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No amount of care enn keep
noxious insects o U t of the
house, but they need not be
harbored. They speedily meet
thoir doom if you will use our
freely. Kills nuts, roaches
bed bugs, water blips and all
other varieties of insect in
truders. Money bark 7f it
fails. 25 cents a bottle.
II. L. SHAW, - Manaokk
SERUM UPR GO.
Complete Stock of Finest Table
Wines, Beers, Whiskies, Gins,
Brandies and Liqueurs.
Sole Agent for
Serrao Block, Shipman Street
Telephone No. 7
THE UNION SALOON
Always on Hand:
Of Wines, Liquors, Beers
Mixed Drinks a Specialty
Draught and Bottled
lOo Per Class
Telephone No. 7
J. G. SERRAO, - Manager
Direct Line between SAN FRANCISCO
Hark St. Catharine, Capt. Saunders
Bark Amy Turner, Capt. Warland
Uark Martha Davis, Capt. McAUman
For freight and passage apply to
WELCH & CO., Agents, San Francisco
C. BREWER & CO., Ltd., Agents,
H. Hackfeld &Co., Ltd.
Union Barber Shop.
CANARIO & STONE, Props
Wo Shave, Cut Hair and
Shampoo at Lot-Livo Rates
All razors cleaned with antiseptics after
Perfumes of the fineM. quality kept in
stock, a trial of which is solicited.
We also take particular pains with Chil
Union Building, Walauueuue St.
WH. G. IRWIN & CO., Ltd.
National Cane Shredders,
Alex. Cross & Sons' Sugar Cane
and Coffee Fertilizers.
SILVER AND PLATED WARE
J.D. KENNEDY Jowoler
THE LABOR PROBLEM IN
HAWAII A SERIOUS ONE.
Governor Carter Reports on Labor Conditions in Is
landsAmerican Homesteader and Small Farmer a
Failure Chinese and Portuguese Laborers Desired
No Relief Means Ruin
Most tropical sugnr-growiiig j
countries either possess an indige
nous laboring population, available
for the cultivation of sugar cane, or
have within easy reach people who
are readily obtainable for tropical
field work, and whose physique and
constitution enable them to under
take such field work without fear
of injury to their health.
"There is not such an indigenous
j population here to supply the de
mands, and the tendency of the
native population is not toward
field work. They make good me
chanics, and a portion ot these are
engaged in a variety of trades? Imj
agricultural labor appears to be dis
tasteful to them, and the number
employed on sugar estates is small.
This being so, it has for many J cars
been necessary to promote immigra
tion of field laborers to the islands,
and many countries have been
drawn from. There has been reg
ularly conducted emigration from
Germany, Norway and Sweden,
Azores, Madeira, Portugal, Galicia,
China, Japan, and Porto Rico, be
sides which British, Americans,
Italians, and negroes (from the
United States) have come in small
"Under the laws of the Kingdom
and later of the Republic of Hawaii,
immigration from European coun
tries was assisted by the govern-
lment and industrial interests of
Hawaii. Since annexation to the
United States it has entirely ceased,
as assisted immigration is prohibited
by the United States immigration
laws, and it is quite impossible to
direct a voluntary immigration from
Kurope direct to Hawaii, the great
distance and expense of tiansporta
tion being insurmountable obstacles
in the way of such voluntary immi
gration. "So far as the Europeans and
Americans are concerned, it has,
with one exception, been found
that they were unfitted for tropical
field work; they could not and
would not perform it, and never for
long labor as 'field hands.' The
one exception noted is that of the
Portuguese from Madeira and the
Azores, who showed themselves
capable of performing good field
work. The improved condition of
their own countries 110 longer ne
cessitating emigration, these people
show no disposition now to come
to the islands, and even if they
wer,e willing to emigrate to Hawaii
the laws of the United States would
hinder them from receiving that
assistance without which emigra
tion would for them be impossible.
And here it may be stated that if
other Europeans can be found who
could endure labor in the cane
fields of Hawaii, the immigration
laws would render them unable.
The geographical position of these
islands and the great distances
which such emigrants would have
to travel would necessitate their
being assisted in ways which are
prohibited by the laws, as they
cannot' themselves meet the cost.
