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DAILY BULLETIN! HONOLULU, II. I., MAKCI1 lo, 1890.
Y rHBHHHIBJI I " V J
f?9' ' j
Pledsd to neither Sect nor Party,
But established for the benefit of all.
SATURDAY, MAU. lii, 18U0.
AN ESSAY ON WORK, WORKING
MEN, AND WAGES.
According to n common belief,
work is a punishment lor disobedi
ence. Our primeval ancestors,
the venerable Adam and Kvc, lived
in a magnificent garden that pro
duced every variety of fruit perenni
ally, and took care of itself. They
were at llbcity to cat from every
tree except one. This was tabu,
and they were told not to meddle
with Its fruit. Left to themselves,
with no work to do, or any leisure for
anything, they began to cogitate
why they should be debarred from
that particular tree, and concjuded
to try its nice looking, sweet-scented
fruit, anyhow. They carried out
their rebellious resolve, and were
punished or disobeying orders by
being pitched over the fence, and
told to go and work for their living.
.Served them right; but it is rather
haul on their youngsters to have to
hear the penalty of the old folks'
folly. It is their misfortune, not
their fault ; and a great misfortune
it is, winch all succeeding genera
tions until now have had to grin and
Some men arc born rich, and oth
ers have riches thrust upon them by
circumstances. They are lucky
dogs; for they haven't to work for
their living. They eat their bread,
and for dessert cakes and pics, with
cool blows and no sweat. These
are the select few of Adam's sons.
The great majority of his children
are compelled to woik for their sub
sistence, aud "eat their bread by
the sweat of their brow."
I often think how foolish it is
of those born rich or made rich by
fortunate circumstances, or many of
them, to trouble themselves so much
about their possessions, and even
plan, and contrive, and work to in
crease them. A small percentage
of what they have would make me
happy and contented all my life.
But they arc dreadfully afraid all
the time that they arc going to lose
some, or- 'be robbed ; and grind
down to the last cent the poor gar
dener who furnishes them with ve
getables, or the hard-working la
borer who chops their wood ; and
aie all the time scraping and
speculating to ;ct moie, and
still more, until they die and
leave it all behind. How much
more conducive to their comfort and
peace of mind to contribute of their
abundance to the assistance of their
poor and needy neighbors !
Life is short, and to most is a
struggle from beginning to end. It
1 must be precious, or men would not
labor so hard for its retention and
Mippoit. One half of the world
knows not how the other half lives.
But one half knows this much, that
most of the other lives by hard
work. In latitudes where eternal
snow and everlasting ice abound hu
manity has the hardest struggle.
Next come those who reside where
the four seasons follow in regular
succession. Here in the .one of
perpetual summer, where the health
ful trade winds blow most of the
year, and fruits ripen from the be
ginning of January to the close of
December, life is the easiest. Vet
even here" laborious work from gen
eration to generation is the lot of
the masses. Nature needs it less
than the 'artificial requirements of
civilization, and an irrational civili
zation is blamable for most of the
irksome drudgery to which the dwel
lers on these islands arc subjected.
That civilization, however, is here,
and here it is going to stay until an
era of wisdom not yet dawning
comes upon us ; and along with it will
htay that ceaseless and superfluous
work which makes life slavery, and
the sensible man accepts things as
he finds them until they can be
Work is a thing which most peo
ple do not take kindly to. They
have a distate for it. They submit
to it as a necessity, but would rather
not. It is about the last item on the
catalogue of life's concerns which
they take from choice. I confess I
am built that way myself. Rome
are even so constituted that they go
on the tramp, rob, steal, undergo
hardships and privations, and sub
mit to hunger and thirst, rather than
work and ive ip peace and plenty;
;wd others do tho hardest kind of
work simply to avoid work. Thus,
I have seen a man balance a flvc-
ndrcd pound plough on his
in n ciicus, to save, himself
from the legitimate work of follow
ing that plough in the field.
After all the objections and all
the aversion to work, work is health
ful and woi k is pleasant up to i
certain point. Whatever may have
been the peculiar i hyslcal aud men
tal condition of father Adam and
mother Eve to fit them for a life of
Indolence, man is so constituted at
this distant remove fiom the begin
ning that woik has become a neces
sity of his nature. Absolute idle
nets is not good for him : it is
always liable to impair his physical
organs and get him into mischief.
