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VOL. XT,A-m. 13-WH0LE NO. 856.
ESTABLISHED 1S77-TEW SERIES.
WASHINGTON, D. 0., THURSDAY, JANUARY 6, 1898 -WITH SUPPLEMENT.
ppms OF GEJ.
iff. T. SHEHP5.
WRITTEN BY HIMSELF.
A Story of Rebel Military
- ' t
SYXOrSTS OF rUlSCKDING CIIArTKRS.
The wonderful country about Cumber
land Gap, and the strategic importance of
that place. 2eed of food and-forage for the
garrison sends a battalion of cavalry up
Powell's Valley to secure its supplies. A
rebel command starts dowli the valley.
The two forces meet and the rebels arc
The cavalry battalion occupies the coun
try gained, and protects the- forage trains
sent out to gather up the supplies. On
.Jafi: ?, 18G4t the battalion is-attacked by
Jones's Brigade of rebels, and after a stub
born, desperate fight is compelled to sur
render. The prisoners are talren to Rich
mond. Interior and exterior scenes in
Richmond. Stoppage of exchange.
The first squad of prisoners leave for
Andersonville. Gen. Winder and Capt.
Virz take charge of the prison.
The month of March is j assed in the
pen, with little shelter from the snow, rain,
and wind. The prison fills up with addi
tional squads. Prisoners plagued by ver
min. Trading wiji guards.
The prisoners' minds are bent on ex
change or escape. .Much time devoted to
tunnel-dinging. The crowd inside the
prison rapidly increases, rations grow
worse, the misery intensifies, and there is
an appalling increase in the mortality.
Plundering prisoners, known as Raiders,
attempt the murder of Leroy L. Key, who
forms a band of Regulators. The latter de
feat the Raiders in a terrible battle. The
Raider leaders are arrested, and at a court
martial of the prisoners six are sentenced
to death. The Raiders hanged amid in
tense excitement.- The executions are fol
lowed by organization of a strong police
force among the prisoners.
The author interpolates in his narrative
a transcript of the evidence at the Wirz
trial of Prof. Joseph Jones, a Surgeon of
high rank in the rebel army, who visited
Andersonville to make a scientific study of
tile conditions of disease there.
The horrors "of August. The Providen
tial Spring. The food, its meagerness and
inferior quality. The escape, race with
bloodhounds and recapture of the author
and a companion. Fall of Atlanta. An
nouncement of a general exchange.
The author, with others, leaves for Sa
vannah. They are disappointed to find
they arc not to be exchanged, but confi cd
in the Savannah prison-pen. The prison
ers are taken to Millen, and receive better
The narrative of the attempts to escape
of Ser 't Leroy L. Key is told by himself.
After the hanging of the Raider leaders he
obtained a parole and worked in the cook
house. An important condition of the pa
role was violated by Wirz himself. Key
and others then managed to pass the
guards, but were caught several days later
by citizens, and put in fail ".at Hamilton,
Ga. They were taken to Macon, and thence
to Svannah, beingparoled on Kov. 2-1, 1801.
Sherman's advance frightens the rebels
into taking the prisoners from Millen. They
arrive at Blackshear, and soon exchange
is announced, and the rebel officials ex
plain that all must sign the parole. But
after signTng the "parole" they are sent to
Savannah, thence to Charleston.
Prom Charleston the jrisoners go to
Florence. In the prison thee they meet
some of their fonvcr Ardcsonville com
rades, who took a d:ficrent route from the
author and his companions.
CHAPTER LXVII1 continued).
ARLY IN OCTOBER. 1804.
our former Andersonville com
rades had been sent awa' from
Charleston to their present loca
tion, "which was then a piece of forest
land. There was no stockade or other
iuclosure about them, and one nirht they
forced the guard-line, about 1,500 es
caping, under a pretty sharp fire from
After getting out the- scattered, each
group taking a different route, some
seeking Beaufort and other places along
the seaboard, and the rest trying to gain
the mountain?. The whole State was
thrown into the greatest perturbation
by the occurrence. The papers magni
fied the proportion of the outbreak, and
lauded fulsomely the gallantry of the
guards in endeavoring to withstand the
uoperate assaults o
U1A t rrtrfl - 1
lUt iltll.ItU J. tlU
The people were wrought up into the
highest alarm as to outrages and ex
cesses that these flying desperados might
be expected to commit. One would
think that another Grecian horse, intro
duced into the heart of the Confederate
Troy, had let out its fatal band of armed
All good citizens were enjoined to
turn out and assist in arresting the run
aways. The vigilance of all patrolling
Yrtis redoubled, and such wits the effect
iveness of the measures taken that before
a month nearly every one of the fugitives
had been retaken and sent back to
Few of these complained of any
special ill-treatment by their captors,
while many reported frequent acts of
kindness, especially when their captors
belonged to the middle and unper classes.
