Newspaper Page Text
Tisdale A, Hand,
" The Gold of that Land is good."
PRESOOTT, AKIZOKA, WEDNESDAY 0CT0J3ER 5, 1864.
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"'i . .
THE ARIZONA MINER.
T. A. HAND, Publlhlicr.
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?IIE PIlE-HlSTOniC MAN OS1 ARIZONA.
. . NUMBER TWO.
Kditor or-Arizona Minkr. Sir: Hum-
tiorut 10 ins unsacis uctorv reasonim: re ative to
be uuity of the human bpecies, in vol. 1, of Cos-
mio3, p. OGG, suysr thut ' languages a intellectual
;reauona oi, man, anu as cioseiy interwoven wnn
;he develdpmetft'Of mind, are independent of the
Rational form which they exhibit, of the greatest
Importance in the recognition of similarities, in
lulerent racea- ; and we may add thai a com
parison of languages a3 it regards their ethnolof
leal and synthetical htruc turJ, win often deter
jfnine an ethnological doubr. There are forms
f speech and organization of lauguagn inherent
fin tome races, which change not with emigration-
Iimato or circumstances of, war, invasion, ryvo
ution or time .. ilt jh n language which springs
fckfl it Tr.,fi Ht t il.i..li-n,4i ! ..l.iHr.lt t.ViliM
Ir:am2dt.ion. The lirtfliitlve rootn of the kii-!
fcuage of tho Uaucriun r Irup racethe white
rogresfcive race ara the same in all countries.
it t the amp in an wspj WjlWjarwidWy the
nembsra r ,that racy, may be sjrpraW, or what
wr chuog may have Trt maah 'in ' contact
!ih idfutitv abot thifn wmiiuikatK In
ung? of that Btwjk cai?,bfe tracad.to thoitnorn.'
liiul wlien manV-ppft'ch first begain to asfiime a
ettered form, lit will doubt that the race?
who sopuk !i !.A.ntraa?o csrruu irorn lui; aaraej
Source, urv idenllcul, and 6prin from the sunny
ivalleys of Persia, and tho fertile plains of Cen-
Bffi. ... 1 I . . . .1 LI- 'P. .
Sirul Asia, anu reaenmg; us moat uuraoie uirmt
and highest development- in Europe? if there
re other corroDorative racis, sucu as similarity
1 1: O i
ill customs, worKS oi art anu religion ; anu
lore especially if the physical organization, de
elopment and complexion am similar? But
hen all these are diesimilnrwhcn there is not
WOIU Ul laiJgUUilU viiuw nf-iii? nuc nii uiuif
I,y wueu inu vuinoinicui mm iiiucvicui
trncturo nn? totally dillerent wnen mera m no
imjlarity in complexion or physical development
then we are slow to believo itiac tnero is any
elationship betwceif races thus dissimilarly situ-
ted thus triuuly stparatou by every lact whicu
vrould go to pfovo afhmty. The old world beam
hid relative position to the rnc8 or the now
kVith a slight similarity between the Greek word
I'heos (tiod) and tho Teotl (signifyinii tho Su-
remo Being) of the' loiteca, Aztecs, isahuatr
Iscs. and tho Corns and Nevomes, etc., their de-
ecjndants in Sonora and Arizona, tbero h no ro
pmMauce in tho langWRO of tho roocs
o! the two wonts: and twis iq lh& nbEouc
.-if ail r;thsr rejembUttCt;. ar bound toconsid-
Kfhy aecidontal cttud dki nod produce more
feimilantifes. Tifou there Its fio remuuMiii-t!
iu.jrj5a arta and dnees. (tdni8 as well as
farts Have their birth in wants and necessities.
anu tnc resuiis are similar among mauKinu. jui
ho highest civilized nations of America were
wanting in many of tho simplest arts of tho na
tions of tho east, ho had not acquired a higher
civilization. They knew nothing of the use' ol
iron, milk or candles, or tho uso of oil in Hights.
nd tnanv othor nsolal and tiecessary inventions.
