Newspaper Page Text
Tttlt WllUKIA ltll.0 'TRIBUNK, hlhO, HAWAII, TUESDAY, OCl'OBttR A, 1905.
Nomenclature and Description of Native Hawaiian Ba
nanasProbably Fifty Varieties to be Found in the
Territory Many Are Indigenous Others Are Ex
oticCooking Bananas and Common Varieties.
An instructive article on "Native!
Hawaiian Bananas appears in the other.
September number of the I'nrmlUcl Puapuamii. This has the lar
of the Pacific ami is as follows: gest "tree" of the group. The
The above name ("Native Ha- fruit differs from the rest of the
waiiau Bananas") is not intended group in being less angular and
to imply that the varieties mention- much less pointed at the ends,
ed here are indigenous in the strict Kanua. This name seems to be
application of that term. The 01 i- a synonym of Puapuamii. It is
ginal stock probably came to these the term conmonly used in Koua
Islands with the early migrations and other parts of Hawaii, but on
of the Polynesian races of the south, this island is seldom heard. It
Certain it is that the banana did may, however, be the older name.
not originate here, though perhaps Hilahila. This is a synonym of
no one can say positively that a Iholena.
chance introduction has never been J Among those usually clnss'cd in
made by natural means. Some of Maoli group arc: Maoli or Maia
the varieties may have developed maoli, Puhi, Malai-ula, Kaualau,
from the introduced forms. They Hai, Koae or Ac-ae, Kleele, Poni,
are, however, found uncultivated in Loha and Hiuupaa.
the gulches, the valleys and the Maimaoli. This is the corn
sheltered places in the mountain monest variety of the group to
forests, and are stioken of as "Na-
tive bananas" or "wild bananas."
Some of these are doubtless where !
they were placed by the early Ha-
waiiau cultivators, but nature has ,
also done her part in the distribu-1
tion as she continues to do. Fori
example a heavy rain uproots a
banana plant or an old corm and
and washes it down to the stream '
by which it is carried down the ' and length much greater than
gulch and lodged in some new lo- thickness. Together with a few
cality. As it grows it sends up new ' of the modifying forms it furnishes
shoots and the progeny gradually most of the cooking bananas sold
spreads over the side of the gulch, in Honolulu. In flavor and tex-
The number of these so-called tnre all the Maolis very closely re
native varieties is variously cstimat- semble each other. They are usu
cd between 25 and 50. There may ally cooked, but are much enjoyed
be as many as 50 different names' raw by some,
and possibly more, but it is well ( Puhi. The distinguishing cha
known that the same variety often racter of this variety is the great
has several different names. The length of the fruit, which is small
Hawniians of Kauai or Oahu may in diameter, compared with most
give it a name quite different from others of the group, and is often
that by which it is designated on bent or twisted. These peculiar!
the island of Hawaii. Many names, ties give it its name, which is the
therefore, are synonyms, but there Hawaiian for eel.
are, nevertheless, many distinct Malai-ula. (Written also Ma
forms. The differences in some laiula and Manaiula.) The upper
cases are small, but sufficiently part of the "trunk" has a decided
marked and constant to justify the ly reddish color, which extends out
different names. more or less on the medribs. The
Most of the Hawaiian bananas "ost striking peculiarity, however,
may be classed in three general is the very dark red color of the ira
groups, These are the Iholena, mature fruit or pistils of the flowers
the Maoh and the Popoulu. "'hen they first appear. As they
The Iholena group includes: incrcase in size l,lis color Bradually
Iholena, I.ele, Haa, Puapuamii, Pses away and they take on the
Knpua, Hilahila and lliou. In sha,,e. of Brce characteristic of the
this group the fingers arc usually Maoh 8roP.
of greatest diameter near the center ' Kaualau. This is the shortest
nnri mnro nr Ips nnintcil nt either "tree" of the Maoli group, being
end. The color of the immature
fruits is a light green, turning to
yellow while still hard and unripe.
Iholena. This variety gives the
name to the group. The plant is
of low growth, perhaps 9 feet to
the top of the leaves as an average.
