Newspaper Page Text
WAS DEPARTIMT LIBMfflT
Washington. D. C
FEB I . 1337
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THE BOOM BURSTS
JSHE-RM'AJN IRETIRES FROM
E THEN RE
lurned to Benicia,
and Wool!s first
question was: "What
luck?" "We answer
ed, "Not much,"
and explained what
Com mod ore x arra-
cut could and would
do, and that, instead
of having a naval
vessel, we would seize
and use one of the
Pacific Mail Co.'s
steamers, l"ing at
their dock in Beni-
cia, to carrv down to San Francisco the
arms and munitions when the time came.
As tlie time was then near at hand for
tlie arrival of the evening boats, we all
walked down to the wharf together, where
I told Johnson that he could not l)e too
careful ; that I had not heard Gen. Wool
make a positive promise of assistance.
Upon this, Johnson called Gen. "Wool
to one side, and we three drew together.
Jolinson said : " Gen. "Wool, Gen. Sher
man is very particular, and wants to
know exactly what you purpose to do."
Wool answered: "I understand, Gov
ernor, that in the first place a writ of
habeas corpus will be issued command
ing the jailers of the Vigilance Com
mittee to produce the body of some one
of the prisoners licld by them (which,
of course, will be refused) ; that you then
issue your proclamation commanding
them to disperse, and, failing this, you
will call out the militia, and command
Gen. Sherman with it to
SUrPKESS THE VIGILANCE COMMITTEE
as an unlawful bod';" to which the
Governor responded, "Yes." "Then,"'
said Wool, "on Gen. Sherman's making
bis requisition, approved by you, 1 will
order the issue of the necessar' arms and
ammunition." I remember well that I
Eaid, emphatically: "That is all I want.
Now, Governor, you may go ahead."
We soon parted ; Johnson and Douglass
taking tbc boat to Sacramento, and I to I
Ban 1' raucisoo.
The Chief-Justice, Terry, came to San
Francisco the next day, issued a writ of
habeas corpus for the body of one Ma
loue', which writ was resisted, as we ex
pected. The Governor then issued his
proclamation and I published my orders,
dated June 4, 1855. The Quartermaster
General of the State, Gen. Kibbc, also
came to San Francisco, took an office in
tbc City Hall, engaged several rooms for
armories, and soon the men began to en
roll iulo companies. In my General
Orders calling out the militia 1 used the
expression; "When a sufficient number
of men are enrolled, arms and ammuni
tion will be supplied."
Some of the best men of the " Vigi
lantes " came to me and remonstrated,
saying that collision would surely result;
that it would be terrible, etc All 1
could say in reply was, that it was for
thorn to get out of the way. " Remove
your fort, cease your midnight councils,
Published by permission of D. Applctoti Jfc C..
rubtinliure of ihc l'er&uuul Mcuiohd of Gen. V. T.
ii ill iiricv Ft II , ic
I5rafim I h.
V 4v "
W 4y : Rii i ft v' i
4 1 U m w m fw H
WRITTEN BY HlMSELE
THE BAN-KING BUSINESS.
and prevent your armed bodies from pa
trolling the streets."
They inquired where I was to get
arms, and I answered that I had them
certain. But personally E went right
along with my business at the bank,
conscious that at any moment we might
have trouble. Another committee of
A CONCILTATOKY BODY,
was formed to prevent collision if possi
ble, and the newspapers boiled over with
vehement vituperation. This second
committee was composed of such men as
Crockett, Ritchie, Thornton, Bailey Pey
ton, Foote, Donohue, Kelly, and others,
a class of the most intelligent and
wealthy men of the city, who earnestly
and honestly desired to prevent blood
sbed. They also came to me, and
I told them that our men were enroll
ing very fast, and that, when 1 deemed
the right moment had come, the Vigi
lance Committee must disperse, else
bloodshed and destruction of property
would inevitably follow. They also had
discovered that the bettor men of the
Vigilance Committee itself were getting
tiied of the business, and thought that
in tlie execution of Casey and Cora, and
the banishment of a dozen or more row
dies, they had done enough, and were then
willing to stop. It was suggested that, if
our Law-and-Order party would not arm,
by a certain day near at hand the commit
tee jvould disperse, and some of their lead
ers would submit to an iudictment and
trial by a jury of citizens, uhich they
knew would acquit them of crime. One
day in the bank a man called me to the
counter and said : " If you expect to get
arms of Gen. Wool, you will be mistaken;
for I was at Benicia yesterday, and heard
him say he would not give them."
