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THK $iviKI,Y III 1.0 TRIBUNHi HII.0, HAWAII, TOUSftAY, AUGUST 22, 1905.
TO KILL MOSQUITOS.
An Instructive Article by D. L. Van Dine, Entomolo
gist Hawaii Experimental Station, on Mosquitos in
Hawaii First Introduction of Pest Widespread Area
of Habitat How to Remedy the Evil.
Previous to the year 1826 mos
quitoes were unknown Hi Hawaii.
During that year they were brought
to the port of Lahaina, on the Is
land of Maui, in the ship "Welling
ton" from San Was, Mexico. The
story, as told by the laic Rev. Wm.
Utrhnnta. at the time in charcc of
the Mission Station at Lahaina, is
as follows: Mr. Richards was re
turning to Lahaina one evening and
met a native who informed him
that there was a new "fly" in the
place. The native described the
insect as being a very peculiar "fly"
that made its presence known by
"a singing in the car." Shortly
after this, Mr. Richards being on
the outlook for the new fly, heard
the "singing" in his ear and recog
nized the bound as that of the mos
quito, which up to that time had
never been seen or heard of in the
Islands. Furthermore, there was
no word in the Hawaiian language
for mosquito. The native term is
"makika," a corruption ofthe word
mosquito. Lahaina was at the time
the port for incoming and outgoing
ship?. It is easy to understand that
the ships coming here were few and
far between and how general opin
ion could center on the ship "Well
ington" as the carrier of the pest.
The mosquitoes were a long time
spreading over the Islands. Two
generations ago there were many
districts entirely free from this pest.
Today such places are exceptional.
In the eighties there were no mos
quitoes on Kalawao on the same
island as Lahaina. Mokawao is
some fifty miles from Lahaina "as
the crow flies," with a mountain
range nearly six thousand feet in
elevation intervening. The build
ing of roads, making settlements
and communication possible, and
the intimate luter-islanu commum
cation of late years,
the distribution of this pest, that
some species aic known to breed in
solt or brackish water.
All insects undergo during their
developmental period remarkable
changes in form, structure and
habits. One can certainly detect
no resemblance between the wrig
gling larva of the mosquito in the
water and the adult winged insect
in the air.
The eggs of the common mos
quito, Culex, are deposited on the
surface of standing water. Under
the right conditions of temperature
they hatch in about twenty-four
hours, The larvae develop to their
full size in the course of eight to
fourteen days during which time
they moult or cast off their outer
covering several times to provide
for increase in size. The develop
ment of the larvae depends on the
temperature of the water and the
food supply. Their food consists of
the plant and animal matter, often
microscopical in size, common to
The pupa of the mosquito is also
aquatic, normally resting inactive
at the surface. This is the period
during which the mosquito trans
forms from an aquatic insect to one
of the air. The young or growing
stage has yassed. The pupa takes
no food and moves only when dis
turbed as a matter of protection. In
two or three days the pupa trans
forms to the adult mosquito and
becomes the notorious household
pest, its entire life being a matter
of eleven to eighteen days.
The only remedy for adult mos
quitoes is protection by screening,
or burning insect powder. These
remedies bring only temporary re
lief and do not remove the source
ofthe nuisance. The importance,
then, of not allowing mosquitoes to
develop beyond the pupal or final
I j-aalA 1 tnrvn ! iiiiiilniif nTst iwnn.
has so favored I il,iimilv- awK. ""-i- l""-
tical meteod 01 destroying adult
mosquitoes is known.
onlv a few places at the higher ele
vations can offer to visitors the in-1 The length of the life of adult
ducement that the district is free mosquitoes varies. It is difficult to
from mosquitoes. 8et nsects l0 rcPeat correctly in
The abundance of mosquitoes in I confinement what their life-history
Hawaii may be accounted for by
the facts that up to this time there
has been no effort to do away with
their breeding places, that the num
ber of natural breeding places is
unusually large, and the pest is not
checked at any season of the year
by climate conditions, it being pos
sible for them to breed uninterrup
tedly during the entire year.
Dr. L. 0. Howard, Entomologist
of the Dapartmeut of Agriculture,
Mountains, New York, the success
of which became widely known
throughout the United States.
Since that time it has been repeat
edly demonstrated in different mosquito-ridden
sections of the country
that it is unnecessary for any com
munity to submit to the mosquito
nuisance, particularly convincing
and habits would be under natural
conditions; thcrefoic the length of
the adult cannot be determined by
experiment. As a rule the males
of insects do not live any great
length of time after maturity, and
the females die soon after deposit
ing their eggs. In a tropical coun
try, like Hawaii, where no difficul
ty is encountered by the gravid fe
male in securing favorable breeding
places throughout the year, the
1 n m lla aT flirt laal4- 1 t a 4 r. art a! Ifcl
the summer of 'L"Kl" UJ lUK "l,mi ",c " I"""-"'
in the Catskill ' at lle in0bt ly a matter of .several
weeks. In cold countries the male
mosquitoes arc known to die in the
early winter and the females hiber
nat during the cold season, a period
of several mouths, until suitable
conditions for egg-laying prevails.
The adult mosquito is a very fee
ble flyer and is usually fotimd in
the vicinity of its breeding place.
are the experiments being carried Instances are on record where mos
0.1 in the State of New Jersey in quitoes have been carried in large
which Dr. J. IJ. Smith of the New
Jersey Experiment Station is tak
ing an active interest.