Work, when taken in moderate
doses and suited to the stiength of
his stomach, is good for his health ;
and, when of that kind and quan
tity adapted to his taste, is agree
able and happifying. But when of
a kind not fitted to his taste or apti
tude, or in quantity too great for his
capacity, or prolonged to the stage
of fatigue and exhaustion, or when
forced to it in a stato of physical or
mental indisposition or disinclina
tion, work is decidedly irksome and
repulsive, and the very thing to
bring down imprecations on the
heads of our esteemed progenitors
of the palmy days of the beginning.
This is a working community.
The term is here used in contradis
tinction to a community of wealthy
men, plcasurc-scckeis, sight-seers,
etc. The work is of various kinds,
and the workmen of as many classes.
There arc the ordinary laborer, the
skilled mechanic, t lie salesman, the
car and cab driver, the accountant,
the collector, the newspaper writer,
the professional man, and others.
They are all woiking men. Some
work with the whole body, some
with the hands only, and some with
the heads and lingers. Here the
employers ot others are, generally
speaking, as much workingmen as
their employees, and many of them
perhaps get less pay. But for the
purposes of the balance of this es
say I shall speak particularly of the
man who works for another, in what
ever capacity, whether laborer, me
chanic, clerk, or anything else, as
the working man.
The relationship of employer and
employee, workingman and boss, is
attended by reciprocal obligations'
which cither is apt at times not to
be fully sensible of. The duty is
not all due from one side, and
neither should delude himself with
the belief that a mere fulfilment of
the letter of the agreement makes
the best master or the best servant.
The employee who feels the interest
m the success of his employer's
concerns that he should be faithful
in small as well as great matters;
and the employer who shows con
cern for his employee's welfare in
directly serves himself. The condi
tion and comfoits of the workingman
are often very much within the
power of the employer to modify,
and in nine ease3 out of ten, a con
siderate master is well served, and
an inconsiderate one the reverse.
Perhaps this community meaning
Honolulu is somewhat exceptional
in the social relationship existing
between the workingman and his
employer. No great gulf is fixed
between the two, as in some coun
tries. Jack is taken on the same
footing with his master, and they
live on terms of friendliness and
The working man is the poor
man, and because he is a poor man
he is a working man. lie has not
that visible and potential capital
which appears in the shape of
money, lands, houses, stocks, etc.
His ouly capital is labor. This he
puts out at the highest rate of inter
est procurable, and in so doing is
absolved from the crime of usury,
which his rich neighbor often un
. The poor man, otherwise the
working man, is of all the popula
tion the mo9t important, because tho
most necessary. The capitalist, the
money-lender, the speculator, etc.,
although useful in their way, can bo
spared, but the working man can
not. Leave us without labor, and
what becomes of us? The steam en
gine without any fuel, the cart with
out the horse. Very handsome and
good in their way, but both helpless
logs without the motive power. So
the wealthy, who live In gorgeous
palaces and fare sumptuously every
day, and assist enterprise by the
use of their capital, arc excellent
people ; but Biipposo they have no
one to black their boots, clean the
carriage, harness tho horse, etc.
"Why, thoy evaporate or become
workingmen themselves. The work
ing man can live without the lich
man's capital, but tho rich man's
capital is useless without the woik
ing man'.s labor.
Because the woiking man is the
most necessiiry of the population,
ho sliMild be the chief consideration
of a wise nation's political rajlntc.
All law should be careful to piotccl
and encourage those who have no
means of livelihood but labor, and
to make the demands upon them for
the necessary sei vices of State as
light a possible. Imposts, duties,
and taxes should be so regulated as
to throw most of their weight upon
the rich, the class best a'blu to bear
them; and every fair and wise
means should be adopted by the
State to Increase the earnings of
workingmen, by throwing open
every outlet possible for profitable
employment. Capital can and does
take care of itself, and rich men
can and do protect themselves. The
poor man is at a disadvantage. Here
as well as elsewhere, the rights of
property are clearly defined and as
siduously preserved ; but the rights
of the poor are surrounded by a
hazier atmosphere, and his claims
arc less zealously guarded.