The Jow-dojvn class the clay-caters
on the other .hand, almost always abused
their prisoners, and sometimes, it is
pretty certain, murdered them in cold
About' that time "Winder came on
from Andersonville, and then every
thing changed immediately to the com
plexion of that place, lie began the
erection of the Stockade, and made it
very ftrong. The dead line was estab
lished, but'.instead of being a strip of
plank upon the top of low posts, as at
Andersonville, it was simply a shallow
trcnclf, 'which was sometimes plainly
visible', and -sometimes not.
TJie guards always resolved matters
doubt against the prisoners, and fired
.on them when thev supnosed them too
EDITORIAL HOTE.-In the nest installment.
fif "Andersonville" will he included the
Narration of interesting incidents of prison
life at Florence, and how the prisoners spent
Christmas of 1804.
Copvripht, 1890, by
This is another of Edwin Forties's incomparable ?rar etching. It is another picture to wake mer.ioricrf. ;Ifc
has all the fidelitv and viritlncss of a photograph. The theme of the pictnre is great; the study of deftiils cven
greater. It represents a camp in the idle dayd between the jjreat campaigns. The army has settled down to weeks
of forced inaction, and the men make themselves as comfortable as the means at hand will allow. They have
sh wu wonderful thrift and industry in housing themselves. The tent in the foreground shows this. Its ImiMqra
have made a pen of pine logs, neatly chinked with chunks and clay, to keep out the wind. They ha -e built a fire-
place ot clav. ami useu an out plow on vtn oi
tents and ponchos, and at the entrance ha
near where the dead line ought to be.
Fifteen acres of ground were inclosed by
the palisades, of which five were taken
up by the creek and swamp, and three
or four more by the dead line, main
streets, etc., leaving about seven or eight
for the actual use of the prisoners, whose
number swelled to lo,000 by the arrivals
This made the crowding together
nearly as bad as at the latter place, and
for a while the same fatal results fol-
lowed. The mortality, and the sending
away of several thousand on the sick
exchange reduced the agrecate mini
ber at the time of our arrival to about
eleven thousand, which gave more room
to all, but was still not one-twentieth of
the space which that number of men
should have had.
is o shelter, nor material for construct
ing any, was furnished. The ground
was rather thickly wooded, and covered
with undergrowth, when the Stockade
was built, and certainly no bit of soil
was ever so thoroughly cleared as this
was. The trees and brush were cut
down and worked up into hut building
materials by the ;ame slow au1 labori
ous process that I have described as em
ployed in building our huts at Millcn.
Then the slumps were attacked for
fuel, and with such persistent thorough
ness that after some weeks there was
certainly not enough woody
left in that whole lo acres of ground to
kindle a small kitchen fire. The men
would begin to work on the stump of a
good-sized tree, and chip and split it off
painfully and slowly until they had fol
lowed it to the extremity of the tap
root 10 or 15' feet below, the surface.
The lateral roots would be followed with
ecpiai determination, ana trenches oU j Jinrrctt thought he had reason to sus
fcet long and two or three feet deep were j pect a tunnel. He immediately an
dug with case-knives and half-canteens j nounced that no more ration's should lie
to get a root as thick as one's wrist. The jjssued until its whereabouts was revealed
... -1 . .. n
roots of shrubs and vines were followed
up and gathered with similar industry.
The cold weather and the scanty issues
of wood forced men to do ibis.
The huts constructed were as various
as the materials and the tastes of the
builders. These who were fortunate
enough to get plenty of timber built
such cabins as I have described at
Milieu. Those who had less, eked out
their materials in various wavs. Most
frequently all that a squad of three or
four could get would be a few slender
poles and- some brush. They would
dig a hole in the ground two feet deep
and large enough for them all to lie in.
Then putting up a stick at each end and
laying a ridge pole across, they would
adjiibt the rest of their matcrialso as 4o
form sloping sides capable of support
ing earth enough to make a water-tight
The great majority were not so well
off as these, and had absolutely nothing
ine ciuiuney io aiai- tnu ui.uu iuu uui ia nnmu
1 !. 1
laid a rjavemene oi. parK-aarrci
of which to build. They had recourse
to the clay of the swamp, from which
the' fashioned rude sun-dried bricks, and
made adobe houses, shaped like a bee
hive, which lasted very well until a hard
rain came, when they dissolved into red
mire about the bodies of their miserable
Remember that all these makeshifts
were practiced within a half-a-mileof an
almost boundless forest, from which in
a day's time the camp could have been
supplied with material enough to give
everv man a comfortable hut.
