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FIRST BANK OF IIILO
Iucorporntcd Under tlic Lnws of the
Territory of llnwnii.
PEACOCK BLOCK, IIILO.
P. I'KCK - Pre!ileiit.
C. C. KI(NN!(DY Vice-lTe..
JOHN T. MOIR-.and Vlccl'rc.
C. A. BTOMK Caihler.
T1I08. C. KIIinWAYi Secretary.
J. . Canarlo, John J. Gtace,
Y. 8. Lyman, It. V. Patten,
Wm. Pullar. W. II. Shipinan.
Draw Qxchange on
The Bank of Hawaii, Ltd Honolulu
Wells, Fargo &. Co. Hnuk...Snn Francisco
Wells. Fargo & Go's Hank New York
The National Bank of the Re-1 cWcauo
Glynn, Mills, Currie & Co London
Hongkong-Shanghai Bank- ) Hongkong,
ing Corporation ) China.
Hougkong'Shaughal Bank- ) Shanghai,
iug Corporation J China.
Hongkong-Shanghai Bank-) j1"'
ing Corporation j Jopanf
SAFE DEPOSIT BOXES
Rented by the Month or Year. Par
ticulars ou Application.
J The Owl
i will stop it.
4 "PIXO" eradicates dandruff,
i stops falling of the hair and J
keeps the hair and scalp in a
1 lie uwi uruy uu., llu.
Open from 5 A.M. to n P M.
At Moderate Prices.
Mixkd and Fancy Drinks
Honolulu Primo Beer
Ten Cents a Glass
J. C. SERRAO,
Matson Navigation Go.
The only Direct Lint! between San Fran
cisco and llilo, Comprising the
following Fast Sailers
Bark ANNIE JOHNSON
Bark RODERICK DII.U
Bark MARION CHILCOTT
Ship FALLS OF CLYDE
Tug CHAS. COUNSELMAN
And other Specially Chartered vessels
makes tins trip Willi at least one 01 tiiese
boats euch month, carrying both Freight
For dates of sailing nnd terms,
,no. D. Sprechels & Bros. Co,
337 Market St., San Frnucisco,
R. T. GUARD, Agent,
Tim WMIU.V ifitd
a mm; !
SMITH VEHNUS l'KUKlK.S.
IntcrcRlliitf UIkciikhIoii Hctuerti Two
Ilotioltilii, II. T., April 4, 1904.
Ktlitor Advertiser: I ntn much
interested in the-report ntul recom
mendations of the resident Terri
torial entomologist, Prof. R. C. L.
Perkins, appearing in your valued
issue of March 18.
The stand taken by Professor
Perkins as to what constitutes
economic entomology and what are I
the most practical applied phases of
that science, is so radical and so
much beyond the accepted dogma
that I would beg this opportunity
of expressing the position of what
might be called "The opposition."
The science of economic entomo
logy in the modern acceptation of
that term dates back but little more
than half a century. To Dr. Wm.
T. Harrisvbelongs the honor of be
ing the first official entomologist.
Dr. Harris published 111 1841 a
"Report on Insects Injurious to
Vegetation," for which he received
from the State of Massachusetts the
princely sum of $175. This report
is one of the classics of entomology
and is as valuable today as when it
was first published.
In 1854 the State of New York
set apart the sum of $1,000 for the
study of insects injurious to vegeta
tion, inaugurating a line of work
which was carried on for sixteen
years by Dr. Asa Fitch. In the
same year, 1854, Mr. Townsend
Glover was appointed by the Com
missioner of Patents to collect
statistics relative to seeds, fruits
and insects in the United States
under the Division of Agriculture
of the Patent Office. His annual
reports from that date until 1858
dealt largely with the insects in
jurious to wheat, cotton, plums,
apples, the orange and the gr.ipe.
From the foundation of the United
States Department of Agriculture
in 1862 up to the present time, the
study of economic entomology, that
is, the science of the relation of
insects,, injurious and beneficial, to
cultivated plants, man and domestic
anit.ials, has been carried forward
unremittingly, until now economic
entomology is recognized as one of
tin mostjniportaiit of the agricul
tural sciences. Where forty years
ago thTf were only iso'ated
workers there aie today more than
two hundred entomologists em
ployed by the National and State
Governments, actively engaged in
the study of insect life, chiefly in
relation to the farmer and his crops.
