Newspaper Page Text
mm 1 tfiitmn f Mnif ran winmnnw ami ri tt ttmt rrrfMTrT',fc-fL Mr1'
Jk'UW UttHM !
l)Y LAST "MATUrOX V" I HF.OF.1VHI) A I.AKOB HTOCK QV
T"Trk-r ,v Ij A TVTifVCr fi 14",iT,0 f
.UlXJ. & 12JA.F(JZ JJ)U& i.aticnlh;
Which ore now opsued out lor inspection.
Choice Selection uf French Ssteencs I
Faet Color., about 160 Piece:? nt 2. cents a ya:d;
SCO It1 11 ZEPHYRS, the Latest Novelties
A Now Line ot TOYAL BATISTE;
PERSIAN MULLS, in tlm Late.". Designs;
JLtncn Z-u.-vn ! JOincrs JL.vvnN I
wish to call the attention that 1 have- tbi season imported the Fine at and
Best Selected Stock of
Of Kvery Po'cription. ISO pen to select from. 1 have bought
1,501) Pieces ol' liiites ii Bit 1'foi lis Bast
An Iinmeiieu Assortment.
fij" Ladus iu want of Embioideiies can envu 3'. pur cent on ovyiy
tut) 1-90 Corner Hoid & Tori Nlrt.
B. F. EHLEB
IIAVi: 11 .-T ItCCniVIIl) S VKIIV lt.OK AFNOKTMrSfT 01'
Staple ik Fancy Dry
LADIES' & CHILDREN'S UNDERWEAR,
Gcur Xmr:nilixig- GootlH, Ace, Scj,
All will bo told at licarounb'.o Price.".
gfST Our liic-miaking Department under tho management of MISS
CLARK will bo le-oponed about May 12th.
.uxlw-'i '" -':
HAVE JUST BECKIVCD Ex AUSTRALIA
A Choice Line of Dry & Fancy Goods,
itiit tJiovcfi ivoiu o to :ic liuiioiws
Hosleiy, Satlncs, Scotch GlDgtiams, latest patterns; YooIen Dress Gcods,
ALSO, A OIIOICB LOT OF
Boys', Youths' k Children's Clotliing, Tmnh, Bags & Valises.
Shipping I Commission Merchants,
PLANTATION & IXSUKASCC AOMISTg,
Bjiiders' and General Hardware, Aricolfarai iioplsmcuts
Kitctiiii Ptcniil?, iV.int?, Oils, Vuiiiihhca, Jjimp Gondj and
Blab's Slcam Pddijs, Wtstou's Ctatrltiigals,
Wllcui fi Gibtts, a BimlDgton Sewing Machines,
Dr. Jayne fi Sens Family SSedfciucs.
CRYSTAL -:- SODA -:- ?0RKS,
JUllX OlfAOii:, : : Pnnn-iclor.
ROLV. MAXUFAOTURKRS of "TJIR OUEA'P BLOOD
SAESAPAEILLA and IEOH WATEB,
Oiafjei Ale, Sarsaparilla, Lomon, .Croam Si Plain Soda.
r c.'ikvjsi i'.i. a?ixz ox rKit. c
JCT ALL ARItATEI) WATP.KS Gt'ATtANTKEI) PUitE &
rt ic i s 3 wrn sojcj r-i
Mutual Tolcphouo 330 -e o ussy Bell Tolophono 298
jC0FIt,l.md nideirt jironiptly atlonded to,
UMON FEED CO,
-OFFKit AT mm
California If ay, OiUn, ran,
Oil C'nko JHcul, JLiiiHCLMl Weal,
IJavJoy, Jtolhid Hurley,
Middling Ground !i;irWy,
Wlioat and Om-a L'inur.
ffhQBli KrMtH, Cnldmi ttutn & Sallnas-rw FLOUIl
yolophouoB, No. 175.
siw wooiw :
m i-L - -.
