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torn wiwav ntTtci 'tkibonr; mw, Hawaii, mwaV, Ai'RU, j, 190.1,
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... . rrr"ifiTirTin Jn
Of Gothenburg, 5wc1cn
Asicts (Home Office) .... f7i"o(3-ii
Asicls In U. S. (for Additional Security of American Policy Holders) 656,678.43
1'aclfurCoast Department: EDWARD 11ROWN & SONS, General Agents
411-413 California St., San Frnnclsco.
H. HACKFELD & CO., Ltd., Rosltlont Agents, HILO
This dry weather and boil your drinking water.
Then filter with our ...
Improved Germ Proof
Natural Stone Filters
Six, Seven, Eight and Eleven Quarts each at
prices ranging from . . .
$4.00 to $7.50
THEO. H. DAVIES & GO. Limited
I jjfe IMAEEA I
I mm$Jk'B:EROF I
jm QVZLITY' I
LH nfe Wflifc f " 1 'B
lSlfflP RAINIER BOTTLING WORKS
fiHlf ACENTS, HONOLULU
SPECIAL ATTENTION IS CALLED TO THE FACT THAT
Is that which has been manufactured for the past fifteen
years exclusively by the
California Fertilizer Works
SAN FRANCISCO, OAL.
Whcu pui'chasing be sure that in addition to the brand
the name of the California Fertilizer Works is on every
sack, otherwise you will not be getting the genuine article.
A large stock of our Diamond A and our
XX HIGH-GRADE FERTILIZER
Is kept constantly on haudand for sale at San Francisco
prices, plus only freight and actual expenses,
By Our Hllo Agonts,
L. TURNER CO
llonr l II11II1I mill Krcp Ilk Itiwoif j
nhly (looil lleimlr.
The proper grade for any 1
particular road must be determined
by the conditions and requirements
existing on tlint road. The ideal
grade is, of course, a level, but ns
the level road can seldom be ob
tained in rolling countries, it is
well to know the steepest allowable
grades for ordinary travel.
It Jias been found by experiment skleS( surface (lUdlcs nn. Sltq-icicllt
that n horse can, for a short time, lo carry ofr surfnce walcr froni rain
double his usual exertion. Fromor In order to prevont wash-
the above table we find that a horse outs on slcq) , hmvcvcr( u
can draw only about one-half M'somctime9 become9 lieccssary l0
much on a 4 per cent grade as he collstritct Wfller ,,.,... tlint -
can on a tevei roan, as nc can
double his exertion for a short time
he can pull twice as much more
aim wic siope orrauc wiucu woinu ,
1 .1 1 . 1 ...i-i
force him to draw that proportion
would therefore be a 4 per cent
grade. On this slope, however,
he would be compelled to double
his ordinary exertion to draw a
full load, and this will therefore be
the maximum grade if full loads
are to be hauled. Most road buil
ders prefer 3 per cent grades to
those of 4 per cent where they can
be secured without additional ex
pense, but in some places it is
necessary, fpr various reasons, to
increase the grades to 5 per cent.
With the exception of mountainous
regions, where steeper grades arc
often unavoidable, the aim should
be, on all public highways which
are traveled by heavily .loaded
vehicles, to keep the grade down to
3 or 4 per cent and never to let it
exceed 5 per cent.
QUHSTIONS OK MATERIAL AND IJX
I'OSUKIC. If the road must be constructed
out of the materials .over which it
passes, it is often possible to select
a route where the soil is better
adapted for the purpose than that
found where first located. For
instance, soils adjacent to the beds
of streams .or in morasses and
swamps, being close and pervious,
arc very difficult to surface and sub
drain, but routes over such ground
can often be avoided by locating the
road upon higher ground, where the
natural drainage is better.
Another consideration in choosing
the line of travel is that roads on
slopes having a southern or westorn
exposure can be much more satis
factorily and economically main
tained than those located on eastern
or northern slopes.