which it is nresQiiled would nut have bcon for
gotten1 if they hud emigrated from tho old'wqrld ;
nnd tho rerv fact of their omigration. presuppo
ses a state pf civilization, at, least far enough ad
s' , ; i. ' ' ...:u ii....
vanceu to nave an acuuaintauuy witu inuao
things. They knew not tho use of coined trion.
fyy, and they'had no weights or measures, which
were among the earliest m ventione oi tue eastern
natrons, and among a peop.lo as b,ighly cpmmer-
'ial aa tho Aztecs such things would not have
Rbcuti fofgotton. Indeed, tfieir civilization fo
:nat re;$pect unus no analogy among ine natives
f the oast aince the1 historic' periods The rop-
esentatioos sradngi thei'tombs'as Vecentlysdecl
)herel. oxhibit.:t.lift;fap.tthfltiin;th6 mmoteSu an-
? tuitjf io eiirier dj'nastieaf ofs "Kgypt aom
representations of value, and of weights and
muiismus were useu.
The mode of architecture of tho ancient Mox
icans was peculiar, exclusively their own, having
nothing but an occidental and faint resemblance
ujimiLoi the old woildjoud woaro bound to
consioer it as indigenous.
In the analogies of science wo find nothing
out that which must nocessurilv snrino- from tin
human mind similarly constituted, work! ntr out
o .u uvcHipmuut. ji is true tnat some havo
claimed that their chronological system wassimi-
mr to mat oi tiio Asiatic nations of tho Mongol
lamilv. but tho rl
distribution of years into cycles, and tho Aztec
uiouiku iuu oi ume in oays, weeks and months,
a tota-iy oiuerent. Their mystic number of
thirteen seems to have been basnd. nnnn a nrin-
ciplo peculiar to themselves, ud unknown ns
anpracticed by tliQ nations of th
true that there is some similarity in the terms of
the Aztec periodical SOrinS ih wlnnh flio nn'rnna
pi the elements are usi-d, arid the signs of the
- y . ....v. uuu in 1. in. 11 inrinri t' n 11 1 I cirrna ei
. - ... ,f pill'.-l
the days or the Aztecs, and Mia h1
used by tho Asiatics as the terms of their series
I hey are all borrowed from the names of ani
mals, and in the Astec scrips four out' of 'twelve
are the same or similar to those used by the Ast
atics. This is imturaLand results from the pe
culiar local circumstances surrounding man in
the development of his ideas in the adaptation
of gome lorm b nature to represent them. The
first and moht important obiects in natnrn are nl-
ways selected. 'J'his analogy as far as it 206s on
lolcoi They had been seeri and examined by
Lxtlililxoclhtl, tho historian of Tezcoco, by Mo
iiiima, Jioturiui, Jierrera. radrcs .Sahacan. Tor-
quanada.and many others. Even as late as the
time of (Jlarigero many were in existence. Soma
still shrvive in various parts of Spain, the ciry of
.uuaiuo, anu in tne liDrarv ol the c tv of Dnrun-
go also in (tiadalnjara in which cities there
has been intelligence sufficient to overcome prej
udice and rescuo some relics of ancient civiliza
tion from destruction. .4 f
ly, exhibits the fact that the mind of man. in
whateVer age or country, arrives at similur'end
by tti mum process of Qayelopoierjt. jjuf in
thiS Case t& OOintd fif dluni!nr.t urn trrantnr
khap Iho poirfts 6t rMflmblanfa. 'Mnm..,r"Mi
iwmteln the Aztec culwdnr, dbftkfbi to Uu
Astatic, behmgea to "ttkwiili
in Asm. and the Astatic nnm Hnfffin tdille
Aztec. bekjrjge(j to Dipfts which dL not exist
in Amend. What; optter pmoi isin this di
jjimilanty to shpw tho want of common origin ?
to show that the narpes originated from 'local ob
jects surrounding each, in their pathways of de
velopment in widely different lauds'? The Cap
neurons, tho i scrs, the ursas, tne Jyre, tne uri
on and Hercules, of the heavens of more classic
land, were the result of the same Jaws of mind
in framing a nomenclature, as operated on the
Astec and TolU'C astronomers. Tho elements.
the objects of tho fauna and flora of the earth,
furnished the first names and the first represen
tations of ideas. Aro these not common to
minds in the same stage in the same order of
development, however diflorent tha races of men
or the species? Whether Mongol or Aztec?
