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TI1K WHKKLV Hil.O TftlBUNK, HILO, HAWAII, TUKSDAY, OCTOUUR 2.j, 1905.
MOSQUITO IS CAUSE
OF YELLOW FEVER.
The Dreaded Scourge Which Has Afflicted New Orleans
The Mosquito and Germ Theories How the
Disease Is Fought A Heritage of the Slave Trade
Other Epidemics in History.
The only hope of effectively eta- Orleans doctor has really identified
dicating the yellow fever from New ; the germ.
Orleans is the arrival of frost. Tliet Kvery precaution is taken at
cost in deaths and dollars cannot New Orleans against the infectious
yet he counted. The latest cable 1 yellow fever mosquito, known as
dispatches places the number ol the culex or stegomyia lasciatus.
This is the mosquito with .striped
cases at New Oilcans at 3,026, to
tal deaths 395. Dr. J. II. White
in charge of the federal forces at
work at the stricken city, estimates
that the total expenses of eradic
tion of t,6oo to $2,000 per day or
from $18,000 to $24,000 for four
months which would carry the cam
paign into December, by which
time frost is expected to bring re
body like a tiger, and only the
females aie said to bite.
A mosquito of this species lives
two months, and, as a rule, only
bites in the day time. It is a house
product and breeds in the open
water tanks or cisterns.
A teacup full of oil on the top of
one of these tanks prevents any
. j .-
lief. The Federal Government has , tuosquitos irom Hatching. All
asked the mayor and citizens of cisterns and tanks at New Orleans
New Orleans to place at their dis- are being either oiled or screened
posal a quarter of a million dollars with fine wire at a cost of $1 each,
for this purpose, which has been J The various wards have organized
promised and all necessary rutlto-, citizens' associations, and every
rity for prompt action assured. j gutter is oiled in the same way.
The yellow fever has been raging 1 After every rain this oiling of
since July 131I1, when thefirstca.se gutters is repeated,
of the present epidemic made its If a patient is found in an un
appearancc. Durine the past ecu- sanitary home, he is taken imme
tury yellow fever epidemics have diately, under a mosquito-netted
occurred in the United States, but ' cot, to the Yellow Fever hospital
New Orleans has been the chief in the French quarter, where the
sufferer. Kpidcmics of the dreaded fever has almost wholly been con
disease have occurred there in fined up to date.
1837 1S53, 1855, 1857, 187s, 1S79 This hospital is provided with
and the last in 1897. The epi- double screen doors and window
demic of 1853 was the most dead-'openings, and each cot inside is
ly of all, over 8,000 victims having ' additionally netted with the fine
fallen. string gauze. Pyrethrum or buhac
Medical men have never left off powder is burned inside of the
theorizing about the cause of ycl- hospital twice a day and kills all
low fever since they began to treat the stiay mosquitos that might get
it. It was believed by many that through the double screened open
it was infectious, a specific miasm i"gs.
carried in the air. Others thought , The city of 360,000 inhabitants
iini it -nv omiffMriniK;. contracted ' is divided into small districts of
lttv at ww.. . , w .. ,---.-
only by actual contact with sub
stances which had been contami
nated by a fever patient,
four squares each. An inspector
.appointed by the city board of
'health makes a house-to-house
Dr. John Achimonp, who has spection every twenty-Tour hours.
been one of the most indefatigable
workers in the Emergency hospital
in New Orleans, believes that he
has finally discovered the yellow
fever germ. He has found a sub
stance in the blood of yellow fever
The inspectors are made up of
medical students and those who
have had the greatest amount of
experience with yellow fever dur
ing former epidemics.
All. suspicious cases are inime-
nniiVtit wlnVli dnselv resembles "lately reported, and 111
the malaria germ discovered a few cases of illness. As soon as a case
years ago. Some of the most emi- reported under suspicion, if the
nent scientists in the south are as- patient lives in his own home and
sisting in this investigation, and if that home is in a good sanitary
it really proves to be true that the condition, his bed is immediately
germ has been found, the cure of inclosed with the finest of mosquito
yellow fever will be easy and the netting.
disease will lose all its terrors. ! A yellow fever patient becomes
Although the germ which pro- dirty yellow as soon as the fever
duces yellow fever has not been strikes him. The attack conies on
identified, pretty conclusive proof is suddenly with severe chills or
at hand that it is caused by 1110s- 'Brs. It may come on more
quito bites and not by contact or gradually with languor, headaches
fomites. Major Walter Reed, who and malarial symptoms, and is
gave his life to the elucidation of often attended with pains in the
the yellow fever problem, showed 1'ack, limbs and head. There is
his experiments at Camp Laear in nausea and vomiting.