Water is the most destructive
agent to a road, and yet if a few
simple principles are followed it can
be easily dealt with. Earth is more
susceptible to the action of water
and more easily dissolved and moved
by it than any other road material,
and for this reason 00 much atten
tion can hardly be given to the
drainage of roads. Drainage alone
will often change a bad road into a
good one, while, on the other hand,
the bast road may quirkly go to
ruin for lack of drainage.
Most country roads are too flat
on top to shed water; indeed, a
great many of them are not only fiat
but concave, the center being the
lowest part; in other words, their
crowns are inverted. The sides of
the roads are often square shoulders
which obstruct the water on
its passage to the side drains, and
as a result the water lies on the sur
face until it is absorbed by the
material or evaporated by the sun.
It is often allowed to stand in the
traveled way until the material
softeiis and yields to the impact of
the horses' feet and the' action of
the wheels of the vehicles; the holes
and ruts rapidly increase in number
and size; wagon after wagon sinks
deeper and deeper, until the road
becomes utterly bad.
The importance of drainage has
been emphasized in the statement
that the "three prime essentials to
good roads are, first, drainage;
second, better drainage; third, the
best drainage possible." On open
or pervious soils, surface drainage,
in connection with heavy rolling,
is usually quite satisfactory, pro
vided the ,slope is good and the traf
fic is not too heavy; but for the
close, impervious, alluvial, and
clayey soils .subdrainage is some
times necessary. With heavy traf-
lie, harrow lires, and lon-contlmieil
rnitiQ. frivi mwl t1mto (tin imr-
aawr..f! Mini IIIIIIT-H . tilt
racc r ..v (,lrt ..., ,, ,.,,, , ....
completely destroyed, mid in this
case the only remedy is n consolidat-
ed mass or crust of gravel or broken
stone, forming a roof to keep out
and carry off the water. This, of
course, constitutes "the best drainage
Steep slopes. On ground with good
natural niidcrdrainnire. ns on hill-
... - -, ...., ...,
broad, shallow ditches, so arranged
as to catch the surface water an d
carry it each way into the 'side
dichcs Unfortunately, some road
j builders have an idea "that the only
I way to prevent hills, long and short,
j from washing, is to heap upon them
a large number of those ditches
known in different sections of the
country as "thank-you-ma'ams,"
or "hummocks," and the number
they sometimes squeeze in upon a
single hill is astonishing. Such
ditches retard traffic to a certain
extent, and often result in overturn
ing vehicles; consequently they
should never be used until all other
means have failed to cause the water
to flow into the side channels.
They should never be allowed to
cross the entire width of the road
diagonally, but should be cons' ruct
ed in the shape of the letter V, with
the point up hill. This arrangement
permits teams following the middle
of the road to cross them squarely
and thus avoid the danger of over
turning. These ditches should not
be deeper than is absolutely neees-1
sary to throw the water off the sur
face, and the part in the center
should be the shallowest.
Shape of cross section on hills.
Where a road is constructed on a
hill, the slope from the center to the
sides should be slightly steeper than
on the level. The reason for this
is that every wheel track on an
inclined roadway becomes a channel
for carrying down the water and
unless the curvature is sufficient
these tracks are quickly deepened
into water courses which cut into
and sbmetimes destroy the best sur
face. The slope must be suffi
cient to lead the water quickly
into the side ditches instead of al
lowing it to flow down the middle
of the road, but should not be so
steep that Water will rush off the
surface so quickly as to wash away
berms or shoulders. The cross sec
tion, consisting of two plane surfaces
sloping uniformly from the center to
the sides, is perhaps a little better
for a steep grade than the circular
form because of the danger of over
turning, which would necessarily be
increased if the circular or elliptical
cross section were used. Water
should never be permitted to flow
long distances or to collect in puddles
by the roadside, for it soon sinks
into theadjacent soil and softens the
foundation of theroad. Open drains
should not "be allowed to become
deep and dangerous from neglect of
proper outlets. Careful attention
should be given to the regularity of
the grade and fall of the side ditches.
Protection from "gullying."