The soil and climate of the eastern and wes
tern worlds are dissimilar, arid their adaptation
to the growth of ariimal and vegetable iifo aro
widely different. The fauna and flora of tho
east are not that of . the west. Multitudes of
plants and animals common to the west, are not
found in the east, and never existed there. Ihere
is no historical trace, and there aro no organic
remains to indicate their past existence. Thev
are plants and uuhnuls peculiar to the soil, cli
mate and isothermal lines of America, and
sprung forth frornUie adaptation of, the soil and
clironU to thVir production. Tlipy Were separate
creations from the faann ana flora of the east,
aixl ileccssarrly 'came into existence from the
great law of prvduetoou that moulds nature into
a(nmt (jrwtion fam tle of th oat,
adapttid Lqt ,ht qil ac.d clmatQ, ,pd hvL?.& nnd
flora arobtiS htrh? if one wat a sepnte and lh
defHndQt crtuUon, th result of the ias which
the -OrbaV P6sitive Principle Ood has fixed
on mattGr, the'Other 'w'as'iso The anlmalcuhe
in tho water drop and the most perfect type of
man, aro caueu into oeing oy tne same iavp. it
wus us easy for tho creative power to call into
being by the sam6 laws, a new species of map.
as a new species of plants or unimols, and the
same laws operated for the production and exis
tence of each. The structure, tho form, tho or
ganization, the physiological developments of the
launaand flora, and the man of the east and the
west, aro different and these are governed by the
laws of adaptation wherever found by tho Um
forco, tho Godrgerm, of tho Positive, operating
bv fixed laws on the negative matter! As the
plants and trees and flowers, antf the animal cre
ation of the w?st, came into being aa, a distinct
and independent organization, man came into
being also, and the pro-h'istorc man qx Arizona
was tho transition typo oi tnQ western or Amerj-
can gpecieeyprKing juu uyyu liyyeiuuiuuu
This prphiBtpjinarwaa tle(Tqjteg. ....
Wh& concnricnt, .contGmporf nso'raittsiimQP o f
all tho nations 6f Anahoac at the time of the
conquest, shows that the Toitecs spoke tho same
language as tho Aztecs and the Nobaatlac
tribes. They were .kindred nations. Their hie
roglyphics, arts and sciences were the same, and
rriuny of their' manuscripts were in existence in
the archives of Tezcoco at that time, and up to
the period when the infamous first Bishop of
uiu-Aiu-j uurnirtnem wun tne greater part of the
rifcords or Mexico, in the great square of Tlate- remains of their ruins still exist. I have exarn
lnlnn. I hnn UrtA U n .. 3 1 1. ! J .t . rt .. ....
access to tho TolUc and Aztec maps, concur
in the general facts as it regards the country
whence they emigrated and their route. The first
halt of these tribe after leaving tho valley of tho
Gilu, was at Coses (irandes, south of the Lake
Gasman, in Chihuahua. They cultivated tho
rich valley of the Itio Cnsas Grandes, and tho
beautiful Rio Santa .Maria, above Galeana and
near the town of San Buenaventura, where tho
'PUi. it. - .........
ohi'cs were too precursors oinnsiMexj-
cans in tho country of Anahuaa They emi
grated from ther nativ land called Buehuella
pallan, to the north-west of the city of Mexico,
about tho viut G.)6 ofhe oliriAtkn
established tbemftlrei'fifttWote, itnated ooi
a nver M the shmt- nanixe, a w incli of the i'ono
co. Ihere :hey founded their empire, but sabs
quently. s tended it over the vuuey of Mexic
l'hy resided in the country and ruled over it for
a period of four heudred years. There is no
tradition of there having been any primitive in
habitants in the country when they arrived : if
any existed, they ,wero a fe,w nomad tribes, who
dtsapjieedon their approach. The shadowy
traditions of tho ptornica and XJjmees, lead us to
conclude that tht were but the wandering frag-
wjvwft oi i-noea. nut luoifrenous to tne countrv.