7acliin!b' & f luroU-rn' Tih.1"
Cor. Edinburgh Sc (iuoon Stc.
i)Alh' BULLETIN: HONOLULU, U. J.,
wiMfii fttfajuTpao iwiKaeiii).
THE LADOn QUESTION.
(Paper rend befoie ike "PhitileiV Ln- '
OU1 1UIU OUJIJJ H" IMM VJUluuri,
bj .1 M. lloriH.'i', but not before
Tn purMilii!. further the subject- of
labor supply, I may observe that tin;
idea (if importing nntl relurnim;
laborer must toMilt in scattering
...1 c ,.. ,.. , ,.. r. ...,.....
friciully blesns! to the nations, as
irhteuhm and civilizin" ayeni
to a re:iter extent than would lie
the ease if they v ere Imported and
never returned ; as tlnm has reveal
ed the fact, that unfriendly compli
cations have arisen becpuse so many
Imported Kilmer have been left
abroad, resulting in lestiictive Ian 3
unfriendly to national and individual
intercourse, such lawa being in their
nature unjtHt and anti-Christian.
War and persecution have had n
tendency in tlmci past, of scatter
ing clvillzitii; influences over the
woild, which must have remained
lon;er as sreiets in iosession of
those first discovering tliein, had
not workmen and hcienlibts uho
posseibtd theie civilizing secrets
been forced abroad by these cruel
But war, persecution or other hos
tile agencies, will not be required
hereafter to scatter blessings over
the world provided nations do not
shut themselves up in their shells as
China, Japan and others have done
in tuncji past as all civilizing in
lluonccs can be dUtiibutcd bj'
friendly intercourse', and the moving
of large bodies of laborers to and
fro about tho woild, for building
.Pacific Uailroads, Suez Canals, lais
ing sugar cane and peifoimiug other
extensive labor must nave Hint teml
euey, the enterprising, intelligent
and skilled among litem would learn
of each other.
The nations that supply laborers
and tli03e who receive them, would
be brought face to fuce in a more
continuous liicudty way, than they
would bu by importing or exporting
hUiou'is and leaving them scattered
over the woild to become buffers or
footballs lor the evil disposed, and
to suffer tli exactions of restrictive
unfriendly laws. We think the
present advance in the sentiment of
railroad, telegraph and steamship
building in China, is hugely due to
the importation of laborers from
China into America for the purpose
of Ittb.ning on the Pacific llailwny
and other enterprises. They have
been moving to and fro, ever since,
using tlic telegraph in their com
munications, riding upon and doing
business on railroads, until now the
people ol China are demanding these
civilizing agencies in their own
country. It the planter j and others
of thec Islands adopt the above
suggested course of labor supply,
it will remove much ot the unpleas
antness now existing here, and mako
our future supply more certain.
Jiut if tho planter.-, yield to the
present clamor, and consent to the
enactment, of icstriotive laws to
abridge the just right ol Chinamen
now here, most of whom we brought,
tho whole burden of blame will fall
on the planter, not only for the un
just law, but for nil t luturo re
strictive consequences, which would
be, that no further supply of labor
could ever be expected fioin China,
while those brought bote were un
justly dealt with, which must con
line our future .supply being di awn
altogether from Japan. .And as the
same objections now uiged agaiiiit
the Chinese will hold good against
Jupanise, a short time only iim.-t
ellipse before a restrictive law will
be demanded against the Japanese,
and the door being open, tho prece
dent established, the law would soon
Then, where could wo look for
labor with both China and Japan
arrayed against us. Hotter keep
them friendly, at least not make them
enemies by enacting unfriendly laws
against those now here, and here
alter ship all with an understanding
that they revhip or return to their
home.-, at the expiration of their
contracts. Let it bu distinctly un
derstood that they come as laborers
If this course is pursued the ex
tension ot Pacific commerce now
taking placo will render it quite
easy for us to obtain supplies ol la
bor from China and Japan, and
without overrunning the eotiutiy
with discharged laborers to create
double. The geographical position
of these islands and the growing
trade of the Pacific, all point to
those islandsasu lalterday Venice
a centre of trade the distributing
point of an extensive commerce,
situate as they are on tho present
diiecl line ot liavel between the
noithwest coast of America, the
I'acitic Stales and Australasia,
and on the direct contemplated
steamship lino between South and
Ccntial American l'acillu ports and
China and Japan, those hives of
human beings. This first possessing
vast ureas of ilch unoccupied tciri
toiy, requiring much labor for its
development, and the hitter Humor
ous armies of surplus laboreis.