This remarkable increase in the
number of State-employed workers
indicates the measure of develop
ment that has taken place. The
Division of Entomology of the U.
S. Department of Agriculture at
Washington has achieved world
wide reputation because of the
scientific investigations of insect life
carried on by its staff, and also,
and'ehiefly, because of the practical
economic results attained. This
department is recognized as stand
ing at the head in the honored
profession of applied entomology.
The methods of combating in
sects injurious to vegetation as
advocated by the leading economic
entomologists of the world, include:
(1), direct warfare against the in
sect itself, and (2), indirect warfare
by improving the condition of the
plant or animal to enable it to
withstand the attacks of its enemies.
Methods of direct warfare are in
the main two-fold, the actual de
struction of the insect pest by sub
stances poisonous to it; and, fight
ing it by means of its natural ene
mies. Both methods have been
known to and are now advocated
by every economic entomologist in
the world, so that the charge of
ignorance laid against all who
advocate combating injurious bi
sects by the use of poisons, is, to
say the least, startling. If Prof.
Perkins is correct in his views and
if as he seems to claim in his re
port, absolutely the only cortect
method of fighting injurious insects
is to introduce, propagate, and
loose upon them hordes of parasites
and predaceous foes, then this in
formation deserves the widest pos
sible circulation, in order that the
large sums of public money now
being devoted to this attempt at
pest-control Way tie diverted to lid
proper una only correct use 'the
introduction propagation and dis
tribution of pttrasitcs. In this con
nection it is well to remember that
the farmers of the United States
pay a greater toll it tin shape of
losses caused by injurious insects
than the whole cost of the public
school system, and in many States
as much money is paid for insecti
cides and poisons for use against
injurious insects as for the support
of the State Government
The present attitude of the lead
ing economic entomologists of th'e
world has been reached as a result
of experience founded on a great
In a state of nature every insect
as well as every plant and organized
form of life has its enemies. This
is axiomatic. Were it not so cer
tain forms would attain undue
ascendency and others would ab
solutely disappear. This inter
relationship of all plant and animal
life we term "the balance of
Nature." As a disturbing feature
to this perfect balance, man enters.
Man has taken plants and so culti
vated them that it is impossible to
trace them back to their original
stock. This is true of the corn
plant, the original form of which is
a matter of theory only. We culti
vate the soil thereby destroying the
intricate inter-relationships of the
indigenous plants and a'nimals. Wc
change the face of nature and
attempt by our puny efforts to
direct Nature's laws. The so-called
"balance of Nature" no longer
holds. The theory that if we could
only find the native home of each
of our injurious insects, go there,
search out, bring back with us and
set free to prey upon the pest all
the parasites and enemies of that
pest, is theory only simply because
we cannot restore in our cane fields
that state of Nature which existed
before man took the cane-plant out
of its natural environment aiid
made it a cultivated plant.
Walter W. Froggatt, F. L,. Si.
Government Entomologist of New
South Wales, Australia, in a paper
on "Limitations of Parasites," says:
"There is just enough truth in this
theory to make it plausible to the
ordinary individual who has not
gone farther into the matter; so to
commence, let us assume that every
insect has its parasite, internal or
otherwise. That parasite will also
have its particular foe to keep up
the balance of power that we know
exists in all branches of the animal
kingdom. In a wild country where
man has not interfered with the
surroundings, the struggle for ex
istence works out its own end, and
the hardy plant and animal best
adapted to the situation survives.
The native insects will not totally
destroy the indigenous trees of
their habitat, for the demand and
supply of food is closely regulated,
and, if the border-laud is over
stepped, the plants or animals
affected vanish, and go to swell the
lost creations that we find in the
fossil remains of by-gone ages;
under such conditions pests would
"Many instances might be quoted
to show how insect pests in their
native land remain and become in
creasingly formidable enemies to
the agriculturist, with the spread of
cultivation. The Chinch Bug and
the Hessian Fly, common in Amer
ica, levy an incredible toll ou the
wheat fields of the States, and
though the latter has a number of
well known parasites, and though
the actual home of both pests is
well known, they both have to be
combated with mechanical methods,
sowing cafch crops, or the doubtful
spreading of fungus diseases. I
cannot find that any of the most
extreme advocates of internal para
sites have claimed that these insects
and others as serious can be con
trolled by their parasitic enemies,
although we know they are more
or less infested."