The petioles are rather stout, light
green with pink on the edges;
leaves slightly bronze colored on
the under surface when new. The
bunch is rather small. The fruits
are arranged loosely and stand out
at right angles from the axis of the
bunch. The skin of immature
fruits is light green, turning yellow
before ripening. The form of the
fruit is angular. When thorough
ly ripe, beginning to turn black, it
is regarded .'is one of the best of
native bananas for eating raw. It
is also good for cooking. The
flesh is pink.
I.ele. This plant is of much lar
ger size, 18 to 22 feet. Petioles
and leaf sheaths at upper part of
trunk are of a very light green co
lor. The leaf blades, when fresh,
show sonic tendency to bronze tints
on under surface, but less than Iho
lena. The bunch is hung on a very
long scape or stem. The fruits,
which very closely resemble Ihole
na, arc placed upon the bunch in
the same way. The flesh is pink
as in Iholena.
Ilaa. This is characterized by
the dwarf habit of the plant, which
is even smaller than Iholena. It
fruits quickly. Otherwise thehci
two varieties closely resemble
which it cives its name. Most of
the other members are simply slight
modifications of this type. The
trunk is light green in color when
young, with faint tints of pink,
The characteristics of this variety
and of the group in general, arc
roundness of form in fruit, which
is usually turned more or less up-
wards, bluutuess at the flower end,
I on an average about fourteen feet.
It may also be disinguished from
its relatives by its dark green foli
age resembling in color the leaves
of the Chinese variety. It will
. stand more wind than the others of
I this group,
I The bunch is rather small among
the Maolis but the variety can hard
ly be distinguished by the bunch.
, The fruit is of good flavor, but
not regarded by some as equal to
Hai. This forms the largest
'plant of any of the native bananas
and produces the largest bunch of
fruit. The individual fruits also
are very large. It is not so hardy,
however, as some other kinds and
neglected often fails to produce
vigorous suckers and therefore dies
! Koae. Also written Ae Ae or
simply Ae. This is probably M.
sapientuni var. vittata. Koae is
the white striped banana somewhat
common in Honolulu but more so
in Hiloaud other moist parts of the
islands. The leaves are striped
with white on petiole and there are
blotches of white on the blade. The
fruit is also striped lougtitudiiially
I with white. It is claimed by some
,tobc of more recent introduction
,thau the other varieties, but is
said to be growing uncultivated in
places in the forests. The fruit is
of fair quality when cooked.
1 Kleele. The "stem," petiole and
midrib of leaf are all very dark in
fact almost black. The fruit when
it first appears is also so dark that
at a distance it looks black. The
black leaf sheaths, petioles and
midribs furnish material used in
the manufacture of native hats.
Poni. Probably n synonym of
I.oha. The plant is of tall
growth. The leaves resemble I.ele.
It is peculiar among all other Ha
waiian bananas in that the fingers
or individual fruits hang downward
toward the ground. The fruit, if
not bruised, is very good, but slight
bruising even while green destroys
Hiuupaa. This is a black-stem
variety resembling Kleele it' not
identical with it.
The Popoulu group is characteriz
ed by short thick fruit set almost
at right angles to the stem of the
bunch. Here are classed: Popou
lu, Kaio, Hua Moa, Moa, Nou and
Popoulu. The plant is of me
dium to low growth, the stem is
green with slight tendency to pin
kish tints 011 petitoles. The bunch
is of medium size, the scape (or stem
of bunch) rather slender.- There
are eight to ten fingers per hand.
They arc short, thick and rounded,
and blunt at the end. This is ra
ther a common variety, and of good
quality when baked.
Kaio. This is similar to Popou
lu but grows on a somewhat taller
'itrec" and is not so fine in flavor.
It is sometimes called a tall grow
Hua Moo. (Hen's Kgg.) The
plant is medium height, the peti
ole long and slender. There are
rather more leaves in the. rosette
than most other varieties have.
Once seen it may always be dis
tinguished by these characters. The
scape is very slender. The fruit is
nearly as great in diameter as in
length. There are often only two
or three fruits per bunch. The
fruit has a tendency to era. k open
before ripening hence it must be
gathered early. It is of very su
Moa. This is claimed by some
to be distinct from Hua Moa, never
producing in one bunch, more than
two or three fruits, however, being
of enormous size. It is probable,
however, that the varieties are not
distinct, the differences which have
given rise to the two names being
due to the immediate effects af soil
Nou. A dwarf variety, three or
four feet high. It does well in
There are a few varieties that can
not well be placed in the above
Maia Hua Alua sometimes called
Mahoe. The peculiarity of this
variety is that in produces two bun
ches ol fruit from the stem.