" CHAPTER LXIX.
1$ A K RETT'S IXS.VXE CRUELTY JI0W ICE IMJK
JS1II.I) 'J HOSE ALLEGED TO I5E ICXJSAOK!)
IX TtJXXELIXG THE MISERY IN THE
"Winder "had found in Barrett even a.
better tool for his cruel purposes than
Wirz. -The-two resembled each, other
in many respects. Both were absolutely
destitute of any talent for commanding
men, and could no more handle even
one thousand men properly than a cabin
boy could navigate a great ocean steamer.
Both were given to the same senseless
j fits of insane rage, coming and going
I without apparent cause, during which
they fired revolvers and guns or threw
clubsinto crowds of prisoners, or knocked
down such as were within reach of their
These exhibitions were such as an
overgrown child might be expected to
make. They did not secure any result
except to increase the prisoners' wonder
that such ill-tempered fools could be
given any position of responsibility.
A short time
previous to our entry
and the ringleaders in the attempt to
j escape delivered up to him.
Ihe rations at that time were very
scanty, so that the first day they were
cut off the sufferings were fearful. The
boys thought he wyuld surely relent the
next day, but they did not Iyiow their
man. JIc was not suffering any. why
should he relax his severity? He strolled
i leisurely out from his dinner table, pick-
ing his' teeth with his penknife in the
comfortable, self-satisfied way of a course
man who had just filled his stomach to
his entire conteut-an attitude and air
that was simply maddening to the fam
ishing wretches, of whom' he inquired
tan Isdizi ugly:
"Air ye're hungry enough to give up
them fellows vet?"
That night 13,000 men, crazy, faint
ing with hunger, walked hither and
thither until exhaustion forced them
to become quiet, trooped to the creek
and drank water until their gorges
"HOME, .SWEET HOME."
From the Army Sketch Bi'Afi by. Edwin Forbas.
tracked into tlie sleeping
rate a'picture of a "Winter camp as the camera could make.
The veteran in the foreground is a man whose love of music is so strong as to be irrepressible. He has con
1 strncted a 'fiddle out of :t cigar-box, and such other material as he c mid lay his hands on. It shows as ranch in
genuity as his tent. Probably the tail of the Colonel's horse lias suffered to furnish hair for the how. The mnsic
made is far from that which could be drawn from a Stradivarius, but he and hi3 boy listener enjoy it a hundred
fold more than the most
kee) mud from being
in.v.u.- i niui
rose and thev could swallow no more
did everything, in fapt, that imagination
could si urges t to assuage the pangs of
the deadly guawjng-ihat was consuming
All the cruelties of' the terrible Spanish
Inquisition, if iieappd together, would
not sum up a greater aggregate of an
guish than wns'eudured by tliem. The
third day came, ahjl still no signs of
yielding by Barrett. The Sergeants
counseled together. A Something must be
done. The fellow would starve the
whole camp to death with as little com
punction as one, drowns blind puppies.
, It was necessary to get up a. tunnel to
show Barrett, and. tVrget hoys who would
confess to being leadCfs.'in the'work. A
number of gallant fellows volunteered to
brave his wrath auvl save the rest of
their comrades. It required high courage
to do this, as there wasj, no question but
that the punishment meted out would
be as fearful as the;cruel mind of the
fellow could conceive.
The Sergeants decided that four would
be sufficient to answer tlie purpose ; they
selected these by lot, marched them to
the gate and delivered- them over to
Barrett, who thereupon ' ordered the
rations to be sent iiu He was consider
ate enough, too to f)bed the men he was
going to torture.
men in the Stockade
could not wait alter the rations were
issued to cook- them, but in many in
stances mixed the meal up with water,
and swallowed it raw. But hundreds
died within a few days, and hundreds
more were so debilitated by the terrible
strain that they did not linger long
The boys whojbajd offered themselves
as a sacrifice for. tho rest were put into a
guardhouse and kept over night, that
Barrett might make a day of the amuse
ment of torturing (hem. After he had
laid in a hearty breakfast, and doubt
less fortified himself, with some of the
sorghum whisky which the rebels were
now reduced to clrjujdng, he set about
The devoted font' were brought out
one by one and their hands tied to
gether behind their jiacks. Then a noose
of a slender, strong "Jiemp rope was slip
ped over the first oneis thumbs and drawn
tight, after w4i)oh the rope was thrown
over a log projecting from the roof of
the guardhote,.aud two or three rebels
hauled upon. ft unEil the miserable Yan
kee was Hfteil from "'.the ground, and
hung suspended by .tlf6 thumbs, while
his weight seemed tearing his limbs from
his shoulder blades. The other three
were treated in the same manner.