Also situate on the direct, if not the
terminus, of lines of business and
(ravel soon to bo opened through
Central America at tho completion
of the Nicaragua Canal, between
Europe and the rust coast of Am
erica, the West Indies and Hawaii,
bringing the costly products of the
workshops of Europe and tho east
coast of America, to diichnrgo tho
same in the laige warehouses yet to
be built in Honolulu, Ililoaud other
suitable places, and from there din
Uibuted by tegular lines of sail
and steamers to nil J'aclfiy ports,
ami tljuso regular lino iteauiera
bringing in their turn merchandise,
tiavelern ami luborois Horn China,
Japan, nml other place to ho tlis
ti United fioin hero to all quarters
where wanted, and thus Hawaii
must attract the attention of busi
ness men, and become thu distribut
ing point of i largo commerce and
for a vast region.
If this picture becomes a reality,
ns it surely will, being already stint
ed and wholly contemplated, how
important that we maintain friendly
lelatious with all people when it is
in our power to do so, and we may
set a worthy example of being
friendly with all, and use and re
turn such labor as we may wish,
without their becoming a nuisance
among us, or objectionably numer
ous. With steamers running on perma
nent lines, and planters with agen
cies in both China and Japan, we
may faucy with what rapid ease a
planter could supply himself with
labor by stepping over to the. tele
graph ollice and announcing to
Messri. Ship-All & Co., his agents
in Chitia, to "send byjniwl week's
stfamcr 100 laborers .for the Ha
waiian Commercial Sugar Co., Ha
waii." lie would bo just as
sure to get them, as he would
an invoice of merchandise ordered
from America or China, without
wailing as we do now, until enough
laborers were ordered to load a ship
before they oould be sent for. Laws
and regulations could be so made or
amended ns to allow individual
planters to order laborers on their
own account, and every plantation
management would eventually be
come known anions; laborers and
business men of China and Japan ;
if we lieat them :n friends and
neighbors, not as enemies and
Thus we may fancy a gloiious lu
lure, which in the providence of the
Great Master must surely come to
pass, but if we wish to reap advan
tage! fiom ir, we must show our
selves active and friendly, and not.
give offense by restiictive laws
against the just rights of their peo
ple; now among us.
Willi the bnght prospects betore
us, nnd a country in its infancy ot
development, we have no time to
dispute find quarrel over imaginary
evils. There is room for all, and a
quarter of a million more. Let u;
be up nnd doing, preparing for the
tuliite, holding up the hands of our
Government as long as they con
tinue to do well, encouraging them
in every effoit they are making lor
the good of the people and the. hon
orable standing of Hawaii among the
nations; inei easing our output of
sugar and rice, by adopting im
proved methods and machinery, and
modes of cultivation, fertilizing the
soil, taking in new lands on old
plantations whero possible, opening
new plautations, setting tea and
coffee groves, improving our
harbors, extending our railroads,
and so add to thc'wealth ol Hawaii,
and increase our exports yeaily for
many years to come. Let the idle
cease lounging around the bat run
streets of Honolulu, nnd make for
the coiiutiy, and prepare to wrebtle
with nature in her vugin strength,
compelling her to yield to you some
of the wealth btorcd in her banks.
My word for it, figuratively speak
ing 6hn has more fc-'O gold pieces
wrapped up in her nigged nature,
than him ever been dreamed of, mid
she invites man to "come and take
them" but gives him to understand,
at the same time, thai he has got
"to dig nnd wiestle for them and
obtain them by tho sweat of the
brow." Those millions dug from
her concealed wealth by thu planters
yearly have hardly been missed,
making, as they do, so small a pro
portion of what remains.