This person was known to me to be a
man of truth, and I immediately wrote
to Gen. Wool a letter telling him what
I had heard, and how any hesitation on
Ins part would compromise me as a man
of truth and bonor, adding that I did
Tioirnrs for Home,
not believe we should ever need the
arms, but only the promise of them, ior
" the committee was letting down, and
would soon disperse and submit to the
I further asked him to answer me
categorically that very night, by the
Stockton boat, which would pass Benicia
on its way down about midnight, and I
would sit up and wait for his answer. 1
did wait for bis letter, but it did not
come, and the next day I got a tele
graphic dispatch from Gov. Johnson,
who, at Sacramento, had also heard of
Gen. Wool's " back-down," asking me to
meet him again at Benicia that night.
I went up iu the evening boat and
found Gen. Wool's Aid-de-Camp, Capt.
Arnold, of the Army, on the wharf,
with a letter in his hand, which he said
was for me. I asked for it, but he said
he knew its importance, and preferred
q should go to Gen. Wool's room to
gether, and the General could hand it
to me in person. We did go right up
to Gen. Wool's, who look the sealed par
cel and laid it aside, saying that it was
literally a copy of one he had sent to
!" TP!l td
illwisi j ILJi lis isivsi.
"cr rave fov Turn
BY MISS GANGRWEB.
Dedicated to the IUrIi School Cndetfl who went
to ttio Jlcbcl Glio.il Dance ill Richmond.
' Oh where jjocst thou, my gnllnnt son,
Oil where rocI thou? " quoth ho.
"I on to Richmond e'en must run
To bend the pliant kneo
In honor of a famous ono
Renowned in history.
"Why do I ace your rhinc; ire?
llevenl to me, my veteran sire,
Of this Jeff D. '
ff5,vl trry-h AC-'fa
THE LAST DITCH.
Colored Soldier TJrcss my stars, if derc ain't Mnssa Jeff Davis in do las' oitch at last.
Jeff Villait.sl what do you mean by piirsuitit; defenseless women and children in this barbarous manner
Soldier Under which head do you reckon yourself, old fellow; do you count as a woman or a child?
Sergeant You must surrender; resistance is useless.
Jell' I'll never siiricndcr. I've now got Grant and the rest just.wherc I want 'em. Tho contest Las at last, thank Ueavon, readied that
pbaso which is peculiarly adapted to the genius aud tho resources of tho 'Confederacy.
All tho Soldiers Ha! ha! ha! That's so.
At this stago of the proceedings, on being authoritatively informed by tho commanding officer that tbey would take him nlivo or dead
tho arch-traitor meekly surrendered, "repudiating" his previous bravado as readily as iu former times ho repudiated his debts. War Times
Gov. Johnson, who would douhtless give
me a copy ; but I insisted that I had
made a written communication, and was
entitled to a written answer.
At that moment several gentlemen of
the " Conciliation party," who had come
up in the same steamer with me, asked
for admission and came iu. I recall the
John "W. Geaby, Fibst Ma yob of San
names of Crockett, Foote,- Bailey Pey
ton, Judge Thornton, Donohue, etc., and
the conversation became general, Wool
trying to explain away the eflect of our
misunderstanding, taking good pains not
to deny his promise made to me person
ally on the wharf. I renewed my ap
plication for the letter addressed to me,
then lying on his table. On my state
ment of the case, Bailey Peyton said :
" Gn. Wool, 1 think Gen. Sherman has
a right to a written answer from you,
for he is surely compromised." Upon
this Wool handed me the letter. I
opened and read it, and it denied any
promise of arms, but otherwise was ex
tremely evasive and non-committal. I
had heard of the arrival at the wharf
of the Governor and party, and was ex
pecting them at Wool's room, but, in
stead of stopping at the hotel where we
were, they passed to another hotel on
the block above. I went up and found
there, in a room on tho second floor over
the bar-room, Gov. Johnson, Chief
Justice Terry, Jones of Palmer, Cooke
& Co., E. D. Baker, Volney E. How
ard, and one or two others. All were
TALKING DUBIOUSLY AGAINST WOOL,
denouncing him as a d d liar, and
not sparing the severest terms. I showed
the Governor Gen. Wool's letter to me,
which he said was in effect the same as
the one addressed to and received by him
at Sacramento. He was so offended that
he would not even call on Gen. Wool,
and Eaid he would never again
recognize him as an officer or gentle
man. We discussed matters generally,
and Judge Terry said that the Vigilance
Committee were a set of d d pork
merchants; that they were getting
scared, and that Gen. Wool was in col
lusion with them to bring the Slate into
contempt, etc. I explained that there
were no arms in the State except what
Gen. Wool had, or what were in tho
hands of the Vigilance Committee of
San Francisco, and that tho part of
wisdom for us was to be patient and
cautious. About that time Crockett
and his associates sent up their cards,
J but Terry and the more violent of tho
wlw te fonts fhc inttte, mut frv Wist mMom? imft orphan.."