The man of means is often prone
to take advantage of the poor man's
necessities, to purchase his labor at
the lowest price possible. It would
suit him to pay twenty-live cents a
day, and the workman find himself;
or to employ the fellow for his grub,
if he would promise to cat nothing.
This he considers legitimate. I
don't. On the other hand, the work
ing man sometimes demands more
for his woik than it is worth, more
than its value to the purchaser. It ia
not reasonable to expect an employer
to pay more for labor than the pro
duct of that labor returns to him.
Nor is it right for the employer to
grow opulent by another's labor,
while the laborer icceivcs a mere
pUtance as his remuneration.
I have too often noticed that the
man who was once a woiking man
himself, but has risen to atlluence
and become an employer, is fre
quently the greatest enemy of the
working man and the strongest op
ponent of sufllcient wages; while
the man who never knew what it
was to do a day's work in his life,
is often the first to champion the
cause of the poor, "and to show
practically that he considers "the
workman worthy of his hire." I
have heard,men talk like this: "I
know what it is'to be poor. I have
had to work hard for what I have
got, and had to accept low wages,
and eat tho bread of poverty. Let
others do the same. The days of
my adversity are over. "These men
who despise and oppress the class
from which they have emerged, like
a tawdry buttcilly from an unpre
tentious grub, look like asses and
talk like tho mean, contemptible
baboons they are, in claw hammer
coats and white kiduloves, which
become them like a necklace of
pearls on an unwashed pig. These are
the kind of men whose energy and
liberality would fertilize a desert with
dishwater, and turn Paradise into a
Another thing 1 have observed
more than once, fellows after growl
ing about the pi ice of labor, going
into a liquor saloon and dissipating
in cocktails as much as would sup
port a half dozen laboring men for
a week. Their fiiends thought them
fine jovial fellows ; I reckoned them
mean, miserable crawlers.
High and low wages are compara
tive terms. What aro high wages
in one place are low wages in another
place. The laborer may be well
paid with two dollars a day in Hono
lulu, and badly paid with five times
that amount in central Africa. In
the first case the workman may be
able to live comfortably and lay
aside money, and in the second have
to practise the most rigid economy
to make ends meet. It should be
stated also that no government Inter
ference can lower or raise wages
without disastrous consequences.
Tills point was settled long ago. All
that an executive can do is to afford
every possible facility to private en
terprise, and thereby indirectly in
crease the demand for labor, and so
augment its value.
The working man's wages should
be sufllcient in amount to provide
food, raiment, and decent shelter
for himself and helpmate, not exclu
ding the olive branches. And this is
not enough. In a country like this
the working man does not work merely
and solely for the purposo of mak
ing ends meet. His expectations do
not altogether terminate at that
point. Ho hopes some day to rest'
from his toll, mid sit down in a
home of his own jond in ordor there to
should receive woges by which, with
care and economy, his pin pose may
be readied. Blessed is the commu
nity where the working man is so
well paid for his capital, which is
labor, that he and his family cnti
live in comfort, and lay aside a little
for a rainy day. The capitalist cries
out for cheap labor; but cheap labor
is a cm sc and not a blessing to any
country. Cheap labor means the
masses who feed the supply of labor
remaining at their original level
while swelling the profits of the
wealthy, the poor growing poorer
and the rich richer, until we see the
palace and the pauper alongside of
each other inordinate wealth and
abject poverty. Is this prosperity?
Is this progress? Is this pro bono
Finally, -H-should be noted that
the wages of the workingman are
not beneficial solely o the wage-
earner: i-.very line oi trade gets n
blinic of benefit. Wages arc the
real, active capital of a community.
Land, stock, manufactures, profes
sions, etc., represent money in re
pose stagnant. Wages are the ebb
and How of the metallic tide. On
Saturday pay day the circulating
medium is at high-water mark, and
for the six following days Hows
steadily back, through innumerable
channels, to the main, fertilizing in
its course many sources of profit.
The greater, therefore, the body of
metallic lluid at the top of the Hood,
the more there is to replenish the
Held of speculative enterprise. In
other words, the higher the rate
of wages the more extensive the
dealings in all branches of trade.
It looks like a salt trust. The
National Reformers salted the lie
form Pari j' in the elections. Kinney
has gone to Salt Lake, and the Min
istry arc going up Salt llivcr, and
the Advertiser is shedding sail toais.
