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FIRST BANK OF HILO
Incorporated Under the Laws of the
Territory of Hawaii.
CAPITAL, f joo.ooo.
rCACOCK HLOCK, HILO.
P. PUCK President.
C. C. KHNNHDY Vlcc-Prcs.
JOHN T. MOtK..3tnl Vlcc-l'rc.
C. A. 8TOIIIK Cnnlilcr.
TIIOS. C. KIIKSWAY, Secretary.
J. . Cnnnrlo, Jnlm J. Ornce,
1'. 8. I.yiiinn, II. V. Pntlcti,
Wm. Pullnr, V. II. Blilpnmn.
IDruw Uxcliuri((e oti
The Iauk or Hnwnii, Ltd Honolulu
Wells, Fargo & Co. IIank...S.ui Francisco
Wells. Fargo & Co's Hank New York
The Natiounl llnnk of the Re-1 chicauo
public ) ' N
Glynn, Mills, Cnrrlc & Co London
Hongkong-Shanghai Hank-1 Hongkong,
ing Corporation ) Chilli.
Hongkong-Shanghai Hunk-1 Slinnuliul.
ing Corporntion f China.
Hougkoug-Shanghai " ,u Uogo,
ing Corporation f, japan?
SAFE DEPOSIT BOXUS
Rented by the Month or Year. Par
ticulars on Application.
will stop it.
"PILO" eradicates dandruff,
stops falling of the hair and
keeps the hair and scalp in a
$1.00 Per Bottle.
Ti.n fi-,.,1 ntt n i iA
s iimuniuruy uu., llu.
Open from 5 A.M. to 11 P.M.
At Moderate Prices,
Mixnn and Fancy Drinks
Honolulu Primo Beer
Ten Cents a Class
J. C. SERRAO,
Matson Navigation Go.
The only Direct Line between San Fran
cisco and Ililo, Comprising the
following Fast Sailers
Bark ANNIE JOHNSON
Bark RODERICK DHU
Bark MARION CHILCOTT
Ship PALLS OF CLYDE
Tug CHAS. COUNSELMAN
mil other Specially Chartered vessels
makes this trip with at least one of these
boa in each mouth, carrying both Freight
For dates of sailing and terms,
J no. D. Sprechcls & Bros. Co,
337 Market St., San Francisco.
R. T. GUARD, Agent,
How to llulld and Keep hi Henaon
ably Good Repair.
Depth and fall of subdrniiis.
The depth to which drains should
be laid will depend upon the
character of the soil as well as the
depth of the frost line. These
drains can be placed parallel with
the surface of the road in rolling
countries, provided they have n
fall of not less than three-tenths of
a foot to each 100 feet. Outlets in
side ditches, or preferably into the
adjacent fields or streams, should
be provided as often as practicable.
The size of the drains will depend
upon the distance between out
lets as well as the grade of the
ditch. Ordinarily if the distance
is 500 feet or less, 3-inch pipe will
answer. If the distance is greater
than that, the size of the tile should
be increased about 1 inch in diaiuc
ter for every 400 feet in length.
In the prairie Stales, where the
roads arc practically level, it is
sometimes advisable, to construct
blind ditches of vitrified clay tiles,
into which the contents of the sub
drains above mentioned can be dis
charged. Water can be carried a
long distance in well-laid pipes
with but little fall. Six or 8-inch
pipes can be placed alongside the
road, with a fall of 1 inch to the
100 feet, if carefully laid, with the
discharge in a river or stream
Such drains can be run several
miles with the fall mentioned, and
their size increased, if necessary, as
they approach the place of dis
charge. The level road can then
be drained by giving the subdrains
a fall of about 3 inches to each 100
feet. The upper cud of thasj
drains can be from 12 to iS inches
below the surface, and the lower
end, where the discharge is made
into the large pipe, can be 3 or 4
feet below the surface. The ope
ration can then be repeated until
the entire surface is underdraiued.
