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THK WKBKLY llUO VlUBUNB, HIM), HAWAII, FRIDAY, APRIL 29, 1904.
'FIRST BANK OF HILO
Incorporated Under the Law of the
Territory of Hawaii.
1'liACOCK BLOCK, HILO.
I'. I'KOK I'renlilriil.
C. C. KHNNHIiV Vlce-I'tn.
JOHN T. MOIK..1111I Vlci-I'tev
C. A. Bl'OIIIH CitMiler.
TIIOS. C. KHXSWAV, Kreretary.
J. , Cntmrlo, Jolm J. Grace,
I'. fl. l.yinnn,
II. V. t'altdi,
Draw ISxcIiunue on
The lMuk of Hawaii, Mil Honolulu
Wells, Fargo & Co. Hank. ..San Francisco
Wells, Fargo it Co's Hank New York
The National hank of the Re-) fji,ca0
public ) '
Glynn, Mills, Clinic & Co a... London
Ilongkong-Shinghal Hank- I Hongkong,
ing Corporation J 'China.
Hongkong-Shanghai Hank- ) Shanghai,
ing Corporation '. ) China. -
, 01 1 1 11 1 ) Yokohama
Hongkoug-Shanghal Hank. , .
ing Corporation f, J!,,..!!
SAFE DEPOSIT BOXES
Rented by the Month 01 Year. Par
ticulars on Application.
; The Owl
I "Pilo" Tonic
Swill stop it.
"PILO" eradicates dam
stops fulling; of the hair and
keepi the hair and scalp in a
SI. 00 Per Bottle.
The Owl Drug Co., Ltd.
Open from 5 A.M. to 11 P.M.
At Moderate Prices.
Mixed and Fancy Drinks
Honolulu Primo Beer
Ten Cents a Class
J. C. SERRAO,
Matson Navigation Co.
The only Direct Line between San Fran
cisco nud Hilo, Comprising the
following Fast Sailers
Bnrk ANNIE JOHNSON
Hark RODERICK DHU
Dark MARION CHILCOTT
Ship FALLS OF CLYDE
Tin; CHAS. COUNSELMAN
inl other Specially Cliartercd vessels
makes this trip with at least one of these
boats-each month, carrying both Freight
l'or dales of sailing and terms,
J no. I). Sprccliols & tiros. Co,
.JJ7 Market St., San 1'rancisco.
R. T. GUARD, Agent,
SMITH VKItSUH I'KUKIN
liilrriKlliiK IMsciikkIoii ilotnrcii Two
I have quoted thus nt length
front the recent works of three of
the foremost economical entomol
ogists of as many countries, lvng
land, Australia and America, to
show that Professor Perkins is mis
taken when he would sweep away
as the thoughtless judgment pf the
uninformed the arguments present
ed by those who say to the planters
and farmers of Hawaii do not
place all of your faith in parasites.
Mr. Alexander Craw, whose
fame is known to every planter in
these Islands, recommends, in
Bulletin No. 71 of California State
Hoard of ' Horticulture, active
methods of control, for every one of
the insect pests treated of in that
publication with the single and
sole exception of the cottony cush
The introduction into California
of the Australian lady-bird beetle
Vidalia cardinalis to combat the
cottony cushion scale or fluted scale,
as it is also called, is the only in
stance known where a prcdaceous
insect introduced for the purpose
of control has completely succeeded.
Dr. I,. O. Howard, Entomologist
of the U. S. Department of Agri
culture, says: "The first and suc
cessful importations of this bene
ficial lady-bird were made by
Albert Koebele, a salaried agent of
the Division of Entomology, work
ing under the direction of the late
Dr. Riley, but whose travelling
expenses were defrayed from the
fund appropriated by Congress for
the representation of the United
States at the Melbourne Exposition.