J .so. M. Housr.u.
Pacific Hardware Co,, I'd,
U, l'.DUIIngUsin, PrrtiJuat! J, 0. Bpeuier,
'RU'i(.ri P. I, Wlutcr, TroiMira.
Ilir. VKUV I.A'II'M' l.N
Piano Lamps, Banquet Lamps,
.ltlM-nry 1iiiii --,
Hall Lamps & Clmndoliore,
Just Itueeivcd Irom the Factory.
A Now Line of Refrigerators,
A Full Line of the Fnwnite
Eddy's Refrigerator's and Ico Ciuets,
DUttm'e Bivre k 1'ilccj ITcw Llan of Lc ku,
I'lanut, dr., Cultivaf or.
Pictures Frames & Mouldings.
Fncifio Htrdwaro Co.. LM.
MO. tf Fort A Merchant si.
HAWAIIAN JOCKEY CLUB,
rpili: following nominations will i-Impo
X. Jumti'.O, ls'.iu:
Futurity Slnkos ol 1002 Foi Hawaiian
hied 2 year old. A Hweeiwtiike ol &60
ns follow ; 5 on Nomination, 1310
January I, 1SIH, 10 .Fulv l, I Mil, L'.'
Jaiiiimy I, IMc,'.
Ilawilian Derby ol 1093-For Hawall.in
hied :i year old, A Sweepstake or fJHO)
as follows: ti.'i on Nomination, 810
January 1, IS'.H, tt'M Julv 1. 1BDI, sS5
January 1, istw, 6to Jammiv l, IBliil.
U. O. HF.IiOHH,
fot td Seerotitry.
VOU HALE Oil 13 A 1
ACOMPLF.TK outfit for making nnd
dtfpnnnlutf carbotiated buveiagvs,
all In good ouli-r, Aildrcs
Wl Urn U'filohlmi, Hawaii,
JUNE 21, 1890.
FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING
Spreckels' Park, Kafiultii,
JULY 4, 1890.
1 Rnc-'nAirJHOAD STAKES." fiirio$25.
ItUN'XISG. H Mile Da-h. Free
for all Hawaiian bred horses.
Cad Ete-"KAItULUI PURDE." $100.
ItUXXLVO. 1 Mile lnh. Tree
3rd Um.-"MAT0H HACn."
TIIOTT1XO and PAOIXO. To
IIhmicm. 1 Mile licnts, best U In ii.
ttU Eace-"WAIKAI,tJ POUniJ.11 $50.
UUNXINd. Ji Mile Dash. For
Maul bred hoi-ies.
Dili K.o-"WAILTJKrj rUtlSK." $80.
KUXXIXO. Jv Mile anil repent.
Fiee lor all Hawaiian bied hoihcs.
Uth Kmo- 'KIHQ'S X'LA'IE." Puw $50.
TUOTTIXlL 1 Mile Heats, best 1!
In II, to burnt'.-s. I'm- all horses
without a reeoid of .'):10 or better.
7th IlMo-"ABB00IATI0S rtJEBD." $,100.
UHNXIXO. 1J Mile Hash. Free
BIli llace H0VELTY HACK." I'arsa $70.
HL'XXIXO. 1 Mile Uu'li, 1st, 2ml,
md ijuurier, 10; ami -lib quarter,
S'j cneii. hor lliiwalliui IjiviI
9th Ha:c-"KUI.A rUHBE.1' $50.
rONYKAOE. . Mile flush. For
l'onles U liuiuN or umler, In e.ury
100 iouiiiU ami up.
10th lUc-"WAIIIEE l'UHCE.'- lo
Timrnxo ami FACIXO. 1 Mllo
Hems, lji-st i! In .1, loliarui-Si. Fro
Hlh Raen "COftlNTHIAN IIACE." Galil
ItrXXIXO. 1 Mile lliisb. Ownw
to i hit; welterweights. Fnutonll.