Of the Portuguese who originally
came to Hawaii as assisted emi
grants, those who did not go to the
mainland have so prospered that
now they do not engage to any
I large extent as plantation laborers
and their children, by the aid of
the excellent Hawaiian free-school
system, have fitted themselves for
more congenial occupation than
field labor affords.
NATIVK LABOK IMI'OSSIM.K
"It must be remembered that the
Hawaiian Islands are situate south
of the Tropic of Cancer, between
the nineteenth and twenty-first de
grees of longitude, consequently on
or about the same level with, for
instance, Vera Cruz, Matizanillo,
Hongkong, Bombay and Burmah,
Cuba, Formosa, and Mexico City.
"The impossiblity of securing a
'i'ilK VJtUKlV 1111.0 TMilUNt', 1111,0,
to Sugar Industry.
sufficient supply of Hawaiian or
other laborers able to endure the
work in cane fields forced the
planters of these islands into a
reliance on China and Japan for the
necessary supply. The Chinese
have always proved themselves to
be a law-abiding, docile, and in
dustrious people, but the United
States exclusion laws shut out this
nationality from Hawaii ns soon as
annexation became an accomplish
ed fact, and the only present prac
ticable source of supply is Japan,
though a small number have come
"Since the annexation of these
islands the difficulty of maintaining
aii adequate supply of agricultural
field laborers has been very great.
Chinese are absolutely prohibited,
and while the Japanese still come,
the number of immigrant laborers
hardly balances the number of
Chinese and Japanese who return
monthly to the their homes, and
the scarcity of labor has enhanced
"There exists in the minds of
some, who are unfamiliar with the
nature of field work in a tropical
cane field, the impression that
white men can perform the work,
ana that the proper way to con
duct a sugar plantation is to divide
the land into small lots and give
them to white men td- cultivate in
stead of doing the work of culti
vation by day laborers working-4br
a wage under one coutrolliug
"A list of the nationalities that
have tried field work in Hawaii
has already been given. Today
there are no white men laboring in
cane fields here. Those who have
tried it have never stayed by it for
any length of time, and abundant
evidetice is forthcoming that the
white man cannot and will not
stand the work of tropical cane
AMERICANS A FAILURE.
"Some little time ago the man
agement of the Ewa plantation, on
the island of Oahu, decided to ex
periment with American farmers.
Fifteen families of highly respect
able people were carefully selected
in the Western States, and all their
expenses paid to the plantation,
where houses had beeu erected for
them, each with a garden patch
surrounding it, and where a large
patch of 'common land' had been
set apart for their use as pasture
for such stock as they desired to
keep. Here they were given lots
to cultivate in cane, and every help
was rendered in the way of plowing
and preparing their fields, but not
withstanding this and all the Ewa
Plantation Company expended on
this effort to raise cane by white
farmers, these people were n6t able
to perform the necessary labor, and
they drifted away by degrees, so
that in about a year none of the
fifteen families was left. Other ex
periments of a similar nature have
been made with like results.
"In connection with the question
of 'homesteading' and of encourag
ing small farming, it is proper here
to point out that all the lands
cultivated by plantation companies,
who find it necessary to irrigate be
cause of the uncertainty of the
rainfall, were either arid wastes or
poor pasture lands before they were
acquired by these companies, who
sank artesian wells, established ex
pensive pumping plants, or con-
constructed extensive water ditches
and pipe lines, and at great cost
poured water over the lands and
made agriculture thereon a possi
bility. If development by home
steads only had been possible the
lauds which are now cane fields
would be in their primitive con
dition, because their irrigation was
only rendered possible by the in
HAWAII, 'I'UJWDAV, JANUARY ,1, 1905.
vestment of n large nniotint of
"With the largely iucrensed
world production of sugar, it is
only with diffiulty that cane can be
grown here with a profit. The
remoteness of these islands from
the world's market and the cost of
production are factors to be con
DKSIKAIILK LAIIOKINQ 1'UOl'I.K.
"It would beof great advantage
to the agricultaral interests of these
islands if the United States im
migration lauscottld be so amend
ed ns to permit the assisting of a
desirable class of Portuguese labor
ers from the Azores or neighboring
islands, or if there could be n modi
fication of the Chinese exclusion
act permitting the immigration to
these islands of a limited number
of Chinese agricultural lalurcrs.
such laborers to be restricted to
agricultural labor and domestic
service, and strictly prohibited from
engaging in mechanical and mer
cantile pursuits; such immigration
to be so regulated that the identity
of each laborer may be ascertained
and a tecord kept thereof, and that
he mav be required at the end of
from three to five years from the
data of his at rival in these islands
to dep.irt therefrom, and that such
laborer be not permitted to go from
these islands to the mainland. The
Organic Act tukes care of this now.