A later trip to Australian regions
was undertaken by Mr. Koebele
while still on the pay rolls of the
Division of Entomology, but his
expenses were paid from the appro
priation granted by California to its
State board of horticulture. The
results or this second trip, although
not as conclusive as those of the
first trip, still demonstrated in
marked degree the advantage ,of
this class of international work,
namely, the introduction of bene
ficial insects from one country to
another A great many similar
importations have been made by
Prof. Koebele and other American
and foreign entomologists, but this
initial importation of Vidalia card
inalis1 into California remains unique
in the history of this branch of
economic entomology. That para
sites and predatory insects are an
itupo'tant factor in the control of
insects injurious to cultivated crops
no one denies, but that they arc the
most important factor remains yet
to be proven. In only the one in
stance cited above has such a status
been definitely established.
As a result of oft repeated experi
ments and observations it has come
to be accepted as a natural law that
cither plants or animals introduced
into a new country where condi
tions are exceptionally favorable
develop with extreme rapidity.
The cause is two fold, on the one
hand increase in food supply and
removal of the natural enemies that
beset them in their native home:
and, a certain mental or nervous
stimulus tending to produce greater
fecundity. It is as when a pent up
stream bursts the barriers which
have contained it. The fury of its
waters wreaks greatest destruction
nearest to its source. As the
waters spread out over the level
broader valleys below the force and
angry power is lost. With iuvas
ions of new pests into our cultivat
ed fields the saine principle holds
absolutely true. To illustrate
Thirty years ago the Colorado
potato beetle which had lived on a
wild plant, Solatium rostrattun,
transferred its affections to the
Irish potato, Solatium tuberosum,
finding in this introduced cultivated
crop more abundant food, better to
its liking. From Colorado this
'Potato Hug" swept eastward in a
wave of devastation that carried
panic to the minus of potato
growers all over the world. Since
its first epidemic invasion thirty
years ago there has never been a
similar one, and the Colorado beetle
has travelled around the world in
spite of the barriers of legislation
erected by man ngoinst it. The
Colorado beetle exists today in
every potato patch in America, but
farmers still plant potatoes and
make money out of Ukmu, and the
world has not been forced to sub
stitute sonic other food plant for
the potato as was confidently pre
dicted. The Colorado potato beetle
is responsible for the first insect
quarantine laws and also for the
discovery of the value of arsenical
remedies against the enemies of
field crops. In its migrations this
insect has been accompanied by its
parasites, yet these, often present in
enormous numbers, were not able
to force it back within bounds or
overcome the stimulus given to the
race by the discovery of a new and
abundant food crop in the potato
fields planted by the western
farmers. Wherever the potato bug
exists iu American today you will
find its enemies and parasites, but
no potato grower trusts the pro
tection of his crop to them alone.
The same has been true of the
Codliu-moth, Hessian fly, chinch
bug, locust, cotton cushion scale,
San Jose scale and scores of other
insects that have occurre.1 iu
epidemic abundance. At first they
threaten to sweep away the culti
vated crops on which they feed,
but after the first flood of invasion,
the cultivation of these same crops
continues just as before. Every
such epidemic results iu some im
provement' in the methods of active
I do not for one moment advance
the argument that the work as done
by Prof. Koebele is not advisable,
because the contrary is true.
Without parasites and natural
enemies to prey upon the insect
pests of our cultivated crops there
could be no agriculture. Hut to
advise our farmers and planters to
trust everything to these same
parasites is not wise. They will
do their share but man must also
do his, or the cultivation of cane,
coffee, bananas or any other crop
in these Islands will descend from
the high plane on which it now
rests to the realm of chance.
Active measures must be employ
The term"activc measures" does
not necessarily imply the use of
sprays or insecticides. Any im
provement in the care or handling
of the crop to help the plant bear
up against its enemies, is an active
measure. In fighting the leaf-
hopper of the cane the planter
must not fold his arms and wait
for parasites, spiders and lady-birds
to do his work for him. They
will help but the plantermust carry
his end of the burden too.
The term '"active measures" iftt
plies an effort on the part of the
cultivator to help along the plants
that constitute his money crop and
by increasing their vigor lessen the
effect of injurious insect pests and
fungus diseases. Man cannot con
trol the seasons, the rainfall, the
number of days of cloud or sun
shine, or any other phase of the
weather. There is a considerable
element of chance in connection
with the cultivation of any crop
whether on a large or small scale.