12th Itac,-. "IIW.UIAN COMMERCIAL n:al
SUGAK CO.'a PUFISt." $50.
TKOlTIXn ami l'ACIXO. To
Harm-s. 1 Mile Heats, best 2 In 0.
Fiee foi all Hawaiian bred homes.
13ilt Kico "MAM CU."
HL'XXIXli. It r Mllo flash.
for all H.iwidlun bred hoi-es.
Htli nnco-"MAIDCNRACE. PurtaSIO.
nt'XXIXO. t- Mile Dash. Firu
in all Haw-allan bied hoists that
never ran a public race.
IDlli Race "MAUI DERBY." IMrso $75.
KUXXIXU. )i Mile lA3h Flee
for all Hiiwalliin Inv d 2 year olds?
10!h Hicc "MULE MACE." Pr $30.
JtCXXIXO. , ll!o H.-uli. I'wo
to all; eateh weighii.
All entries to eloe. Friday, .lime 27lb.
at "J o'clock noon, .'md nil entrnnre fees
to be 'JO iiereent. uiili--, otheiwt'-o si)e
eilled. All iaee. to ho inn or Irotted under
the mil"- of the Asoelai!nii.
All hor-i 1110 expected to start unlet,
drawn by is n'elui'k noon, on July :t,
(tiMier.il Adiiij-lon M ell,
To CriMlidhland .() en ,. Jjl.
1! HnioL-iA Cn'iliigi' $'..
1 Hore ijiininge ijl.
Jloiseb.'iek.... fiO e.t.
ti'iiuiewieieli Itailg.- iJJ.riO.
Ii. M. VKTIiKSKlf,
Sicretnry M. It. A.
Kx. Win. II Dlmoml,
or n in 11 test.
LEWIS & CO.
Til OS. 31. 8TAHKEV
J "J AS been appointed Agent to take
i-kuiiwlcilgineutj for IHitrletof
A. G-. SILVA,
65 & D7 Hotel Btre.t,
Furniture Matting & Carpet Laid
Fine I'pboUtei big aiifl Heddlng a spe
elaltj. June lt'i.iiin
Mrs. hi. J. liAMOS
Nsw PIiolorrrauliLc Gallery
At A. L, iiinlth'i., Ujibtlfi,
Where tho Beit, ths Neatest ami tho
I'hotogrnpldu Pletuies and Hesldence
Views mo taken. Lnllro satUlactlpn
given, and all ordors juomptly attended
par A respectful Imitation is nentont
to the Utiles to call and e for them
knives, 580 j)M
Svx e. ft r. Ki p iKva & a
fresh Butter I
IN UALr-1'OUNU l'AVB.
Is the Finest Table Hatter sold In the
City of Honolulu.
to nt: hah or
Henry Davis & Co.
luinirtcd Dlrtol from Havana.
B E ROER
HEWETT & JAC0BSEW,
Ac&uuUata, I'cllmtot", Cjmuibtiloa Areata and
Ocitt.tni Eojuo HioUu.
Are M all limes prepared to per
form auy Ueaeripiiun of l.lcrieal Wotk,
such as Amir.li.i; Accounts, Posting up
TindesmenV P.-iol.'., Making Invrnturlts
of Slouk, lr.ii(.'iOfing Leir.iT Hociuncnts,
Ltc. C'ltRpt'ienl 11. d Hellnblu Freight
Cleiks for the dulivi'iy ard tallying of
t3'0l!li e (il HlSrACUiV Hoiikutson'h,
Qiiniii ftreet P.iat (Jllleo ftnx 18H, Mil
tiifil Telephoi.e It-; Ittll Telephone 411
tStr Our New Artotype Ilhiitrated
Catiilogue sent free on application.