Laying of subdrains. The great
est care should be exercised in the
laying of subdrains. They should
be carefully graded and should
have a continuous and even fall
throughout their entire length.
Butit requires no special engineer
ing skill or expensive instruments
to lay an ordinary tile drain. Any
intelligent farmer with a home
made level can do the work suffi
ciently well. If drains are not laid
with great care, low points are li
able to form where the mud and
sand will collect and reduce the
flow, and finally choke the drains
After the drains have been care
fully laid, the ditch should then be
half filled with rough, broken
stones, or if no stones are available,
with broken brickbats, coarse sand,
gravel, cinders, or some other im
perishable material. A little hay,
sod, or brush packed around the
tile to prevent silt from washing iu
and clogging the drains will be
useful. The ditch can then be
tamped full of firm earth. Care
should be exercised iu keeping the
drains open and unobstructed at
outlets. Underdrains are useless
unless outlets are provided; for if
the outlet is obstructed the water
is kept standing in the drains until
it soaks in and softens the found
The wearing surface of a road
must be, in effect, a roof; that is,
the section in the middle must be
the highest part, and the traveled
roadway should be made, by con
solidation, as impervious to water
as possible, so that the rainfall or
melting snow will flow freely and
quickly into the gutters alongside.
Probably the best shape for the
cross section of the earth road is an
arc of a circle with a gradual fall
from the center to the sides of
about 1 iu 20, after the surface has
been thoroughly rolled or compact
ed by traffic. Such a surface can
be constructed and repaired with
the road machine, and a roller can
be used upon it to good advantage.
When the surface is not kept
smooth and compact the crown
should be a little steeper than 1 111
20, but should under no circum
stances exceed 1 in 12. If the
crown is too great, the traffic will
follow the middle of the road, and
this will result iu making ruts and
THE WEEKLY HILO frklDUNii, HII.O, HAWAII, FRIDAY, MAY
ridges which retard the prompt
shedding of the water into the side
ditches. Too much crown is us
detrimental as too little.
Where new roads are to be built,
all stumps, roots, vegetable matter,
rocks, etc., should be removed
from the surface and the holes
should be filled iu with suitable
material, carefully and thoroughly
tamped. In forming a permanent
cmbankmeiit no perishable mat
erial should be used. If unsuit
able material is discovered iu the
subgrade, it should be removed
and replaced with good material
which should be tamped or rolled
until smooth and compact. As
stated above, the longitudinal
grade should be kept down to 3 or
4 per cent if possible and should
under no circumstances, except in
mountainous regions, exceed 5 per
cent; while that from the center to
the sides should be maintained at
about 5 per cent. After the road
bed has been brought to the re
quired grade and crown, a roller
should be secured and used iu con
solidatnig the material. All ruts
or depressions discovered during
the rolling should be leveled off
The width of the traveled way
will depend upon the requirements
of traffic. Sometimes 12 feet will
suffice, but 18, 24, and 40 feet are
the usual widths for the various
classes of country traffic. Where
the road is likely to be improved
with brick, stone, or gravel, suffi
cient width should be provided for a
nam roaa lor winter use nnu a
space alongside for summer use.
The right of way should be much
wiuer man me iraveieu way, m
order to provide for widening when
traffic requires it.
In level countries where the nat
ural drainage is poor it is very de
sirable that roads should be elevated
above the subgrade or surrounding
grounu. ior tins purpose me re
quired material may be secured by
widening tne siue excavations or
from cuttings on the line of the
roadway by means of road machines,
elevating graders, or modern dump
ing wagons, wnen me earth is
brought up to the desired level it
should be thoroughly mixed by
harrowing, then trimmed with a
road machine, and finally rolled
with a road roller, the weight of
which should be gradually increas
ed by ballast as the rolling pro
gresses. During the rolling the
surface should be sprinkled with
water if the character of the soil
requires such aid for its proper con
solidation. The crown of the road
way should be carefully maintained
during the rolling by the addition
of earth as needed.