Hut advance only comes through
effort to overcome obstacles. The
planters of Hawaii are cultivating
cane 111 a more intensive fashion
than in other tropical sugar produc
ing land. There is no other cane
country where irrigation is prac
ticed on so extensive a scale.
There is probably no other cane
country where the planters apply
fertilizers per acre or per ton of
sugar. Hut in the matter of cultiva
tion of the soil there are other lands
which have advanced beyond the
the standard common iu these
Cultivation does not necessarily
mean simply keeping a field clean
of weeds. That is one of the
objects but not the only one.
Weeds have been defined as
"plants growing iu the wrong
place." Weeds are out of place in
a cultivated field'because they steal
a good deal of the plant food that
ought to belong to the cultivated
The chief reason for stirring the
soil is to make the plant food iu the
soil available. The more a soil is
I stirred the smaller the soil particles
become and the smaller these soil
grains the greater becomes its
water-holding capacity. Cultiva
tion increases the feeding capacity
of the roots of plants. So better
cultivation becomes an active mea
sure iu fighting insect pests of field
Other active measures are the
drainage of wet fields or swampy
places; the use of organic manures
on sterile or washed ridges or their
Three years' experience with the
leafhoppcr in the cane-field ap
parently indicates that something
can be gained by, early planting,
the idea being to give the cane,
plant the start of a whole growing
season instead of only part of one,
and help the plant to attain a suf
ficiently vigorous summer growth
to carry it through the winter, the
time when growth is retarded and
the leafhoppcr does the most" dam
age. On some plantations the
water now used for fltimiug cane to
the mills might be used to better
advantage during the summer
months on the growing crop, leav
ing the transportation of cane to be
managed by mechanical methods.
During the last three months
one of our managers has saved a
crop which was very seriously in
fested with the hopper by turning
his flume water into the fields and
at the same time forcing growth by
the use of fertilizers and abundant
cultivation, this on fields that
were not properly laid out for irri
gation, and with a decidedly insuf
ficient supply of water, if it had
been used in the volume considered
necessary on irrigated plantations.
Another active measure even
more radically at variance with
established custom, one that has
been suggested as entirely feasible
on certain plantations, is to plant
early and harvest the crop at the
end of twelve months. It is
generally recognized that young
plant cane and young rattoons
suffer less from the hopper
than cane that has commenced
to make joints or than that which
is nearly mature. The insect likes
best the cane with- the most sugar
in it. Early harvesting would . un
doubtedly in some instances fore
stall losses that would occur were
the cane allowed to go to its full
maturity, because the hopper
son or the season during
this insect causes the greatest in
jury is towards the end of winter,
from January to April.
These are all active measures,
and to employ such is not
necessarily to confess ignorance,
for only by effort to overcome ob
stacles can there be any advance.
Not all of these active measures
are applicable to every pi antation.
Each manager has his own prob
lems which must be worked out in
the light of local conditions. But,
I repeat, that if we are to make
further advance in the growing of
cane or any other crop in these
islands there must be effort on the
part of the planter. No man
should fold his arms and say:
"Wait for more parasites."
JARED G. SMITH.
Warnlnir to Linployes.
Governor Carter has issued the
following order to the heads of de
To All Heads of Departments.
Office of the Governor,
Honolulu, April 13, 1904.
Complaints have been made that
some of the employes of the Govern
ment of the Territory of Hawaii fail
to pay their bills due merchants and
storekeepers for the necessary sup
plies which they procure for them
selves and their families.
It is the sense of the Executive
that clerks, who are iu receipt of
regular and stated salaries, should
'make every effort to meet their pro
per and legal obligations. Unless
satisfactory reasons can be assigned
for their failure to do this, all such
offenders should be sharply repri-
1 manded by the heads of their de-
partineuts and informed that any
I further complaint, made upon the
'same .subject, will be followed by
The Executive feels that those
I who fail to act honorably in their
private affairs can hardly be expect
I ed to give full and adequate satis
I faction to the Government that
j employs them.