Cuba that neither nursing a yel- 1" several cases small hemor-
low fever sufferer nor even sleep- rhages take place into the skin and
. iiKinmii tiiniiihi'fitin I Mm imnltf u-
111 the unwashed ueu-ciouies "-" '""". ii.uum -
from a fatal case was competent
cause the disease.
A number of men, not immune,
did these things for weeks at a
time; and when not protected from
mosquitoes never contracted yellow
jack. The same men when .subse
quently subjected to the bites of
moscjuitos pastered on yellow fe
ver patients, regularly contracted
the disease. This jcxperiment was
at first white. Later it becomes
ery dark and in appearance like
coffee grounds, when it is know as
"black vomit." There is bleeding
at the nose, mouth and gums.
Delirium usually follows, then un
consciousness, and death.
The distinction between this sort
of fever and others is that the pulse
goes down as the temperature goes
up, and the pulse generally goes so
land in New Orleans before strict
quarantine regulations were en
Yellow fever is one of the bane
ful legacies bequeathed by the slave
trade. The slave dealers of the
seventeenth and eighteenth cen
turies often lost from one-half to
two-thirds of their cargo during the
voyage from a mysterious fever
which broke out suddenly in the
overcrowded ships. This complaint,
formerly denominated African or
ship fever, is now believed to have
been yellow fever.
In 1699 a vessel which had
landed a cargo of slaves on the
Virginia coast went on to Philadel
phia to refit. While there the ship
was cleaned thoroughly, a large
quantity of offensive bilge water
being pumped into the stagnant
pool in which the vessel was lying.
Three days later several carpenters
employed in the shipyard adjacent
were taken violently ill. Soon
afterward neatly every sailor on the
ship and those who worked in the
shipyard near by were prostrated
by a complaint which was recog
nized by competent physicians as
identical with the fever prevalent
on slave ships. Within a week the
pestilence was epidemic in the city.
Philadelphia's prominence as a port
led to several subsequent scourges
of the pest, and in every case it
seemed to originate either from a
slave ship or from a vessel coming
direct from a southern port.
In 1762 several thousand persons
died during an epidemic of yellow
fever in the Quaker City, and there
were subsequent destructive visita
tions in 1793, 1797 and 1S02. The
great plague of 1793 really began
in New York and spread over most
of the United States during that
and the following season. 1
The experience of Memphis in
1878 and 1879 is still recalled with
horror. During the first season of
the pest there were 5,160 deaths,
and during the second, although
the town was nearly deserted, there
were several hundred more. This
pestilence of 1878 was the most de
structive of any ever experienced
in the United States, 65,976 cases
having been reported and 14,800
It will be seen that the yellow
fever mosquito is literally a messen
ger of death, transmitting disease
as fatal in its effects as the bubonic
I1LOW TO XOSTKOMS.
I'.itcut Medicines Subject to Inter
jiul Revenue Tax.
Internal Revenue Service, District
of Hawaii, Collector's Office.
Honolulu, Hawaii, Oct. 16, 1905.
Kditor II11.0 Trihunh,
Sir: I enclose herewith a copy
of two recent rulings by the Com
missioner 01 internal Kevcnue 111
regard to the sale of proprietary
medicines containing more or less
alcohol, and the liability of sellers
for speciul tax as liquor dealers.
You will greatly assist this Office
in reaching the persons concerned
with these rulings by publishing
them complete in the Tkiiiuni:, and
such publication will be esteemed a
ROY II. CIIAMIJKRI.AIN,
repeated half a dozen times and the low in marked cases that there the
result was uniform to leave but one greatest danger lies. Champagne
possible conclusion, that mere con
tact with yellow fever is not dan
gerous. They also furnish strong,
presumptive evidence that the mos
quitos bite is the medium which
spreads the disease.
Therefore, the true method of of recovery,
winim? out the scource would seem the fever to
is generally given to keep the pulse
A yellow fever patient generally
dies within (torn five to seven days.