On clay roads a thin layer of
sand, gravel, or ashes will prevent
the sticking of clay to the roller or
to the wheels of vehicles. Clay
soils as a rule absorb water quite
freely and soften when "saturated,
but water does not pass tlirough
them readily. When used alone
clay is the least desirable of all
road materials, but roads composed
of clay may be treated with sand or
small gravel from which a com
paratively hard and compact mass
is formed, which is nearly imper
vious to water. Material of this
character found in the natural state
commonly known as "hardpan"
makes, when properly applied, a
very solid and durable road. ' In
soil composed of a mixture of sand,
gravel, and clay, all that is neces
sary to make a good road is to crown
the surface, keep the ruts and holes
filled, and the ditches open and
While clay alone never makes a
good road, except in dry weather,
sand alone never makes a good road
except when wet. The more the
drainage of a sand road is improved
the more deplorable becomes its
condition. Nothing will ruin one
quicker than to dig a ditch on each
side and drain all the water away.
The best way, therefore, to make
such a road firm is to keep it con
stantly damp. This can be done
by planting shade trees along
side to prevent the evaporation of
water, of by growing upon the sur
face of such sand roads a thick
turf, preferably Bermuda grass.
Roads running through loose sand
may be improved by mixing clay
with the sandand slightly crowning
For the temporary improvement
of earth or sand roads, any strong,
fibrous substance, especially if it
holds moisture, such as refuse of
sugar-cane or sorghum, and even
common straw, flax, swamp grass
or pine needles will be useful.
Spent tan bark is sometimes bene
ficial, and wood fiber in any form
is excellent. Enough sand or
earth should be thrown over such
roads to keep them damp and to
protect them from catching fire.
Earth is composed of small, ir
regular fragments which touch
each other at points, leaving voids
between. When the earth is bro
ken up and pulverized these voids
are almost equal in volume to" the
solid particles, and as a result the
earth will absorb almost an equal
volume of water. In the building
or maintaining of earth roads it is,
therefore, very desirable that these
small, irregular particles be pressed
and packed into as small a space as
possible, in order that surplus water
may not pass in and destroy the
stability of the road. To this end
rolling is very beneficial. The
work of maintaining dirt roads
will be much increased by lack of
care in properly rolling the surface.
After the material has been
placed on the surface, it should
not be left for traffic to consolidate
or for rains to wash off into the
ditches, but should be carefully
surfaced and then rolled. If loose
earth is left in the middle of a road,
the narrow-tire wheels will cut it
and knead it into uneven ridges
and ruts, which hold water, and
this ultimately results, if in the
winter season, in a sticky, muddy
surface, and in dry weather in
covering the surface with dust.
If, however, the surface be crowned
with a road machine and properly
rolled with a heavy roller, it can
usually be made sufficiently firm
and smooth to sustain the traffic
without deep rutting and to resist,
in a large measure, the penetrating
action of the water. Such work
should be done while the soil is in
a plastic state, when it will pack.
The rolling not only consolidates
the small particles of earth and
leaves less space for water, but puts
the road in proper shape for travel
immediately. If there is anything
more trying on man or beast than
traveling over an unimproved road,
it must be to travel over one which
has just been worked by the slip
shod methods followed in many
(To be continued.)
Quarantine OMccrs Exerclslnir Pre
cautious A Kill nst Yellow Fcror.
Owing to the danger of infection
with yellow fever from the Pacific
Coast towns of South America,
special attention is being paid by
the Surgeon General of the United
States Marine Hospital Service to
the sanitary condition of passengers,
fruits and vessels arriving from
those ports. Instructions have al
so been issued to be observed by all
American vessels at foreign ports
where yellow fever prevails.