The Reformers aie reading "Look
ing Backward" and striving to foiget
"It is impossible, of course, for
the public to know from which one
of the Bumxtin's numerous editor
ial contributors this final attack on
Mr. Kinney emanates." Under the
system of unsigned editorial ai tides
observed by all the journals heie,
we do not sec that it ought to matter
to our contemporari' from whom any
of our editorials emanate. Does it
wish to know so that It can make
personal reprisals? Or has the Ad
vertiser lost that jaunty boldness
with which, to suit unscrupulous
party purposes, it has lately been in
the habit of attributing every edi
torial in this paper to the associate
editor? If, however, anybody
wishes to remonstrate against our
utterances with a club, the name of
the responsible editor is always to
be found on the first page.
ELECTION of OFFICERS.
NOTICE is hereby Riven Unit at Ihu
annual mietintr ! Ilinslreklmlclers
In the Hawaii-Hi Fiult & Turn Co. tlio
following wcro elect' il lo erve as offi
cers for ihu eiiiiiing juar:
Inlin Itlclnml-ton Prc'iuViit,
Clms. Coj'ji Vice-I'n sliliut,
W. II. Daniels &
. ( TieuMirur,
A. N. Kcnolkul Auditor.
W. II. DANIELS,
WnlliiUu, Maui. Mnich 1!l, lfcliO.
ELECTION of OFFICERS.
AT llio nnnunl meeting of ilicl'coplo'n
lee & RDfriKiirnliiig Co, held
TUESDAY, Mnich llili, Hie following
otUcrrs, who cnnt-iittitu bo the Board
of Diicctors, were elected:
W. (). Smith President,
.lona Austin Vice-President,
0 P Castle S'cietnry,
C R Bishop Trensuicr,
T. V. Uoliron Auditor.
O. 1 CASTLE,
510 10t Secretary P. I & It. Co.
Union Iron Works Co.
NOTICE U hereby given that
moetlii!' of tlio biibscitueis U
moetliur of tlio tuiieiliieis to tlio
capital stock of tlio ahovu named Com
pany held in Honolulu, 11. I., Match
li. 1 StiO, it was oted to accept tlio
Charter of Coiporatlou dated .Match 1,
1800, for tho term of llfty yeais, granted
liv tho Ilawnllnu fiovei mucin. Tliu lia
bility of tho stockholders I limited to
the amount dun and unpaid on tho
shares held. The following officers
weie elected for tho ensuing year:
.1. N'.S. Williams 1'iesldeiit,
It. More Seeietary & Tiensiuer,
A. J. Ciiilwi Ight Auditor.
Tlio above uniiicd officer.-, alio consti
tute a lloaid of Director.
-I !i li I m Secretary & '1 rensiucr.
fPO nurclwse, a
JL Apply at this office.
IJiROSl tho Coibt a choice lot nf
; Ci(!ufl, Cigarette and Tobacco,
which will ho fold at verv low priced.
4110 1m No. 87 Kliitf street.
I FIREWOOD for falo nt Hawaiian
. Commercial Haksroome, corner of
Quccu and Nminiiu streets. 4C8 If
THE MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE CO.,
op TVJ&W ork:
Is issuing a new fotm of insurance which provides, in tho event of death, for a. return of all premiums paid in ad
dition to tho amount of the policy, or, should the insured survive n given number of years, the Company will
return all the premiums paid with interest ; or, instead of accepting the policy and profits in cash the leiral holder
mny, WITHOUT iIKI)ICALKXAMINATION"and WITHOUT FURTHER PAYMENT OK PREMIUMS, take In
lieu thereof the amount of policy and profits in FULLY PAID UP insuiance, participating annually in dividends.
Remember, this contract is issued by the oldest Life Insurance Company in the United Stairs, and the Lar
gesl Financial Institution in the Woild, lis assets exceeding One Hundred anil Twenty-Six Millions of Dollars.
8ST For full particnlats call on or address
I)co-5!t-89 General Agent for the Hawaiian Islands.
Fresh Cakes, Pies,
gjGT And will be DELIVERED FREE of CHARGE-to any
XIIJLX. ol, .STARE:
Collee, Tea, Chocolnlo & Milk, " .