The agony was simply excruciating.
The boys were brave, and had resolved
to stand their punishment without a
groan, but this-was too .much for human
endurance.- Their will was strong, but
. . : '.
,-- - v-"
- apartment. The other tents in the distance
cultivated listener ever did Paganini's high
; always went most directly to the soldier's heart: "llome, Sweet lioine."
Mature could not be denied, and they
shrieked aloud so pitifully that a young
Reserve standing near fainted.
The only effect of this upon Barrett
was to light up his face with satisfaction.
He said to the guards with a gleeful
" I'll learn these Yanks to be more
afeard of me than of old Satan himself.
They'll soon understand that I'm not
the man to fool with. I'm old pizen, I
am, when I git started."
Then walking from one prisoner to
another, he said :
"Ye'll dig tunnels, will ye? Ye'll
try to git out, and run through the
country stealin' and carryin' off niggers,
and makin' more trouble than yer necks
are worth. I'll learn ye all about that.
If I ketch ye at this sort of work again,
I'll kill ye ez soon ez I ketch' ye."
, And so on, ad infinitum. How long
the boys were kept up there undergoing
this torture cannot be said. Perhaps it
was an hour or more. To the looker-on
it seemed long hours, to the poor fellows
themselves it was ages. When they
were let down at last, all fainted, and
were carried away to the hospital, where
they were, weeks in recovering from the
effects. Some of them were crippled for
When we came into the prison there
were about 11,000 there, jtfbre uni
formly wretched cicatures I had never
before seen. Up to the time of our de
parture from Andersonville the constant
influx of new prisoners had prevented
the misery and wasting away of life from
becoming fully realized.
Though thousands were continually
dying, thousands more of healthy, clean,
well-clothed men were as continually
coming in from the front, so that a large
portion of those inside looked in fairly
good condition. But now no new pris
oners had come in for months; the
money which made such a show about
the sutler shops of Andersonville had
been spent, and there was in every face
the same look of ghastly emaciation, the
same shrunken muscles and feeble limbs,
the same lack-luster eyes and hopeless
The nights were frequently so cold
that ice a quarter of an inch thick
formed on the water. The frames of
starving men were poorly calculated to
withstand this frosty rigor, and thou
sands had their extremities so badly
rfrozen as to destroy the life in those
parts and induce gangrene.
While this was in some respects less
terrible than the hospital gangrene at
Andersonville, it was more generally
diffused, and dreadful to the last degree.
The rebel Surgeons at Florence did not
follow the habit of those at Anderson
ville and try to check the disease by
wholesale amputation, and thousands
finally went through our lines when the
Published by Ford. Howard &
- ilulbcrt, of Now. York.
show similar .devices.
The whole is as accu-
- priced strains. And he plays the tune tnat
Confederacy broke up in the Spring, to
be treated by our Surgeons.
HOUSE AND CLOTHES EFFORTS TO ERECT A
SUITABLE RESIDENCE DIFFICULTIES AT
TENDING THIS VARIETIES OF FLOREN
TINE ARCIIITECTUKE CBAVING FOE TO
BACCO. We were put into the old squads to
fill the places of those who had recently
died, being assigned to these vacancies ac
cording to the initials of our surnames,
the same rolls being used that we had
signed as paroles. This separated An
drews from me, for the "AV were
taken to fill up the first hundreds of the
first thousand, while the " M's," to which
I belonged, went into the next thousand.
I was put into the second hundred of
the second thousand, and its Sergeant
dying shortly after, I was given his place,
and commanded the hundred, drew its
rations, made out its rolls, and looked
out for its sick during the rest of our
Andrews and I got together again,
and began fixing up what little we could
to protect ourselves against the weather.
Cold as this was we decided that it was
safer to endure it and risk frost-biting
every night than to build one of the
mud-walled and mud-covered holes that
so many lived in.
These were much warmer than lving
out on the frozen ground, but we be
lieved that they were very unhealthy,
and that no one lived long who inhabited
So we set about repairing our faithful
old blanket now full of great holes.