Maia Hapai. This is one of the
most curious forms in the islands;
probably Lubang or eel plaintain
of Java. It ripens its fruit within
Oa. An ornamental variety.
The leaves are blotched with reddish-brown
The above article is from data
furnished by Iy. A. Andrews cf
Hilo, than whom there is no person
in the Territory better versed in
the nomenclature and characteris
tics of native Hawaiian bananas.
Any one who has ever experienc
ed the excruciating and almost un
bearable pains incident to infl ama
tory rheumatism, will be pleased to
know that prompt relief may be
had by applying Chamberlain's
Pain lialm. Mr. D. Snyder, of
Rooseville, Ontario, Canada, says:
"I have been troubled with infla
matory rheumatism for the past
two years and unable to sleep at
night. I have taken many reme
dies but must say Chamberlain's
Pain Balm is the best liniment I
have ever tried." For sale by Hilo
Classes in embroidery will be formed
upon reasonable terms. Classes meet
Mondays, Wednesdays and Thursday! .
Orders will also be taken for embroidery
and artistic needle work,
MRS. ELLA M. I.OKHKNSTKIN.
HOARD 01' AGRICULTURE AND
l'OUKSTRY, DIVISION 01' ANI
MAI, INDUSTRY, TI'.RRITORY
RULE AND REGULATION NO. I.
INSPECTION Ol' IMI'ORTKD LIVE
In order to prevent ttic introduction
into this Territory of infectious, con
tagious mid communicable diseases
among live stock nnd oilier minimis,
local managers or agents of Steamship
and Navigation lines or the commanding
officer of liny ship shall notify the Terrl.
tori.il Veterinarian or the locnl Live
Stuck Inspector Immediately upon the
arrival of any ship, of the presence on
board If any, of live domestic nuitnnls,
including poultry mid dogq, when same
Is intended to be lauded in this Territory
ami shall upon arrival of any ship furnish
the inspecting officer with a lisl of the
number and kind of animals taken on
board from any port outside of this Terri
tory, the number and kind destined for
the Territory, the names of the owners
or consignees, nnd a report as to the
condition of hcaltli and cases of sickness
or death among the animals while on
If necessary to remove such animals
before the arrival of the inspector, they
must be confined on the pier in such a
manner as to facilitate Inspection, but
should in no case be turned loose on the
pier. Hogs and sheep shall be confined
in temporary pens. Cattle and horses
shall be tied on the pier. No animal of
any description shall be allowed to leave
the pier until the Territorial Veterinarian
or local Live Stock Inspector has issued
a certificate of health permitting the
landing of the animal or animuls in
In no case shall the removal ol live
animals from the ship for inspection or
other purposes, constitute a lauding until
a certificate of health for such animals
has been issued.
Until further notice the ports of Hono
lulu, Oahu, and Hilo, Hawaii, shall
constitute the only ports ol entry for live
stock and other animals for this Terri
tory. Any violation of this regulation Is a
This regulation shall take effect at
C. S. HOM.OWAY,
Executive Officer, Hoard of Agriculture
Approved September ir, 1905.
G. R. CARTER)
HOARD Ol' AGRICULTURE AND
FORESTRY, DIVISION 01' ANI
MAL INDUSTRY, TERRITORY
RUMS AND REGULATION NO. 2.
INSPECTION ANI) TKSTING 01'
IMPORTED MVE STOCK, l'OR
GLANDERS OR TUBERCULOSIS.
In order to prevent the further intro
duction of glanders and farcy into this
Territory it is hereby ordered that:
No horse stock, (including mules nnd
asses) shall be admitted to the Territory
unless accompanied by a certificate of
health showing that the animal or ani
mals in question have been submitted to
the malleiu test and found to be free
from glanders. Said test must be made
and certificate issued by n competent
veterinarian whose name appears upon
the list of graduates from n recognized
veterinary college anil whose professional
standing in satisfactory to this board.