WASHINGTON, D. 0., THURSDAY, JULY 16, 1896.
The veteran ronred : " Whnt victory?
'Twns more like in fumy.
"In youth his country reared the livd
Site housed, and fed, and taught him;
"Willi uniform hc had him chid.
And tnuny honors brought him.
In turn, ho pledged lo her his troth.
But later broke his solemn oiUh.
Ttvn thus with perjury
lie fled in infamy.
"'Twns thus ho boro the trnitor'd pnr
And cruel slabbed her to the heart.
JIo robbed her armory,
This bitter enemy.
"In wnr, his prisoners gnltnnl men
lie Mnrvcd. like rats, within Ills pen.
HU bonstcd chlrnltv.
Wight cull this vlctoa
Governor's followers denounced them
a3 no better than "Vigilantes," and
wanted the Governor to. refuse even to
receive them. I explained that they
were not "Vigilantes," that Judge
Thornton was a "Law-and-Order" man,
was one- of the fir.-6 to respond to the
call of the sheriff aud that he went
actually to the jail 'with his one arm the
night wo expected tlie first attempt at
rescue, etc. Johnson then sent word
for them to reduce their business to
writing. They simply sent in a written
request for an audience, and they were
then promptly admitted. After some
general conversation, the Governor said
he was prepared to hear them, when
Mr. Crockett rose and made a prepared
speech embracing a clear and fair state
ment of the condition of things in San
Francisco, concluding with the assertion
of the willingness of the committee to
disband and submit to trial after a cer
tain date not very remote. All the
time Crockett was speaking, Terry tat
with his hat on, drawn over his eyes,
and with his feet on arable. As soon
as Crockett was through, they were dis
missed and Johnson "began to prepare a
written answer. This was scratched,
altered, and amended, to suit the notions
of his counselors, and at last was copied
and sent. This answer amounted
to little or nothing. Seeing that we
were powerless for good, and that violent
counsels would prevail under the influ
ence of Terry aiidothers, I sat down at
the table, S '
AND WHOTE'.MY KE3IGNATI0N,
which Johnson accepted in a compli
mentary note oii tlie spot, and at the
same time he appointed' to my place Gen.
Volney E. Howard, then present, a law
yer who had once "been a member of
Congress from Texas, and who was ex
pected to drive the d d pork-merchants
into the bay at short notice.
I went soon after to Gen. Wool's
room, where I found Crockett and the
rest of his party j told them that I was
out of the fight, having resigned my
commission ; that I had neglected busi
ness that had been intrusted to me by
my St. Louis partners ; and that I would
thenceforward mind my own business,
and leave public alfaira severely alone.
We all returned to Sftn Francisco that
night by the Stockton boat, and I never
afterward had anything to do with
politics in California, perfectly satisfied
with that short experience. Johnson
and Wool fought out their quarrel of
veracity in the newspapers and on
2 ' 7!rs
'When I wni young:
"Vc said and sunt;
We'd hunt: him on n tree
A sour npplo tree,
Such bitter fruit was ho.
'Wo sought him Eiwt
Wo sought him West,
Where'er wo wont, ho'd flee.
Wo saw n flirt of woman's skirl,
But dreamed not she wns he.
His hnughty hend, wo sought upon II
A helmet, but ho wore n bonnet.
Wc saw him fleetly flee,
But knew not he was she.
'Twns thus that chivalry
Cscnped to liberty
This was his victory."
paper. But, in my opinion, there is not
a shadow of doubt that
GEN. WOOL DTD DELIBERATELY DECEIVE US ;
that he had authority to issue arms, and
that, had he adhered to his promise, we
could have checked the committee
before it became a fixed institution and
a j art of the common law of California.
Maj.-Gen. Volney E. Howard came to
San Francisco soon after; continued the
organization of militia which I had be
gun ; succeeded in getting a few arms
Charles J. Breniiam, Second and
Fourth Mayor of San Francisco.
from the country; but ono day the
Vigilance Committee sallied from their
armories, captured the arms of the
"Law-and-Order party," put some of
their men into prison, while Gen.
Howard, with others, escaped to the
country; after which the Vigilance
Committee had it all their own way.