fha Toltccs dreated many monuments of art iu
A nohuac. which aro standing at this day. Thev
'Ta.tm .great nynwiuf, ui r uonunnvin. w xAy
jun arid moon, and ol "Lholum. sacred to Zuetzal
cdati. and erhape tbe beatftifu! pyramid of Pap
autla. nn8 the'soleum mins of Mitla. Bat long
years .of .pcatiJerice. famine and external war.
n'early. exterminated them, and most of the re
mainderf,discouraged and dispairing, immigrated
southward tq Yucatan, Guatemala, and "further
smith towards1 the Isthmus of Daneo. about the!
year lOiiO Of the christian era." A few lingered
behind in the valley of .Mexico, at Cbapultepec,
And others wandered ghost-Jike around the de
serted shrines of Teotihuaean. The Chicha-
fpecs a cqguate nation, speaking the game lan
guage, though more rude and barbarous, evident
ly from Iho same country, which they called Am
aquemecan, uuder tho leadership of their chief
Xolotl, camu to Tula about tho year 1170.
These sent back word to their former homes of
their snccess in finding a genial climate and fer
tile land, and jthey were soon followed by seven
tribes ander their differeot leaders, the chief of
whoof was called Huitziton. These, all except
the tribe Of the Aztecs, after wandering from
ined them and find them to correspond with tho
ruins scattered over Arizona, in the architecture
of the buildings, and the works of art in pottery,
otc, are the Bame. After leaving this country,
they crossed tho mountain range of the Sierra
Madre south-west, through tho tribe of the 'i 'ar
ahumares, nod followed tbe course of tha river
of Culiscan, to near where the city of Culiacan
now stands, where they again erected building's
arid cultivated the soil for somo years. The tra
dition of their passage through the country of
the Tarahumares, still exists, and the remains of ;
their fortifications in the passes of the sierra aro",
still shown. They then recrossed the mountains
and settled at Ghicomotzoc, 20 miles 'south" of
JkcMeeas, where the ruins yet standing exhibit'
K . . ... r t.? . . '
ujM buuiu atviu oi architecture as is iounu on tne
Gila and along their route. Here, frora kuk
diaegreement tho seven (ribesi quarrelled m&
separatd, &ix going south with their leaders and
Joining the Chicbamecaand the seveoth, the A-
tezs, remaining under the leadership of Him i!'
ton. Sojourning here nine years, they passH-tfy
Ameca, Zaynla, and the volcano of Colirna. to
Zacatula. 'j'hey rested a few vears at Coatliaa
mac, where a division roso between. the pnoeirmi
portion of the tribe nod th Tlatelolcos v?btoff
ever afterwards existed. Thev thence ''ttirrfetf'
3?lr country, which thy cTflyl Acolhui
ally arrived in M'ula. and subsequently
shores of Luke Tezcoco. where they joined the
Chichamecs.in the year 200, about thirty years
after tbe arrival Of their; progenitors. These
were the six Nahuatiac tribes: the Aztecs con
stituted the seventh; who called their country.
Aztlan. m llihW transit thef separated from- the
remainderof ihe Nahontlaca. and did not arrive
for some years later, as will be hereafter related.