The development of the mosquito,
that is. tho interval between the
numbers for long distances by the
wind, but invasions from one locali
ty to another are exceptional. It
can be stated without qualifications
that the source of mosquitoes is
a . I ntinn11ia link Iti Mtnilinln Kimiiitii nt
egg state and the adult winged " i "'"' vH-umy u.
form, occurs entirely beneath the
surface of the water. The young
the infested places.
Mosquitoes are normally plant
during this portion of their life are feeding insects and only the female
true aquatic insects with one excep-1 is a blood-feeding insect when that
lion, they do not breathe the air 1 is obtainable. The male satisfies
dissolved in the water as do fish, I his appetite on the juices of fruits
but by a special structure, a respir- or other liquids since the proboscis
atory siphon, breathe the free air lis not constructed, as is that of the
above the surface of the water; de- female, for piercing anything with
wived of this they perish. By any degree of resistance, as the
nature of their structure the young skin of animals or the epidermis of
of mosquitoes can develop only in plants. The greatest impetus to
water and then only under certain the warfare against mosquitoes was
conditions. As a rule mosquitoes ( given by the recent positive demon
breed in small collections of stand- jstrations that certain species are the
iug fresh water. Specimens are carriers of disease. This has chang-
sometimes foutid in streams and ed the mosquito problem from one
of discomfort alone to one of health
also. The most complete work in
preventive medicine is the result of
experiments along these lines. That
yellow fever and malaria arc con
veyed from diseased persons to
healthy people by the bites of cer
tain species of mosquitoes is an
acknowledged fact in recent medi
cal literature. Aside from yellow
fever and malaria, mosquitoes arc
credited with the dissemination of
elephantiasis, filariasis, and possi
bly the dengue fever and leprosy.
The relation of certain insects to
diseases, both plant and animal, is
a study which in tne future will do
much to prevent their present
A tropical country is an out-of-door
country and the mosquito pro
blem becomes at once a serious
question. A conservative estimate,
based on figures furnished by the
wholesale importing houses of
Honolulu, places the sum annually
spent in these Islands for insect
powder, wire mosquito-cloth and
mosquito-netting at $27,243.00, of
which $7,008.00 is for insect'
powder, So, 7.15.00 for wire mos
quito-cloth, and $10,500.00 for
The rule for ridding any particu
lar community of mosquitoes are
simple and effective and do not re
quire any great amount of expendi
ture of money. They may be sum
med up as follows:
(1) Mosquitoes, to breed require
water, the larvae being as truly
aquatic as fish. To do away, then,
with all bodies of standing water
by filling or draining is the first
(2) Collections of water which
cannot of necessity be removed,
such as water tanks and barrels
used for storing water should be
tightly screened to prevent the
gravid female from reaching them,
drawing off the water for use from
(3) Mosquitoes can breed in
water only under certain condi
tions, the main one being a free
supply of air above the surface,
which they obtain by means of
breathing-tubes. Bodies of water
which cannot be done away with
by drainage or protected from adult
mosquitoes by screening, should be
treated in such a manner as to pre
vent the developing larvae from
obtaining the necessary supply of
air. The coal-oil treatment, widely
understood, consists in covering the
surface of exposed water with a
thin layer or film of oil. The oil
does not affect the water for use if
the water is drawn off from below.
One ounce of oil will cover about
fifteen square feet of surface.
(4) If the use of oil is undesir
able, for example, in the case of a
lily-pond or a watering-trough for
stock, the introduction of gold-fish
will keep the water free from larvae.
(5) All such artificial containers
of water about the door-yard as tin
cans, bottles, broken pottery and
crockery on rubbish heaps, etc.,
should be collected and carted
(6) Other containers, as tubs and
buckets under watertaps, cuspidors,
firebuckets, water in chicken coops
and dog kennels, etc., should be
(7) The plumbing about the
place should be carefully inspected
since mosquitoes are known to
breed in cess-pools, water-traps in
sinks and closets, catch-basins from
leaders and in eaves that are im
perfect or, have become clogged.
Make the covers of the cess-pools
absolutely tight and place a screen
over the opening of the vent pipe
for eggs deposited in the closet
tank are flushed down into the
cess-pool and will hatch and de
velop. (8) The work in any community
must be general since a neglected
tub in one yard can breed enough
mosquitoes to make an entire com
munity uncomfortable. It is seen
from this that though the mos
quitoes infesting any household are
usually bred in the same dooryard
and that invasions from any dis
tance are exceptional, yet to do
away with the pest the members of
any community must co-operate 11
(9) The adult mosquitoes seek
shelter in weeds, grass, bushes aud
trees in the vicinity of water.
Therefore nit such vegetation atout
ditches, pools aud other collections
of water should be cleared away.
It should not be necessary to
present in detail the arguments
why tlic various communities in
these Islands should take concerted
action anaiust the mosquito. The
reasons arc self-evident. Not only
docs their presence detract from the
natural charm of the country, but
the danger attending the presence
of a disease-carrying species is also
The one great rule of health and
comfort in the tropics is to do away
with or treat by methods well
known to be effective all standing
water because of the fact that only
in such places mosquitoes arc
known to breed.
No N'ocd of n Doctor.
Pains in the stomach aud attacks
of colic come on suddenly and are
so extremely painful that immediate
relief must be obtained. There is
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in such cases if a bottle of Chamber
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prescribe n better medicine. Kor
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