Subsequently, in July, 185G, they
arrested Chief-Justice Terry, and tried
him for stabbing one of their constables,
but he managed to escape at night, and
took refuge on the John Adams. In
August, they hanged Hetherington and
Brace in broad daylight, without any
jury-trial; and, soon after, they quietly
disbanded. As they controlled the
press, they wrote their own history, and
the world generally gives them the
credit of having purged San Francisco
of rowdies aud roughs ; but their success
has given great stimulus to a dangerous
principle, that would at any time
justify the mob in seizing all the power
of Government; and who is to say that
tho Vigilance Committee may not be
composed of the worst, instead of tho
best, elements of a community? In
deed, in San Francisco, as soon as it was
demonstrated that the real power had
passed from the City Hall to the committee-room,
the same set of bailiffs,
constables, and rowdies that had infested
the City Hall were found in the employ
ment of the " Vigilantes " ; and, after
three months' experience, tho better
class of people became tired of the mid
night sessions and left the business and
power of the committee in tho hands of
a court of which a Sidney man was re
ported to be the head or Chief-Justice.
During the Winter of 1855-56, and
indeed throughout the year 1856, ail
BUSINESS BECAME UNSETTLED
in California. The mines continued to
yield about fifty millions of gold a year ;
(.Continued on second PfiO.)
A GALLANT RECORD.
Michigan's 5th Cay. in the Latter
Period of the War.
THIRD AS TO LOSSES.
Rough Road for Green Troops
VISIT FEOM MOSBT.
Plenty of Work for Brave Men
BY j. k. LOWDEN, NOKTHVILLTS, MICH.
0 ONE BETTER
than myself knows
my inability to ful
ly bring out a fit
ting history of
Cav. from Littles
town, Md., June
30, 1863, to the
final surrender of
Lee at Appomat
tox, April 9, 1865.
It would employ
and make busy the
brain of a Chandler or Evarts, and
the oratorical powers of a Daniel Web
ster or a Thaddeus Stevens could be
none too fine or forcible to portray their
deeds of valor. For several years it has
been a study on my part to collect a his
tory of interest to my comrades, and at
the same time a reliable source of infor
mation. The 5th Mich. Cav. is classed third in
the list of losses in killed and died of
wounds in the cavalry service, of which
there were 260 regiments. Of the offi
cers, Lieut. Harmon, Maj. Ferry, Lieut.
Liggett, Capt Axtell, Capt. Oliphant,
Lieut. Granger, and Capt. 2sbrth were
killed. Lieut. Pettee was killed by his
horse in Detroit, Nov. 10, 1862; Lieut.
Foote died, Feb. 9, 1863, at PoolesviHe,
Md.; Capt. Stephenson was killed in
Detroit by the horse he had ridden
through the entire service, the day after
he was mustered out
I offer the following story for my
comrades' criticism, respectfully dedi
cated to our efficient commander, Bus
sell A. Alger.
UNDER THE CAIX
of President Lincoln, July 2, 1862, the
excitement in the Peninsular State to fill
its quota for troops was intense. Early
in August Col. Joseph T. Copeland ob
tained authority from the War Depart
ment to raise a regiment for the cavalry
service. The State had already three
in the field, and another, the 4th, ready
to leave, and on the 14th day of August,
1862, the Colonel very quietly went
about the work of enlistment From
all parts of the lower peninsula the re
sponse came, full, hearty, and quick.
On the 27th of the same mouth, the
troops were nearly all in Detroit, ready
for muster. Some, in fact, had been full
companies as soon as the 20th. The
muster into service began on the 27th,
by Col. Joseph B. Smith, when were
mustered Co.'s A, B, C, and D. The
muster was finished on Aug. 30 ; 1,240
officers and men there were in all, with
Col, Joseph T. Copeland; Lieut.-Col.,
William D. Mann ; Majs., Freeman Nor
vell, Ebenezer Gould, Luther S. Trow
bridge ; Surg., John P. Wilson ; Ass't
Surg., Addison B. Stone ; Adj't, Bichard
Baylis; Q. M., Arthur Edwards; Com
missary, Dwight Aiken ; Chap., Oliver
A Capt, Wellington W. Gray ; First
Lieut, William M. Underbill; Second
Lieut, Samuel Harris; Sup. Second
Lieut., Egbert B. Clark.
B Capt, Allyn C. Litchfield ; First
Lieut, David Oliphant; Second Lieut,
Myron Hickey; Sup. Second Lieut,
Robert A. Haire.
C Capt, George W. Hunt; First
Lieut, Horace W. Dodge; Second Lieut.,
Jacob Bristol ; Sup. Second Lieut, Ed
ward G. Granger.
D Capt, Eli K Simonds; First
Lieut, Geo. S. Wheeler ; Second Lieut,
Thos. J. Dean; Sup. Second Lieut,
E Capt, Crawley P. Date; First
Lieut., Edward M. Lee ; Second Lieut,
William H. Rolls ; Sup. Second Lieut,
George R. Barse.