If they do not die in that length of
time they have very great chances
It takes five days for
incubate in a fresh
to be the eradication of that mos- subject, and all quarantines are
quito, and the only way to accom- fixed for at least this length of time
plish that is to destroy the breed- and generally for six or seven days,
ing places of that pest. Hut that 'W"-' present epidemic Vas im-
iu swamp-covered Louisiana would ported from Belize, British Hon-
be a very large undertaking; one duras, where, through the failure
that would require millions of ot health officials to promptly re-
money and yeirs of time, so all the port the appearance of the disease,
Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii,
October 14, 1905.
Sir: I scud you herewith, for
your consideration, a copy of
Treasury Decisions Nos. 922 and
925, regarding alcoholic compounds
labeled as medicines, in 'compliance
with the instructions in said deci
sions. Please give these decisions
(Int. Rev. Circular No. 673.)
Treasury Department, Office of
Commissioner of Internal
Revenue, Washington, D. C,
Sept. 12, 1905.
(T. D. 922.)
To Collectors of Internal Revenue:
Among the various alcoholic
compounds now on the market,
advertised and sold as medicine
under the name of whisky, bitters,
medicinal ingredients in .sufficient
quantities to change materially the
character of the alcoholic liquor.
The fact that these compounds
during the existence of the statute
imposing tax on proprietary medi
cines were without the necessity of
investigation into their medicinal
character by the terms of the law
made subject to the tax, because
they were held out to the public as
medicines docs not afford ground
for relieving the manufacturers
from special tax as rectifiers and
liquor dealers, or dealers therein
from special tax as liquor dealers
under the provisions of section
3244, Revised Statutes and amend
ments. It is held that the statute re
quires the exaction of this special
tax from the manufacturer of every
compound composed of distilled
spirits, even though drugs are de
claied to have been added thereto,
when their presence is not discover
able by chemical analysis or it is
found that the quantity of drugs in
the preparation is so small as to
have no appreciable effect on the
alcoholic liquor of which the com
pound is mainly or largely com
posed. The same ruling applies to every
alcoholic compound labeled as a
remedy for diseases and containing,
in addition to distilled spirits, only
substances or ingredients which,
however large their quantity, are
not of a character to impart ony
medicinal quality to the compound;
but where substances undoubtedly
medicinal in their character arc
combined with whisky or other
alcoholic liquor, and are used in
sufficient quantity to give a medi
cinal quality to the liquor other
than that which it may inherently
possess, such compound is, of
course, not to be included in this
The question, in each case, aris
ing under the terms of this circular
will be determined by this office,
not merely upon examination of
the formula submitted by the
manufacturer of the compound, but
upon result of the analysis made in
the chemical laboratory here of
samples obtained in the open mar
ket and sent in by the local inter
nal revenue officers and agents.
The ruling as to these compounds
in the fourth paragraph of Circular
No. 608 (Treasury Decisions, 1901,
Vol. 4, p. 210), "that if they are
composed of spirits in combination
with drugs, herbs, roots, etc., and
are held out as remedies for diseases
stated in labels on the bottles, they
are regarded as medicines until the
facts ascertained, as to the purpose
for which they are usually sold or
used, show them to be beverages,
and until such facts arc obtained
drucuists and merchants who sell
these' compounds in good faith as
medicines only are not to be called
on to pay special tax as liquor
dealers on account of such sales,"
is hereby revoked.
But in order that no injustice
may be done to these druggists and
merchants who, without holding
special tax stamps as liquor dealers,
now have in stock these compound ,
for sale as medicines, this circular
will not be put into effect until
December 1, 1905.
Collectors will, however, immedi
ately upon the receipt of this circu
lar send out notice to all diuggists
and merchants dealing in proprie
tary medicines in their districts who
do not hold the lequisite special
tax stamp as liquor dealers, that on
and after December 1, 1905, they
will be required to pay special tax
for selling the alcoholic compounds
coining within the ruling now pro
mulgated, even when they sell them
in good faith for medicinal use only,
never selling them as beverages,
nor selling them knowingly to those
buying them for use as beverages.
JOHN W. YEKKF.S,
affected by the recent ruling of this
As will be seen upon a careful
reading of the ruling in Circular
673, it does not go into effect in the
case of any druggist or merchant
dealing in proprietary medicines
who now holds in stock alcoholic
compounds labeled as medicines
until December 1, 1905.
On and after that date every col
lector of internal revenue will pro
ceed to the collection of special tax
for the sale of any of these com
pounds which he finds comes within
the ruling. In case of doubt, he
will obtain in the open ma
samples of the compound and
mit them to this office for nnaljsis.