The six tribes of Nahailuctj were received kind
j try --vuiOH, SUM Hicir Mironu vtny yiiv.inc t
they bueame allied, intermarried and mixed with
tries as one nation, i liey Map t-o DiiTa uoen &
milder atiu moh dvflixd branch of tho same
race, and materially aided thtm in their dorolop
merit; 'The nnlted bahds'of tho Ghichamecs and
Aeolhuacans, went?to the valley of Mexico,
probably in the same year of the arrival of the
latter, a. d. 1200, and found at Chapultepec tbe
tho shadowy remnant of tho Toltec race. Al
though more rude and barbarous than their Tol
tec brethren, they met and treated them kindly,
intermarried with them, and acquired from them
tho arts of peace, tho cultivation of tho soil, and
tho rudiments of science. They founded their
chief city on tho borders of Lake Tazcoco,
hich signifies a place of rest, and called it by
the same namb. They made rapid advance in
tho arts of civilization, and in the system of as
tronomy taught tbem by the Toitecs, They were
prosperous and happy under a regularly organ
ized government, in a genial ciimate, while the
remaining, .rie, tho AztecA wero yet wandering
Over tiio great, wore rand to the north-west.
Uiarigejo and Yqta. have traced tne successive
eastward op the valley of tho Zacatuia, and aft
many wanderings, passed by the ferra of M
a If A n-trl HnnlK. ,1 oumn if
Is,.-.. "' rTfeTJ T Vt'- UIUO fiOl
, . J . . - . , .
tribes, reach'd thoepme poinj Apparent
casts from thgir kindred trfczs, the Aztep -dered
without a fixed liabitatirjtj for mofelU
century at one time' enslaved and finaly u:
rived in the marshy isles on tUe soatn M s?t
shore of Isko Tezcoco, whero they foundstlhe
city of Tenochtitlan, or Mexico the latter na?
ueiug utfiiveu jrolii .ieX;lti, uuc 01 tue uuguuuicuo
. ... i . . . .
oi tneir great war-goa " -
This occurred in the year 12525,accordirig to tin)
most accurate chronological calculations of tajt
historians of Mexico. From this time 'their ritp
was rapid, and by their peculiar system of nHg
lon and conquest their empire soon extended ov
er the Surrounding nations of AnahuHci' Thair
civilization reached its culminating point wiieh
the conquerer came. What it would have been
if left olooe to their own development, we ernxJt
conjecture. This much we do know that they
have not benefitted by tbe change, except in tha
abandonment of jiutnan sacrifices. '- s
Whence came these cognate nations ? Their
traditions nil point to the north-west of th val
ley of Mexico to the country of the Gia and
its tributaries, and the vaiiey of the Coiora4in
Arizona. The mins of their works of -art atadd
like mile stones and indices in their pari? of mi
gration. The bright valleys of the Gilu. Vordo
and their tributaries, are filled with tho remtias
of their art and thejr comoteriesi and-thetr
n'&iSes yet fou'nd'op the highlands and' tho 'Kfi&as
overlooking tho fertile valieys.
In my next I will give some; reaBdni
wiil identify the Toitec nod Aztecs ixr
pre -historic man of Arizona.
Truly yonra, f LA,, ; r
Great Salt Lakk. The 1 ke from sv?i '
Lii- t air na namtxAa aituif -f'tusanl.C rvtilifW
jrom tbe letter, py., a gopti road M
valley bottom. . Artistically viowed, .it, it it,
of tho lovoliest sheets of water I ever saw--4rju
or than the intensest blue of the ooean, aiiU
practically as impressive, since, looking from,Uj
southern shore, you siie only afj water hoekn
This 'iew, however, is broken by,a mfiusSm:
mountainous island, rising, I should tlunk, meL
or eight hnndred feet from tho water, haif a dez
en milaa from the shore, and apparently as nurti
rmlea in circuit. The density of the, lata brijj'
has been under instead of over stated, f ttur.
out into tho Jake for a considerable diatao4r
then lay upon my back on rather than ir the wit
ter, and suffered the breeze to waft mo Undwai
again. I was blown to a spot where U lki
only fonr inches deep, without grazing ny litft
and did pot know that 1 had got within my do'h
?gam until 1 doprpjaed mv hand a : tnfUi uud
' A 90S' o Erin 'cautious the priblicra
bonng'br trusting hiswif&U'eggy tn hie
as tie texl6t$rifflU bW'