G. R. CARTER,
Buiit Me Up
IIsivi you boon, III? Arc ymi sdll
wile mid disRourngud Dm not )
Minngth ns fast ns yon thin, iu
ulioilld'1 Thou take u i;imd I 1111 ,
Miniutliiug that will aid vour tildes
llou uml build you up quickly.
if rw$ If I
w"Vft a r f rf 1 ' ' 'i
lleri U c, letter from fir. It. iljrrli. i f ,
.lr., M.T"rriiis,8u.AuMrull.i. Iluul -i .....h
".f"r a vciy pevornnttirlc of rl' - im. it1,
fovert HUiilcit l:iu cry w.-Jkoiiiii'i i it
w.is fjiri'd tint I emtlil nut ihw.i , till
tliro-Jeli. I nulla Rt no In lp lr. . . .
lii'illriiio. I It cl Ktiro tji.it uiilinw tl. r n, il
li'.'vn a vluniKi Jtnt nt tint tiini I r in
luva icemrriv!. lint n Iriciid tit n: mli. I
tikon Ayer' Kimaiiarlllt uml kt,ov Ui :i
(-I'letitlld tonlo It vtis. l.i lio tirtri-l tn tuny
It. I ran now tru'lilully mv th.it I To. Ii"t'. r
I'wn lifter tluillr.tilmo. Itpoanii.' I In Inula
Hid riirlitmi from tlin xery itrrt, nmt in .1
lew weak my rccutcry wm i-omtiloto."
There are many Imitation Hanrniarlllis.
Ho suruyuu j!t"Ayur'e."
Promiitly rornwt any tciulcnry to eiintl
pntionur rlli(ju9iie3. Ayur'n Vllfinro6Urar
coaled, easy to take, mild In nctinu.
Pi cprtd by Dr. J. C. Ayer Co., Lowell, Mm., II. S. A.
For Sale by HILO DRUG COMPANY.
Hilo Electric Light Co., Ltd.
Houses Wired and
In accordance with the rules of the Na
tional Hoard of Fire, Underwriters.
A complc!1 stock of
Fixtures, Shades, Table, lied and Desk
Lamps, etc., always on hand.
Fan Motors . . . $15
Fan Motors, swivel frame, 8
Sowing Machlno Motor 20
Power for operating them i n month
Installation clmrgid extra.
16 C.-P. Lamps, 26c Each,
Cash, at the Works.
Estimates furnished on all classes ol
Electrical Work and Contracts taken to
install apparatus complete.
J. Ivancovich & Go
SAN FRANCISCO, - CAL.
and OTHER ISLAND FRUITS
Tile Largest Importers of
Also, Deaters in Dates, Oramics.
Apples, Lemons, Limes, Potatoes, t
Onions and All Kinds of Nuts. F
L. C. SRESOVICH CO.
San Praticisco. - California
Subscribe for the Tkihunk,
Island subscription $2.50.
:i Foods i
Baby Foods and
HILO MARKET CO.,
Telephone No. 39.
Bitinhit St. - Hilo, H. I
Pacific Meat Market
Front St., Hilo, II. I,
Choice Cuts of
POULTRY of all Kinds
FRESH ISLAND BUTTER
Fine Fat Turkeys.
, . Sucking Pigs.
Draught Boor IO Cents
When you need a drink call
at the KEYSTONE, 'corner
Front and Pouohawai streets.
A first class line of
always on hand.
Uoa Lumber in small nnd large quanti
ties; well seasoned.
Furniture tiinde to order, any style
wanted. Repairs made on any kind ot
furniture. Prices moderate.
Sorrao Cabinet Shop.
Atmry to FOSE O. SERRAO.
Wilder's Steamship Co.
Change iu Sailing Time of
Steamer " M A U I "
Proin the Coast.
Commencing I'EHRUARY 5U1, 1904, the
Steamer "MAUI," l!.-unett, Master, will
bait from HONOLULU nt 5 p. m.
Willi Mail and Passengers.
Wildor's Steamship Co.
V ' si
rTfJiiwi HWi "i riTrrri w vnt