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At the lequest of numerous public
school teachers and others interested
in 1 he subject the second part of
Mr V. II
"Philology" dclivcted lit the Hilo
Teachers' Union on Ktiday, Octo
lcr 7th, is hcicwilh published for
the benefit of Tut HUNK readers.
The second part of this paper
will he devoted to some remarks
concerning the thitd order of lan
guages, the inflective, mentioned
hefore, and to the principles hy
which relationship among them is
established, with some illustrations
thereof. This is such a vast field of
reseat eh that what I have to say
can he at best but fragmentary and
incomplete; the mote as those who
have devoted their lives to the sub
ject differ from one another so rad
ically on many points.
Some things, however, have been
settled: among them this, that the
languages properly called inflective
are divided into two great families,
which may have n common origin,
but show absolutely no trace of it,
either in vocabulary or grammar.
These two great families are the
Semitic, and Iudo-Kuropean, the
latter also variously called the
Aryan or Indo-Germauic. 01 the
Semitic I shall say little because I
know less, my actual study of
languages themselves not having
extended to this group, so that
what I do say must be at second
hand. The group includes the
Biblical Hebrew, with the allied
dialects of the Moabitcs and tlic
Phonicians and Carthaginians; also
the dialects known as Aramaic the
members of which arc no longer
used in living speech, and include
the Chaldee of the Bible, and Tal
mud. The Samaritan and the
Syriac. The people of Syria,
Abyssinia, and Arabia also speak
dialects of the Semitic, so called be
cause the peoples who use it are
the son of Noah. Of these modern
dialects the Arabian, as the sacred
language of a conquering people,
the followers of Mohammed, has
been carried since the Seventh
Century over that part of the world
which Latin colonies once occupied:
it is the speech of the whole north
ern border of Africa; it has crowd
ed out the other Semitic branches,
and has filled with its words the
Persian, Turkish, and Hindustani,
j and to a less extent the Malay and
Spanish vocabularies. Under stim
ulus of a religous war cry, "There
! is no god but god, and Mohammed
) is bis prophet," an unimportant
I dialect from a barren land has left
I indelible marks upon human
1 speech from the China sea to the
! Hay ol Biscay, among alien races,
! speaking tongues utterly foreign in
origin and character. If three
lourths ofSpanish is I.atin rather
than Semitic because Hannibal,
, the great Caithiginian, died an
exile s ueatli in i,yma, no incon
siderable portion of the remaining
fourth is Semitic rather than I.atin
I because an obscure Arab in the
Sixth Century had epileptic visions
I at Medina.
If Semitic has thus been the
language of many peoples and of
two great religions, the Jewish and
I Mohammedan, the other family of
1 the inflective order, the Indo
I Kuropeau, has been in its various
ramifications, the language of the
'world's greatest nations, and of the
peoples among whom Christianity,
the offshoot of Judaism, has reach
ed its highest development.
j One of the dialects of ludo
j Kuropeau is the language in which
' this paper is written; other dialects
j are the language of the Vedas
1 the sacred books ol India, of the
Zend-Avesta of the Persian fire
worshipers, ofthe poems of Homer,
the orations of Demosthenes, and
the odes of Horace; of the Niebe
lungeulied of Germany and those
1 modern epics of Poland, the his-
liuriL.u nuveih 01 DieuKewicz. tucio
Kuropeau was the tongue of lue
I Celtic druid in the gloomy forests
I ofOld Knglaud, and Indo-Kuropeau
is lllc to"K,Ui of H Celtic alderman
r()1" 'retaiui, lord ol lus own saloon
on the Ivast side of New York City.
I liougli tlie language ol this paper
- J;w,i .ii,, , Ifrfriifo.-a crm'0.mil,-fiii.f.mAM ...
j much that of the Hiu'.loos either
I Ancient or Modem, I'Cobably every
word I hnc tfXecl cam be tiaced
back to an original used by the
ancestors of both. The Anglo
Saxon beside biiiug a cousin to the
j Hindoo is nephew of old D.uius
and of the fellow who tried to put
a Btooklyu hi idgetu'rojss the Helles
pont, and of that one, perhaps the
same, who hanged I Hainan on a
gallows 50 cubits high; but he is no
earthly relation so far as we know
to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, or
to their descendents, who neverthe
less thrive so well among nu alien
race in these modern days, and
compose about a quarter of the
population of the City of New York
and still have a few left over for
Chicago and San Francisco.
Thus we see that our family, the
Itido-Kuropcau, runs .right up
through Western Central Asia, from ,
the Indian Ocean, leaving the Ag
glutinativcs on one side and the
Semites on the other; crosses the
Mediterranean, and with the ex
ception of the Huns, Turks, Laps
and Fins, occupies the whole of the
Continent of Hurope. traverses the
Atlantic and occupies North and 1
South America, with the exception j
of Indians not taxed and Negroes
not lynched; embarks on the 1
appropriates Hawaii at the
request of everybody except the
Hawaiiaus, and turns bad Tagalogs
into good ones in the Philipines by
the time honored method applied to
the American Indian, a method that
seems to he as old with the Indo-
Kuropeau race as the roots of their
The general relationship of these
various and widely separated dia
lects of the mother tongue was re
cognized clearly from the time of
Sir U'illiam Jones, whom I referred
to above; he was followed in the
latter part of the last century by a
number of distinguished scholars,
mostly Germans, who systematized
the work of investigation and put
it upon a scientific basis. The two
most distinguished of these were
Francis Bopp and Jacob Grimm,
the latter the writer of the fairy
stories so fatuous the world over.
Bopp demonstrated the relationship
by a comparison of grammars, and
Grimm by the famous law called
after his name, which shows that
many of the common words of every
day life in Sanskrit, Greek, Latin,
Russian, German, and English are
the same, though varying some-1
what tu form in accordance wixh
the principles of Griui's I.aw.
I will now give a few illustrations
ofthe results obtained by the com
parative grammar method, followed
by a list of some words common to
these various languages, though
with certain dissimilarities of form
in accordance with the principles
above referred to.
First then taking up the personal
terminations ol the verbs 111
the Indo-European group, I
will show the present tense of our
English verb "to be," in certain
languages of the group.
Skt. Grk. I.nt.
As-nii Hs-inl (H)s-m-iu
Skt. Ork. Kit. A. S.
(A)s.mas I.mes (K)sw-mus t?)s;.nd
(A)s-tha lisle lis-tis (?sAud
(A)Mi-uli Ii(s).nti tli)s;-nt (?)s-nd
For the above Anglo-Saxon form
"siud" there had been substituted
in Chaucer's time (the latter portion
of the 14th century), the form
"ben" for instance, "we ben,"
"they ben," etc. Some time later
this was displaced by 'are," which
is in use today.
I have used this verb because it
presents perhaps more fully than j
any other the system of personal!
endings in these and other Indo-1
Kuropeau dialects. A number of j
these endings you will find worn j
down considerably or entirely lack
ing in most of the regular verbs ,
used 111 Greek and Latin, of the
Classical Period, and none of them
survive in the recular Kuelish
verbs of to-day, except the ending
!of the t,lird ',erson Cwlnr, which
appears 111 the torni "s, 111 the
regular verbs, though it is missing
in the verb "Is."
Xow for certain illustrations of
(Continued 011 Page Six.)
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