The test must be made according to the
rules of the Territorial Veterinarian and
recorded on blanks furnished by him for
If such animals shall not have been
tested before shipment they shall upon
arrival in this Territory be placed in
quarantine and held there until malleiu
tested under the supervision of the
Territorial Veterinarian or the local
Live Stock Inspector and at the expense
of the owner.
Any person contemplating the Impor
tation of horse stock to this Teriitory
shall notify the Territori.il Veterinarian
or the local Live Stock Inspector and
obtain from him the necessary blanks
In order to prevent the further intro
duction of tuberculosis in cattle it is here
by ordered, that:
No cattle above the age of six months
shall be admitted to the Territory unless
accompanied by u certificate of health
showing that the animal or animals have
been submitted to the tuberculin test nnd
found to be free from tuberculosis. The
said test must be under the same condi
tion as those governing the importation
of hor-e stock and be recorded 011 blanks
furnished by the Territorial Veterinarian.
If unaccompanied by such certificate the
animals shall be tested upon arrival in
the sume manner as prescribed for horse
If any horse block shall be found by
the Territorial Veterinarian or the local
Live Stock Inspector, upon arrival in the
Territory, to be infected with glanders
or any cattle to be infected with tubercu
losis, the same shall be Immediately des
troyed and carcass disposed of at the ex
peuse of the owner, under the supervision
of the Territorial Veterinarian or the
local Live Stock Inspector.
Any violation of this regulatin Is n
C. S. HOM.OWAY,
Hxccutlvc Officer, Hoard of Agriculture
Approved September 11, 1905.
G. R. CARTHR,
BOARD Ol' AGRICULTUE AND
l'OUKSTRY, DIVISION 01' ANI
MAL, INDUSTUY, TI'.RRITORY
RUM'. AND REGULATION NO. 3.
CONCKUNING GLANDERED HORSK
STOCK IN Till'. TI'.RRITORY.
It having been brought to the notice
of this board that n contagious disease
known ni glanders nnd farcy prevails
among the horse stock in various por
tions of this Territory; therefore, In case
any animal shows symptoms of glanders,
the owner or person having charge of the
srtnc, or any person having reason to
believe or to suspect that nil nnimnlt tins
glanders shall Immediately notify the
Territorial Vctcruarlan or the local Live
If the Territorial Veterinrlaii or the
local Live Stock Inspector decides that
there Is reason to believe an nuimal is
suffering from glanders he shall at once
isolate the suspected nuimal or
animals nnd either submit them
to the malleiu test or remove them to
(iiarlutiiie, -where they shall be kept un
der oWrvation until the nature of the
disease can be definitely established.
All animals which upon examination
by the Territorial Veterinarian or the lo
ad Live Stock inspector are found lo ex
hibit definite symptoms of glanders shall
be destroyed and the carcass disposed of
under the supervision of one of the nbove
mentioned olncers. 1
Alt other animals which have been ex-
posed to the infection by being in the
same stall, yard or premises, or which in
any way have come in contact with an af
fected animal, shall be quarantined for
such period as shall be required by the Ter
ritorial Veterinarian or the local Live In
spector, or submitted to the malleiu test.
The premises where affected nnimals
have been kept shall be disinfected under
the supervision of the Territorial Veter
inarian or the local Live Stock Inspector.
All expenses in connection with the
examination, testing, destroying and dis
posing of nlfcctcd nnimals, as well ns
quarantine and disinfection, shall be
paid by the owner.
Any violation of this regulation is a
This regulation shall take effect nt
C. S. HOLLOWAY,
Executive Officer, Hoard of Agriculture
Approvad September n, 1905.
G. R. CARTER.
BOARD 01' AGRICULTURE AND
Office of Territorial Veterinarian.
Honolulu, Sept. 12, 1905.
All owners of horse stock iu this Terri
tory should carefully and regularily ex
amine their animals to ascertain if they
exhibit any of the symptoms of glanders
or farcy as follows:
Discharge from the Nose. This condi
tion occurs In a number of diseases, as
for instance catarrah of the nose and
strangles (distemper, epizootic), but iu
glanders it is usually quite characteristic.
