-cnt than in the pear, hecanse with
most of the self-sterile varieties an occasional
fruit will set nnder self-po linatiou, and
none of the varieties were very completely
self-fertile. The qnince, on the other hand,
seems to fruit nearly as well with its own
pollen a3 with that of another variety. The
following conclusions are, it is thought, fully
warranted from the evidence which has been
given, and doubtless many who read this
will recall observations in practical orchard
ing which give farther support:
Many of the common varieties of pcara
require cross-pollination, being partially or
wholly incapable of setting Irnifc when
limited to their own pollen.
Some varieties are capable of self-fertilization.
Cross-pollination is not accomplished by
applying pollen from another tree of the
saraegrafted variety, bnt is seenred by using
pollen from a tree of a distinct horticultural
variety that is, which has grown from a
distinct seed. Pollen from another tree of
the same variety is" no better than from the
same tree. This failure to frnit is dne to
sterility of the pollen, and not mechanical
The impotency of the pollen is not doe to
any deficiency of its own, hot to the lack ol
affinity between the pollen and the ovules
of the same variety.
The pollen of two varieties may be abso
lutely self-sterile, and at the same time per
The state of nutrition of the tree and its
general environment affects its ability to set
frnit either with its own pollen or that of
Bees and other insects are the agenta for
the transportation of pollen.
Bad weather dnring flowering time has a
decidtdly injurious influence ou fruitage by
keeping away insect visitors, and also by
affecting the fecundation of the flowers;
conversely, fine weather favors cross-pollination
and the setting of frnit.
Pears prod need by self-fertilization are
very uniform in shape. They differ from
crosses not only in size and shape, but also
in some cases in time of maturity and in
Among the crosses the differences were
slight or variable, so that their variations
are not to be ascribed with certainty to. dif
ferences in pollen.
Self-fecnndated pears are deficient in
seeds, usually having only abortive ones,
while the crosses are well supplied with
Even with those varieties which are capa
ble of self-fecundation, the pollen of another
variety is prepotent.and unless the entrance
of foreign pollen be prevented, the greater
number of fruits will be affected by it, as
shown by the study of Bnffnm pears.
The normal typical fruits, and in most:
cases the largest and finest specimens, either
of the self-sterile of sell-fertile sorts, are
The practical conclusions may be stated
Plant mixed orchards, or at least avoid
planting solid blocks of one variety. It is
not desirable'to have more than three or four
rows of one variety together, unless experi
ence has shown it to be perfectly self-fertile.
Where large blocks of tree3 of one variety
which blossomed well have failed to Iruifc
for sever.il years without any apparent rea
son, it is exceedingly probable that the fail-
ure is dne to lack of cross-polination. The
remedy is to grait in other varieties and.
snpply foreign pollen.
Be sure tha there are sufficient bees in
the neighborhood, or within two or three
miles, to properly visit the blossoms. "When
feasible, endeavor to favor insect visits to
the blossoms by selecting sheltered situa
tions, or by planting windbreaks.
Too I'Jisrly Sowings of Itoot Crops.
Most of the roots, like beet, carrot, pars
nip, and turnip, are true biennials, growing
their root the first year and sending up
their seed stalk after the root hns been
partly dried ont and is replanted the follow
ing Spring. Bnt in onr hot Summers this
drying out, which usually requires a whoio
Winter, is accomplished in Midsnminer.
The resnlt is that the very early planted
seed of heett carrot, and other root makes
its root growth early in the season, and by
Fall is ready to send ont a seed stalk.
This, of course, makes the root worthless.
The common radish is one of these natural
biennials that always tend to become an
nual when early planted. If seed are pnfc
in the ground auy time before Midsummer
it will produce seed pods before cold
Black Knot Vanquished.
Black knot is the great drawback to plum
culture. Last year's experiments at the
Massachusetts Station indicate that by
painting the plum knots with kerosene
during the Summer nnd removing from, the
tree nnd burning early in the Winter, before
the Winter spores are scattered, the disease
can be held in check.
By combining the above treatment with
proper spraying the disease can be iu a largo
measure prevented aud practically eradi
cated from orchards that have suffered from
a severe attack.
By proper spraying is meant the appiica
tion of Bordeaux mixture nnd nmmoniacal
carbonate of copper. The Bordeanx mix
tnrennd Paris green wasappliedAprilo.May
3, May 20, June 6, and the carbonate Aug. 8.
The spraying also greatly reduced the
damage done by the enrcuiio insect. If
these resu is are verified iu practical ex
perience there is money for somebody in
pluia growing. Aside from black, knot aud
curculio, the plnm is one of the most profit
able of all fruits in this section, and tho
market at present i3 unlimited.
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