Mr. F. V. Theobald, economic
zoologist to the British Museum
and to the Board'of Agriculture of
"The subject of
natural enemies is one to which
special attention should be paid,
but it is quite useless to expect
very great benefit to accrue from
any except the birds. People who
are acquainted more with the
laboratory than the field talk of the
use of porasitic hymenoptcra and of
predaceous insects as if they would
do all that is required to check an
insect pest. In a few cases pre
daceous insects have done enormous
good, under abnormal conditions,
but in a state of nature they never
appear in sufficient numbers to
make any impression until the pest
in question has increased to such
an extent that the harm is all done.
When people commence to talk of
stopping spraying for Aphides or
scales because the beneficial para
sites arc killed also, it is sufficient
evidence they know little of fruit
growing or the fruit-grower's
Dr. John B. Smith, president of
the American Association of Econo
mic Entomologists, says: "The
action of the parasite is only to
keep its host within a certain fairly
well defined limit, and if that limit
is at a point where the host becomes
injurious to the farmer, he must
himself take a hand in its destruc
tion to derive any benefit. I do
not mean in anything I say here,
to lessen the, claims of parasitic and
predatory insects to our consider
ation. They have an extremely
important function in nature, and
without them there would be no
possibility of an existing vegeta
tion. But, on the other hand, it is
just as certain that unless there
was some check imposed upon the
multiplication of parasites, etc.,
they would in a short time destroy
the insects that they feed upon,
and the destruction of their host
would, logically, carry with it their
(To be continued.)
Steamer Colon does on, Hocks.
San Francisco, Cal., April 12.
The steamship Colon, bound to
Panama, with passengers a'nd
freight, struck a rock at Punta
Remedios early this morning. The
steamer was beached at Acajutla.
There was no loss of life, though
the passengers were in a highly
excited state when the steamer
struck. The cargo is being lighter-
eu aim tuc grcmer puruun
probably be saved.
Franchise Hills I'ass House.
Washington D. C, April 12.
The bills granting the Hawaiian
Electric Company a franchise to
operate in Honolulu and -the Qahu;
Gas Franchise passed the House
today. The gas franchise has al
ready been passed by the Senate.
St. Petersburg, Russia, April 12;
Port Arthur is reported quiet with
no signs of an attack by the Japanese.
Barcelona, Spain, April 12.
Premier Maura was today attacked
by a young man supposed to be a
member of a local anarchist society.
The mau was promptly arrested.
Premier Maura was not seriously
New York, N, Y. April 12. The
Republican State Convention today
elected Senators Piatt and Depew,
Governor Odell and ,F. S. Black as
Delegates-at-Large for New York
State to the Republican National
What Is I'aln llaluil
Chamberlain's Pain Balm is a
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Pain Halm is positively guaranteed
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b so doing generally prevents an
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'(TnM2.irT tn ,1tn ritvl.t onrtt ' Tt
sufferer from these distressing affec
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Built Me Up
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There are many Imitation BamsarUla.
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Promptly correct aar tendency to aoaati
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.Houses Wired and
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A complete stock of
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Fan Motors . J$16
Fan NlOtdra, swivel frame, IS
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Power for operating them t $1 a mouth
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10 C.-P. Lamps, 20c Each,
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Estimates furnished on all classes ot
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co 3 O
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Choice Cuts of
POULTRY of all Kinds
FRESH ISLAND BUTTER
Fin Fat Turkaya.
. . Sucking Riga.
DraughtBeer IO Canta
When you need a drink, call
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A first class line of
always on baud.
" ' - " - fi T -
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Furniture made to order, any style
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Serrao Cabjnet Shop.
Apply to JOSE G. SERRAO.
Wilder's Steamship Co.
Change in Sal)ing Time of
From the Coast. '
CommencinR FEBRUARY 5th, 1904, the
Steamer "MAUI," Bennett, Master, will
sail from HONOLULU at 5 p. m.
' LAUPAHOKUOE and
With Mail and Passengers.
Wilder's Steamship Co.