Iu mild cases it is not very abundant but
is thick and quite sticky, of a transparent
witisli color, souewhnt resembling the
white of an egg. This sticky discharge
adheres to the margin of the nostrils
forming tough brownish scales and
crusts. The discharge does not necessa
rily sink when dropped iu waler, as is
The most popular characteristic symp
toms of glanders is the presence of ulcers
iu the nose, usually on on the partition
between the nasal chambers. These ul
cers are not always plainly in sight, but
may be brought into view by holding the
the nostrils well open and turning the
nose toward the sun. They vary in size
from 1-8 to 1-4 inch Iu diameter up to
one to two inches, and may become con
fluent nnd form large patches, nlways
with ragged irregular edges. The ulcers
may heal nnd leave depressioued wrinkl
ed scars. The amount of discharge from
the nose depends upon the extent
of the ulcerations; when small the dis
charge is scant and when more extensive
it becomes more abundant. Frequently
the discharge and ulcers occur only on
one side, There Is nearly always .1 swell
ing of the glands between the branches
of the lower jaw, but not to the same ex
tent as iu strangles, and they rarely sup
purate or break open.
The type of glanders known as farcy
consists iu n specific iullamatiou of the
skin and may occur on any part of the
body or limbs.
Tile glands become swollen, forming
the so-called farcy buds, and often oc
curring as a chain of nodules along the
enlarged lymph vessels. The noddles
break open and discharge 11 yellowish
white, sticky pus, forming crusts similar
to those seen around the nostrils. The
abscesses may heat up and new ones
form iu the same vicinity or on more
distant parts of the body.
The disease may be either chronic or
acute in Its course nnd the chronic
form may at ntiy time become acute.
Mules nnd asses almost invariably de
velop the acute form while In horses
cither form may be seen. Want of feed
and over work frequently causes la
tent glanders In the horse lo become
The disease U often nccompnnlcd by n
a soft dry hacking cough nnd n tendency
to sudden swelling of one of the lcg9, es
pecially the hind legs.
In n large number of cases of glanders
the symptoms arc very slight even though
the onlmals may have been affected for
months or even yenr9 nnd herein lies the
great danger of the spread of the disease
lo other nnimals or lo man.
In the course of n few days the Terri
torial Veterinarian will have for distribu
tion copies of Bureau of Animal Industry
Circular No. 78 entitled "Glanders and
1'arcy" .ind which gives n detailed des
cription of the history, nature, symptom,
diagnosis and prevention of the disease
All requests for this circular should be
DR. VICTOR A. NORGAARD;
47-3 Territorial Veterinarian, Honolulu.
To be opened Saturday, Sop-
tombor 16. Opposite I'ish Market.
Short Orders a Spcciolly. Orders for Ice
Cream nnd Cake attended to promptly
and delivered lo any part of City.
Telephone No. 17.
House 011 School Street, recently oc
cupied by 1'. Souza, Apply to
R. A. LYMAN
or II. VICARS
That's right, five there are others,
but these arc the important ones for
you nnd your eyes:
You frown or squint in looking at au
Your eves show au intolerance of light.
They tire, ache, smart or water.
Objects swim or become dim.
These nre points that point to the
need of glasses.
A. N. SANFORD
BOSTON BUILDING, - HONOLULU
While the Agents of many
Life Insurance Companies arc
petitioning their Officers for the
ANNUAL DIVIDEND policy,
it is n source of great satisfaction
to the Policyholders of the
Pacific Mutual to know that
their Company has been issuing
almost uothinu else for years.
No petitioning necessary for
liberality with the good old
The Directors of the Company
are by the Coliforuia law made
jointly and severally liable for
all monies EMBEZZLED or
MISAPPROPRIATED by the
officers during the term of office
of such Director, Quite n pro
vision from the SECURITY
what has recently occurred.
The best policies arc issued by
the best Company 011 Earth for
THE PACIFIC MUTUAL LIFE
INS. GO. OF CALA.
CLINTON J. HUTCHINS,
02O Fort Stroot.
H. E. PICKER,
PAY FOR THE BEST
AND THAT'S THE CLASS 01' WORK
FRONT ST., Or. SPRECKEL'S BLOCK
Subscribe for the Tkmiunk Island sub