There is, of course, no list of these
compounds as yet prepared here.
The quantity of alcohol which
any medicine may contain is not
determined by any ptovision of the
law or regulations.
JOHN W. YKRKICS,
MR. II. O. WKAVF.R.
Collector 4th Dist., Burlington,
J - CRAND J
J LUAU FAIR
November 30th S
For tho Bonoflt i
;:r New Building
1 11 Hamilton Kheii unit Ism.
Any one who has ever experienc
ed the excruciating and almost un
bearable pains incident to inflama
tory rheumatism, will be pleased to
know that prompt relief may be
had by applying Chamberlain's I
Pain Balm. Mr. D. Snyder, of J
Rooseville, Ontario, Canada, says: J
"I have been troubled with inila-i
matory rheumatism for the pastj
two years and unable to sleep at ,
night. I have taken many reine-,
dies but must say Chamberlain's 1
Pain Balm is the best liniment 1 (
have ever tried." For sale by Ililo ,
Subscribe for the Trihunk j
Island subscription $2.50 a year.
Notick Neither the Musters nor
Agent of vessels of the "Mntson Line"
will be responsible for any debts con
tracted by the crew. R. T. GUARD,
Ililo, Ajnil 16, 1901 14-
I'OR RATES, IILANKS, KTC.
E. E. RICHARDS
AOKNT INTKR-ISLANI) TKLK-
GRAPH CO., HILO.
THE HENRY WATEPHOUSE TRUST CO.
Agents London Lancashire Firo Ins. Co.
National Firo Insurance Co.
Niagara Firo Insurance Co.
Corman-Amorican Firo Ins. Co.
Pennsylvania Firo Insurance Co.
United States Fidelity Guaranty Co.
Continental Casualty Co.
(T. D. 925.)
Treasury Department, Office of
Commissioner of Internal Rev
enue. Washington, D. C. Sept. 25, 1005.
Sir: Your letter of the iylh in-
tonic, cordials, etc., there are some 'slant has been received, inclosing
that are composed chiefly of disN one of a great many letters which
tilled spirits, or mixtures thereof, I you say you aie receiving asking
world will rejoice if the New 225 passengers were allowed to without the addition of drugs or I for u list of
NOAH W. CRAY
The hotel is a beautiful stone-front, steel-framed, tip to-date fire-proof
building. Corridors, toilets ami bathrooms are all wainscoted with Tennes
All rooms are el'antly furnished and excellently well ventilated.
Gentle breees waft through corridors nml sleeping-rooms day and night.
This hostelrv, of already world-Hide fame, opened a little over two
ears ago, has been favored by patrons from all parts, who unite in the
opinion that its service, its silver nnd cutlery, its linen, its china, its ervstal,
etc., are equal to those of the best hotels anywhere.
WATKR A three-million-nallon-a-ilay artesian well of one thonsuul
fict in depth supplies abundance of delightfully soft water of high chemical
purity Kvery room f 11 the building his hot and cold water. All the table
water, as well as that supplied to the rooms for drinking purposes, is distilled.
IIOTKL I'ARM I'he e.celleue of the table is much enhanced by this
hostelrv possessing its own farm, where, from a fine herd of Jersey cows, an
abundant btipply of milk and cream is obtained, a fine lot of poultry pro
duces eggs "d nice broilers, a lot of choice runts produce the delicate squab
required; suckling pig and voung pork are produced by n herd ol fine Ilerk
shire hogs. I'resli fruit and vegetables of all kinds are daily supplied from
this farm, frogs nnd mullet from the ponds are also supplied daily.
ROOl' GARDKN On the fifth floor, in centre section of building,
there is a ROOl' GARDHN of one-third of an acre in area, furnished with
beautiful shrubs, seats and tables are inteispersed and refreshments are
served by active and obliging waiters all day and throughout the evenings.
Awnings are provided for shelter and band concerts are frequently given.
At one end of this garden there is a large dance pavilion, while at tlie other
end there is a similar room fitted with all the comforts for a louuging-ruom,
where billiards and other games are enjovul by Indies nnd gentlemen.
I'roui the Roof Garden the whole of the citj and surrounding country,
with the sea 011 one hand and the verdure-clad mountains on the other, pre
sent a panorama of tropical beaut) which for grandeur cannot be surpassed,
Long-distance telephone in ever) room
, Cable Addross" Young's," Honolulu
American and Europoan Plan
SPECIAL RATES TO ISLAND PEOPLE