Special precautions are required
to be taken not to expose the crew
to danger of contracting fever by
means of infected mosquitos. The
regulations in this particular are as
follows: Water tanks, water buckets
and other collections of water about
the vessel should be guarded in
such manner that they shall not
become breeding places for mos
quitos. The destruction of mos
quitos aboard must be insured as
far as possible by the simultaneous
fumigation 2 pounds of sulphur
per 1,000 cubic feet, all openings
closed for two hours of all com
partments which can be so treated
without injury to the cargo. Pyre-
trum powder, taking care to sweep
up and destroy the mosquitos, may
be substituted in the engine room
at the option of the medical officer.
The vessel should sail immediately
after this fumigation is completed.
Cronstadt, Russia, April 26. It
is reported that an attempt has
been made to destroy the Russian
battleship Alexander Third at this
port by a bomb,
Wlion you aro weak, nervous, and
nil run down, everything Rectus to no
wrong. Ayor'sSarsaparllln will build
you up, nmko your norvus strong, and
givo you pure, rich blood. Iloro Is
what a nurso of largo oxporionco says
Bin. E. B. Chorpoll, Stawclt, Victoria,
Bonds os tier photograph, and writes I
" I hare boon a nurso for thlrty-flvo years,
and I tako great plcamiro in recording my
ozpcrlcnco with Aycr'a Barftaparilla and
Arcr's Pills. I liaro used tlicso medicines In
dflTcrcnt parts of tho world, both for myself
and my patients. I havo liad crcat success
with tlicm, especially In cases of nervous
prostration, Impuro blood, skin dlscascs.and
weakening Illnesses In general. I most
heartily recommend tlicso medicines to all
sufferers from any of tho obovo-natucd dis
Thcro are many Imitation Sarsanarlllas.
Ho sure you got "Ayer's."
Ayer's I'llls enro constipation. Sugar
coated, mild, but cllcctlvo.
Prtfurtd by Dr. J. C. Arer Co., Lowell, Mm., U. S. A.
For Sale by HILO DRUG COMPANY.
Hilo Electric Light Co., Ltd.
Houses Wired and
In accordance with the rules of the Na
tional Hoard of Fire Underwriters.
A complete stock of
Fixtures, Shades, Table, lied and Desk
Lamps, etc., always on hand.
Fan Motors . . . $10
Fan Motors, swivel frame, 18
Sowing Machine Motor 20
Power for operating tlicui $ 1 a mouth
Installation charged extra.
16 C.-P. Lamps, 25c Each,
Cash, at tho Works.
Estimates furnished on all classes of
Electrical Work and Contracts taken to
O O ML
CD I taB
J. Ivancovich & Go.
SAN FRANCISCO, - CAL.
and OTHER ISLAND FRUITS
The Largest Importers of
Also, Dealers in Dates, OraiiL'es.
Apples, Lemons, Limes, Potatoes, f
Onions and All Kinds of Nuts. P
L. C. SRESOVICH CO. t
San Francisco. California
PACIFIC TRANSFER CO.
Haudk and Store $ AG GAGE
I2G KING ST. HONOLULU
Phone, Malu 5 i
i Foods I
Baby Foods and
HILO MARKET CO.,
Telephone No. 39.
Bkiugr St. - Hilo, H. I
if ic Heat Market
Front St., Hilo, H. I,
Choice Cuts of
POULTRY of all Kinds
FRESH ISLAND BUTTER
Fine Fat Turkeys.
. . Sucking Pigs.
Draught Boor IO Conts
When you need a drink call
at the KEYSTONE, corner
Eront and Pouohawai streets.
A first class line of
always on hand. .'
Koa Lumber in small and large quanti
ties; well seasoned.
Furniture made to order, anv stvle
wanted. Repairs made on any kind ot
furniture. Prices moderate.
Sorrao Cabinet Shop.
Apply to OSE G. SERRAO.
Wilder's Steamship Go.
Change iu Sailing Time of
From the Coast.
Commencing FEBRUARY 5th, 1904, the
Steamer "MAUI," Henuett, Master, will
sail from HONOLULU at 5 p. tn.
With Mall and Passengers.
Wilder's Steamship Co.