We watched the dead men to get pieces
of cloth from their garments to make
patches, which we sewed on with yarn
raveled from other fragments of woolen
cloth. Some of our company, whom we
found in the prison, donated us the three
sticks necessary to make tent-poles won
derful generosity when the prcciousness
of firewood is remembered. We hoisted
our blanket upon these ; built a wall of
mud bricks at one end, and in it a little
fireplace to economize our scanty fuel to
the last degree, and were once more at
home, and much better off than most of
One of these, the proprietor of a hole
in .the ground covered with an arch of
adobe bricks, had absolutely, no bed
clothes except a couple of short pieces
of board and very little other clothing.
He dug a trench in the bottom of what
was by courtcs' calied his tent, suffi
ciently large to contain his body below
At nightfall he would crawl into this,
put his two bits of board so that they
joined over his breast, and then say :
"Now, boys, corer me over;" where
upon his friends would cover him up
Continued on third psu)
BURNING OF COLUMBIA
Gen. 0. 0. Howard's Testimony
as to the Episode.
IN CHARGE OF THE CITY
Strenuous Efforts to Prevent Spread
of the Elames.
NO COTTON BURNET) BY ORDER
Claim Made that Hampton's Troops
Were to Blame.
Following is the testimony of Gen.
O. O. Howard, before the Mixed Com
mission on American and British Claims,
relative to the burning of Columbia,
S. C. The Commission was composed
of Count Corti, of Italy; Hon. Russell
Gumey, M. P., of London, and Hon.
James S. Fraser, of Indiana. The cases
in which the testimony was given were
known as those of Wood and Heyworta
versus the United States, and Cowlam,
Graveley against the United States.
The testimony was given at Washington,
Dec. 10, 1872.
Preliminary questions propounded by
the officer taking Gen. Howard's deposi
Question. Have you any interest, di
rect or indirect, in the claim which ia
the subject matter of thi3 cause, or of
this examination ?
Answer. I have no interest
Being examined by Mr." A. S. Worth
ington, of counsel for the United .States,
the witness further deposes and says :
Q. State what your rank in the
United States army was in February,
A. I was Major-General of Volun
teers at that time ; I think I was not a-Brigadier-General
in the Regular-Army-until
March. following. "'".'
Q. What wa3 your command-in Feb
A. I commanded the Army of the
Tennessee, constituting the right wing
of Gen. Sherman's army.
Q. Operating in the- State of South
A. Yes, sir. :-
Q. Please state the principal points
through which your command passed in
the march from Savannah to Goldsborot
A. The principal portion of ray com
mand wa3 transported to Beaufort,
S. C; thence (marched) northward
through Pocotaligo, Orangeburg, Co
lumbia, Cheraw, Fayetteville ; subordi
nate columns swept into different towns
Gen. Slocum had the left wing ; he was
at the north of me ; mine was the right
Q. During that march, under what
orders from Gen. Sherman were you
acting in respect to private property?
A. They were to take such provision!
as were necessary for the subsistence ol
the army, but generally to spare privatt
property, with some few exceptions ; cot
ton was excepted; I wa3 directly in
structed again and again to destroy the
Objected to, as the orders will show
for themselves, they being the best testi
mony. A. (Continued.) I will put in evi
dence the orders I received from Gem
Sherman, and the orders I issued on the
subject, if it be desired.
Q. On what day did you enter tha
town of Columbia yourself?
A. The 17th of February, 18G5.
Q. Please state, in your own way,
your recollection of the circumstances
attending the occupation of that city,
and the destruction of a portion of it.
A. On the loth of February, in tha
vicinity of Columbia, opposite thereto,
across the Congaree, we met with much
resistance at Little Congaree Creek, and
had to push our way very slowly, tho
enemy retiring before us. When wi
arrived opposite Columbia, we found tha
bridge across the Congaree destroyed by
fire; we moved up to where the twa
rivers, the Saluda and the Broad, con
joined to form the Congaree ; the bridga
across the Saluda was destroyed by fire
by the enemy. We bridged that and
crossed our troops ; the other bridge,
when we reached the land intervening
between the two rivers, was still stand
ing, but as we attempted to cross it, it
was set on fire by the enemy, and hav
ing been covered with rosin, was in
flames in a moment, so. that even the
Confederate cavalry rushed northward
to save themselves, some of them with
Our troops spent the whole night get-
l'ublishcd by permission of D. Applcton &
Co., pu:!i3liur3 of tho I'crsonnl Mcinoil-a oC
Gen. W. T. Sherman.
EDITORIAL NOTE. In tbo next installment
of "Memoirs of Gen. TV. T. Sherman " will ap
pear aninterestingletter from Gen.H. F. r ores
regarding the crossing at Orangeburg during,
the great march, and tlie movements before
Atlanta. A letter from Gen. T. V. Sweeny
treats of the operations of bis command in
the Atlanta campaign.