No Chinese can go to the mainland
"Under the existing laws of im
migration it is impossible to get
immigrant classes from Europe or
other occidental countries. Hawaii
is 5,000 miles from the point where
the great numbeis of immigrants
land in the United States. Ha
waiian interests have tried the ex
periment of bringing immigrants
from the Atlantic ports of the
United States to Hawaii, and have
failed. We are, therefore, forced
to take immigrants from "the Orient
or go without, and to go without
means the ruin of Hawaiian in
dustries, a condition that the Con
gress of the United States cannot
afford to permit, much less to exist,
as it certainly would be making a
failure of the industrial situation in
Hawaii by the continued application
of such a drastic measure. No
class of American citizens would be
injured by the special legislation
above referred o, permitting a re
stricted immigration of field labor
ers from China; on the contrary,
the interests of all Hawaiian citizens
and producers, as well as of the
planters themselves, would be
furthered by such legislation. The
population thus created would in
crease the Hawaiian market for
American products and be for the
direct interests of workmen on the
Pacific coast and in all industries
supplying goods to the Territory,
while it would not be a competing
element upon the mainland.
"By the acquisition of dUtant
territory in the Pacific Ocean the
domain of the United States is
extended in such a degree that in
making laws existing conditions
should be recognized. In matters
of immigration, the restrictions
which are required for the pro
tection of the mainland may be
very injurious for distant posses
sions, and a distinction should be
mads by special legislation, so that
classes not desired on the mainland
can be excluded, and the distant
possessions provided for as their
needs may require."
Medals for garter and Atkinson.
Two letters addressed to Gover
nor Carter and Secretary Atkinson,
written in Spanish, weie received
at the Capitol yesterday. Their
contents translated nre as follows:
"We have the honor to notify
you that the Honorable Philippine
International Jury for the Exposi
tion, under the Presidency of the
Secretary of War, Hon. Win. H.
Taft, has awarded you a medal of
honor of the first class, with Grand
"Congratulating you on this
merited distinction, and acknowl
edging again your enthusiastic par
ticipation in literature, in which
the Philippine Islands have ex
celled in a most notable manner, we
jhave the honor to be,
"Very respectfully yours,
"Secretary of the Superior Jury.
"I.EON M. GUERRERO,
"Assistant Secretary of the Superior
The letters are a sin prise to Gov
ernor Carter who is not aware of
having done any work in the liter
ary line which might merit this distinction,
v 11AII UAIILMMAMMi !
HiishIhih Arc lleiniNod.
Oku's headquarter, Manchuria,
Dee. 23. Several Russian attacks
have been repulsed.
UiiMKiitus Itoporl an Advance.
Mukden, Manchuria, Dec. 23.
The Russians have advanced their
siege guns four miles south.
IIIK Naval Hultlc Impeded.
Loudon, Dec. 23. Admiral Ka
mimtira commands the flying squad
ron which has gone to meet Rod
jestvensky. Togo's battleship squad
ron, with cruisers and destroyers
follows within reach by wireless.
It is believed that when Kamimura
sights the Russian fleet he will
notify Togo, who will at once steam
'up and join in the battle.
China Seizes Ammunition.
Peking, Dec. 23. The Chinese
government has seized -3,000,000
rounds of rifle ammunition con
signed to Russians in Tientsin and
1 intended for Port Arthur.
Tokio, Jap.tu, Dec. 27. The
Russians demand ihe restitution of
the three million rounds of ammu
nition seized at Fctigjlai by the Chi
nese. They claim the am munition
was intended for Legation Guard
and not for Port Arthur.
Jnps Capture Important I'olnt.
Tokio, Japan, Dec. 24. The Jap
anese forces at Port Arthur have
captured Hanyaugshakou Heights.
General Koudratneko has been
killed and General Pock wounded.
Admiral Togo is withdrawing his
vessels and the Japanese batteries
are reaching the Sevastopol. It is
expected they will be able to des
troy the vessel.