F Capt, JNoah H. Ferry; First
Lieut, Abram C. Vanderburg ; Second
Lieut, Wm. Kieth ; Sup. Second Lieut,
Elmer C. Dicey.
G Capt,AVm.,L Maggoffin ; First
'Lieut, Stephen B. Mann ; Second Lieut.,
XY - NO. 40-WHOLE NO. 779.
Geo. W. Townsend ; Sup. Second Lieut,
H Capt, Stephen P. Purely ; Finfc
Lieut, Henry Starkey ; Second Lieut,
Edgar W. Flint; Sup. Second Lieut,
Henry K. Foote.
I Capt, Wm. B. Williams; Firsfc
Lieut, Geo. T. Dutcher ; Second Lieut,
Gen. R. A. Alger.
Chas. H. Safford ; Sup. Second Lieut,
Henry H. Finley.
K Capt, John E. Clark; Firsfc
Lieut, Henry H. Pettee ; Second Lieut,
Hobart Miller ; Sup. Second Lieut, Wm.
L Capt, Robert F. Judson; Firei
Lieut., Benj. F. Axtell ; Second Lieut,
David G. Kendall ; Sup. Second Lieut,
Robert C. Wallace.
M Capt, Frederick A. Copeland ;
First Lieut, Smith H. Hastings ; Second
Lieut, Andrew D. Hall ; Sup. Second
Lieut, George Fairbrother.
The regiment was delayed in the State
for equipment until Dec. 4, when we were
ordered to Washington and encamped
on East Capitol Hill After delay carao
several wagons loaded with the after
ward famed Spencer rifle. We were the
first and only regiment to use them until
July of the following year. We stayed
on Capitol Hill, employed every day int
fatigue duty and drill, until Feb. 26,
An expedition started from Washing
ton on Feb. 26, 1863, that lasted sis
days, covering nearly 200 miles' travel,
that made a veteran regiment of 900 as
green troops as were ever in the volun
teer service. When we started we wera
ALl. SORTS OF EQT7rP3IENT
that we had no use for after we got ex
perience. The 6th Mich. Cav. joined ua
at the Long Bridge.
We proceeded across the Potomac
and invaded the sacred soil of the Old
Dominion, down by Four Mile Run,
where the 1st Mich. Cav. were encamped.
They guyed us unmercifully about being
a pack train. On to Alexandria we
went, out through Fort Lyon. Wo
made a detour and came back and took
the pike leading to Fairfax Courthouse,
through a hard storm of rain and snow,
plodding all day until nearly dark, when
we reached Centerville, which offered
terms of capitulation and rest in the mud.
We lay down, mostly in tree-tops. A3
soon as it was light we were reinforced
or reinforced someone else, I can't tell
which the latter probably. A man in
all the glitter of spread-eagle tinsel made
the announcement that he wa3 the engi
neer and we the machine. Taking 18
pounds of grain to each now overloaded
horse, we were set in motion for the con
quest of new worlds.
Bull Run soon crossed our path, but
we carried the field; then Groveton,
Gainesville, Buckland Mills and New
Baltimore came by us, but we stood
firm. Our great master mind conveyed
the intelligence to us that the city of
Warrenton was approaching, and to
meet it with becoming gallantry, while
he took the post of honor. The town
was full of men in gray uniforms. We
supposed they were the enemy, and have
never had reason to change our minds ;
but let the city and it3 soldiers pass by
and around, as all the other places had,
without molesting them.
We here changed our course from
west to south, passed by some fine tracts
of timber and well-sodded fields of grass1,
but as a field of corn-stubble near War
renton Junction was passing by, the
order came to invest and hold it for the
night The mud was of the consistency
of mortar ready for the mason's trowel,
and six inches deep.
Very soon a flock of Confederate
sheep made an assault upon us, but was
repulsed with a loss of 60 killed, with,
no casualties to us. Here came into
play the use of
LOTS OF BLANKET3.
If you lost one in the soft mud you had
another; but more blankets more mud,
more mud more weight for your horse
to carry. The more pounds of weight:
your horse carried, the more liable you
were to go afoot and carry your saddle
in addition to your other equipments,
and we were learning this with a ven
geance. After a very uncomfortable night we
forded Kettle Run, which washed the
mud thoroughly from our horses and a
great deal from our clothing and
blankets. We turned directly south
toward Fredericksburg and Falmouth,
We soon came upon the trail of a body
of the enemy's horse and halted instantly.
The road was carefully examined, and
the master mind of our great moving
cause thought the. most feasible plaa