Soused Pig's Feet, Cold Hani,
Spired Tongue, Spiced Beef, Salad.", Etc.
FINE HAVANA, MANILLA AMERICAN CIGARS !
a i.Aitnr. AKHiirr.Mi:NT or
Pipe & Cigarette Tobacco, Pipes, Cigar & Cigarette Holricr.s, Cold Drinks, Etc
gjS" Open hum 11:30 A. M. until 9:110 i m Saturday night, open all night. Bell Telephone 282.
Mutual Telephone 211. Post Office Box 178. ',,, -187 1m
Solo Proprietors of BAILEY'S SARSAPAMLLA & IRON WATER,
Giiipr Ale, Bod Ale, Grenadine, Rasntoyaile, Sarsaoarilla, Mineral Waters, Etc.
bq" All coinnumlcutlons and orders should bo addressed lo
BENSON, SMITH & CO.,
M9 lm Affenls.
Gale Cily Slone Filter !
These 1'lltcis arc casllv ele.-uied,
and NEVER become CRACKED or
CRAZED by change of t"iiiperatine of
The Filtering Medium Is a NATURAL
STONE, milled from the earth. It is
unlike any oilier Mom;.
It Does Not Absorb and
Become Foul !
IMITRITIES never PENETRATE
it, hill lie on the suifaec, aud internally
the tnue iciuaiut as pine and while
after years of ue a-, when taken fiom
The Gate City Stone Filter Is a per
foct succc-i. It W the only i eal filter I
have eer seen. I would not he without
one for any coif-ldeiatioii. li eonveits
our lake water Into the best drinking
water in the woild.
IIkmiv M. Lyman, M. O.,
5:i:S West Adams St , Chicago.
Kff- For Salo by
HAWAIIAN HARDWARE Co.,
Op o lie Sprcckuls & Co.'s Bank,
TI) tf Fort street, Honolulu.
-roit Sam: hv tiii:
BAKERY and COFFEE SALOON
ALWAYS ON HAND AND TO ORDER
Rusks, Doughnuts, Picnic Rolls
LEMONADE WORKS COMPANY.
:-and-: PLAIN: SODA.
j m w. ....... . ... . .
Our (treat Annual Remnant Sale,
COMMENCES THIS SATURDAY
And will tuiifiaiis any that linn ever taken ld.ico at this or any other
ItKMX.WT IX AM Ii:ilimiKVIS !
We must sell our Remnants anil you will be glad to buy them at. low prices
at wjiich thoy aro off'eied. Re -sure to bo on hand Saturday.
X. II. All UooiIh Marhed with Plain I'luaicH anil Hold for Cattl'i Only
Chas. J. FISHELS,
The Leading Millinery House, Coiner Fort it Hotel Mf.
EGAN &c GUNN
mode. TNo. 77 3
Frencli, English anfl American Dry and Fancy Ms,
CHILDREN'S CLOTHING, FURNISHING GOODS, ETC.
Have just icceived by last Australia n lino lino of
Cotton Challis at 15 cents per Yard I
Just the material for Spring and Summer Wear.
Great Reduction "Sale !
AFTER TAKING STOCK I HAVE REDUCED MANY LINES OF
IMMENSE BARGAINS ARE OFFERED
OF THE FOLLOWING GOODS
17111' 'Iotorviary 15tli, Only.
124 pair of Undressed Kid Gloves I
0 and 8 Buttons in perfect order at $1 a pair Great BaigaiiiH.
All my DRESS GINGHAMS about 110 pieces to Felcct from aie ofleicd at
Coatl'iice. A small lino of
Scotch Gin'hams at a Great Reduction !
READ THIS A largo assortment of READ THIS
WHLIXJE X3RXSS$ goods,
Sneli as riques, Embroidered Swisses, India Linen, Plain Swiss, Naiiihook ami
many other lines of Whito Goods. I will tell at Mich ft
piico that o'vorybody will buy tliom,
gjST Remember, February 15th will close this Sale, jpl
I'cb 1-90 Corner Hotel & Fort Streets.
Inflftin flnlrnn TMn THn
part of the cily. J(S
.... . wwvai,
is so eagerly looked for by
& FORT STREETS.
- ? v