Freedom of Travel Stopped.
St. Petersburg, Russia, Dec. 24.
Russia is preparing to abolish the
St. Petersburg, Dec 24. The
projected leforrhs include an exten
sion of the power of the Zemstvos
and an increase in the powers of the
Land Council, thus crystalizmg
the views of the Witte Commission.
Czar Issues Edict.
St. Petersburg, Dec. 26. The
Czar has issued a reform ukase.
He promises the enforcement of ex
isting laws, assures the Zemstvos
of the extension of the sphere of
self-government, promulgates a
woikingman's insurance plan, and
extends the liberty of the press.
Russians Make No Reply.
Shanghai. Dec. 26. The Russian
consul at this place has not replied
to the demand made by the Taotai
of Shanghai for the surrender of
the Russian sailor of the cruiser
Askold, for thf murder of a Chinese
on December 15.
Japs Were Surprised.
Mukden, Dec. 26. Volunteers
croossed the Shakhe river yesterday
and surprised and killed 100 Japa
nese. Will View the Slcire.
. Tokio, Dec. 26. The Manshu
Maru has sailed for Port Arthur
with members of the Diet to view
the progress of the siege.
Capture Strong Positions.
Chefoo, Dec. 26. It is reported
that the Japanese have captured
strong positions behind Iiaotishan,
cutting off the supply bases of the
Russian main force. The Japanese
attacked the northern defences on
the 22nd and suffered heavy loss.
Subscribe for the Tkihunk.
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Call at Tribune Office
W'hoti tlio lilooil is pnro and tlio
hmvcls iiro regular, thoro need lio but
lilt lo fear of sickness. Kuup two fjrand
medicines In tlio limisot and use thorn
whoa jim first begin to fool poorly,
lioi'owiry tlll ho prompt, audsorlous
?tr. rrcd Pierce, who reside at 8011th Ter
r 're, Adelaide, So. Australia, Bunds tills let.
" Tor oino jcnrn I Ilito liocn n boundary
rider uiiwiinoiir tliu tit northern Miccp anil
eittlo nutloin. I had wvarn attack of lie
1 locution, und my IiIihmI would nftPti get ycty
Impure. My xkln would lie entered with
lilotclint.nwl my general IhmIUi jre,tly at
Irrtcd. Wlii"nocr tlifno nttaekn would coma
I would iiroctiro Ayer'n Hirfl.iarlll& anil
Acr' I'dln. I nlwiiy round tint tlm Harm--p.irllli
would quickly purify my lilood mid
Rtrentlivn my digestion; wlillo tlio pills'
would correct my constipation and bllloua
1 1.0 it,."
Tlicro nro miny Imitation Sironarffias.
I!o wiru jou get "A)cr'."
Tnpircl by Dr. J. C. Aytr Co., Lowell, Mm., U. S. A.
For Sale by HILO DRUG COMPANY
Matson Navigation Go.
The only Direct Line, between Sau Fran
cisco and Hilo, Comprising the
following Past Sailers
Bark ANNIE JOHNSON
Bark RODERICK DHU
Bark MARION CHILCOTT
Ship FALLS OF CLYDE
Tug CHAS. COUNSELMAN
nd other Specially Chartered vessels
makes this trip with at least one of these
boats each month, carrying both Freight
For dates of sailing and terms,
no. D. Spreckela & Bros. Go,
337 Market St., San Francisco.
R. T. GUARD, Agent,
FOR RATES, BLANKS, ETC.
E. E. RICHARDS
AGENT INTER-ISLAND TELE
GRAPH CO., HILO.
Waiakea Boat House
R.A.LUCAS & CO., Prop'rs.
WAIAKEA BRIDGE, HII.0
HAVE NOW A FLEET OP
and Small Boats
FOR PUI1LIC HIRE
1 assenjfers and u.igjjnge taken to nnd
from vessels in the harbor tit reasonnbb
rates, Launches and rowboats to hire
ior priyate picnics and moonlight rides.
RING UP ON TELEPHONE
Wolverine Gasoline Engine
Self-starter and reversible engine. In
practicability it is equal to the steam en
gine. Sizes from I ti. p. upwards.
Boats fitted with this engine or frames ot
any size to .order. For particulars apply
to R, A, LUCAS 'Manager
ill W 1