Where the road is built on a steep
grade some provision should be
made to prevent the washing of the
gutters into deep gullies. This can
be .done by paving the bottoms and
sides of the gutters with bricks or
field stones. In order to make the
flow as small as possible in side
ditches it is often advisable to con
struct frequent outlets" into the ad
jacent fields or streams, or, if possi
ble, to lay underground pipes or
blind drains with screened openings
into side ditches at frequent inter- j
vals. The size of side ditches
should depend upon the amount of
water they are expected to carry.
If possible they should be located
at least 3 feet from the edge of the
Construction of side ditches. All
side ditches should have a gradual
fall of at least half a foot in every
100 feet. Their sides, particularly
those sloping toward the roadway,
should be broad and flaring, .4o as
to prevent accidents as well as the
caving in of their banks. Their'
bottoms should be wide enough to
! carry the largest amount of water '
that is likely to flow through them
at any one time. Sometimes the
only ditches necessary to carry off'
the surface water are those made '
with the road machine. The blade
of the machine may be set at any 't
desired angle, and when drawn
along by horses or by a traction
engine cuts into the surface audi
spreads tne eartn unilprmly over
the traveled way.
(To be continued.)
INSIST ON HAVING
And if 'you value your health don't drink
beer Unit is bottled in junk bottles (to save coal). Junk
bottles lire gathered from cvciy conceivable source ami nre
. nil acknowledged source of infection,
PAB5T AND A, BX, BEERS
Sold by us, arc guaranteed absolutely free
from any nntiseptic preservative, nre bottled in new bottles
direct from the factory, nuil nre tilled by Union Labor
only. It is not true Mint pure beer, properly bottled,
requires nny preservative In this climate, the temperature of
the Knstern Slates being much higher during the summer
months than in Hawaii. Do not be misled by insinuating
Advertisements that will not bear investigation. '
PABST BREWING CO. OF MILWAUKEE
AMERICAN J3REWINC CO. OF ST.J.OUIS
N. OHLANDT & CO.
Of Eoery Description.
Sulphate of Potash,
Sulphate, of Ammonia,
Alaska Fish Scrap,
lEigh Grade Tankage.
127 Market Street.
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.
Certificate of Analysis accompanies our shipments, which we guarantee
to lie correct.
1. TD. GUARD,
Agent for the Hawaiian Islands
OKDEKS FILLED AT SHOUT NOTICE '
Enterprise Planing Mill Company.
GF.O. MUMIIY, Mgr. Front St., in rear of Hilo Mercantile Co's Building
Pinning, Mouloiug, Scroll Work and all kinds of Turned iv"ork, Window Frames, etc
WATKR TANKS A SPECIALTY. Household and all kinds of Furniture,
Store Fittings, Counters, etc., made
made ns good ns new, nt easy rates.
Mauulacturer oi School Seats, Chuicfi
HAND MADE SADDLES AND HARNESS
o ' C w
a 5 o a 2
m -r, c
o .2 ! r "
2 w O.o
and Dkai.kk.h IN
Muriate of Potash,
Nitrate of Soda,
Indiana & Yolo Sts
Cross-cut Saws re-toothed and
Tews, and Redwood Guttcts, ail sizes
Hilo Harness Shop, Hilo, H. I.
Waiakea Boat House
It. A. LUCAS & CO., Prop'rs.
WAIAKEA BRIDGE, HILO
I HAVtt NOW A FMJP.T OF
I Gasoline Launches
I and Small Boats
FOR FUI1LIC HIItR
I 1 assengers nud baggage taken to nml
. from vessels in the harbor at reasonable
I rates. Launches and rowboats to hire
lor private picnics nml moonlight rides.
j RING UP ON TELEPHONE
Wolverine Gasoline Engine
Self-stnrter and reversible engine. Iu
practicability it is coual to the strain en
gine. Sizes from IJi h. p. upwards,
lloats fitted with this engine or frames ot
any size to order. For particulars apply
to R. A. LUCAS, Manager,
t r'rpp 1 ' .'11 1 .1 1.1' 1 1. '. 11 .. inwniiH