UH HVI'VeXl HT,
Man FiT.nnlMOo. : t Cullfornln-
Stes! Wire Fence
-FOK SALE BY-
Hawaiian Sariware Co.,
fitW Foil. street. ftf
1T1W. MONMtOK, ladlea' nuru-, hiu
ltJ. removed to No. ft, Kukul laiio.
FurniHliud Hoti.so To I,tt
T WalkiUi, 11 two Htory
House, contaluinii six
room nicely furnibhed. with
kitchen, Innni, Imlh ami fcrvnut'd romnu.
otihlo, et s , to let for a tew mrmtln m a
ro itonablo rate. Or rooms will liulot
nhly wPh rood table board.
HAWAIIAN UUSLNK.SS AOKNCY.
Valuablo Property For Sale
1 z wuiinnu avenue, a
newly furiiisheil a.ttorv
House coatulnlus S roouitt.
ktlehen, bathrooui, closets, rairiaco
liuiige, stabl", heiury, etc. Gimuuiit
contain a Si-lO acreu, well laid out in
lawn, sliado and fruit trece, flowctii,
etc. Will bo told low, with or without
furniture, lionet, rnrrhi;ci, live Htoclc,
nnd all thu iiupoUumeniH needed in a
llut-ehiHH iciliienco, ns the owner in.
temln leaving thcu JHlnmls.
HAWAIIAN' UL'SINICSS AOKNOV.
'pilK best leinedyfor
1 woumU, ulceiV,
galls, ptoud Ile.sh nnd
bores of every desihln-
-tlon to nerhons oranl-
imilH. Adopted by leading hor.se 1 all -road,
club und livery Hiable!", etc., lu
the United Slates ami elMiwhere, We
ate prepared to proo this statement by
luntluioulalii and lcforeucci to phiutem
uud liverymen hi ibis Kingdom.
HAWAIIAN HUSINKSS AOKNOY.
A LAKGK assortment of l'lioto;iiiphu
ami StercoHeoplu Vlms of tho
raonl utlraelive Bcenere, bulldluK, etc.,
lu theno IhIiiikIk, for cmlo at leusouable
HAWAIIAN BUtilNKfti AOHNOY.
Coiiiur Fort and Morclmiit tivftd.
OcBuiiic steamliii Cotfy.
TIMR TAKE Ait
From Oan Frrnoisco.
. . June W..
. Julv L'li.,
.. Aug a:i
. . Hept 20
. .. Nov 15..
, ..Nov i!2
. Dec 20
Mariposa . , .
Zealandiu . .
Fur San Franclsoo.
. Deo 21
. .June 2S
. . Julv 2(i
. ..Aug 211
. Nov Jii
. . Deo l.'l
.. Jun 10
Mariposa. . . .
Intermediate S. G, Auitralia.
Leave H. F.
Friday. Juno 20
Friday July 18
Friday.. .Aug 15
Friday . Sept 12
Fridny. ..Oct 10
Friday. . Nov 7
Friday. .Dec 5
Fildny.... Tidy .
Fiiday. ..Dec. 18
Australia Mail sontes.
Vmt WAN FBAKOt.SS.'y,
The new ami fine Al i.teel i-.n-r.uishlp
" Mariposa, M
Of the 1 iceantRSlenniililp Company, will
bo due at Honolulu from Hvdnoy
and Aiioklami on or tilhint
June 20, I8S0.
And will leave for iho above port wilb
malls and pa;suigcia ou or about tlit.t
For ficluht or rnnsnue, Imving U.
WM. G. IRWIH ft CO., Hew.
for Sydney anti Aiisklsaa.
Tho uew and tino Al Etetl fit(niiy.htp
Of the Oceanic Bter.mship Ooinpaiiv.wlll
bo due at Honolulu trota Sim
Franciwi o ou or about
July 3, 18S0. -
And will Lave prompt diip.uch will,
malls ami rmongers for the ubuve poru.
For freight or passage having 8U
PKHIOR ACCOMMODATIONS, appl
37 WM. G. IHWI27 & CO.. Agents
Gustav 4. Schuman
No. 79 & 01 : : King Sircct.
At W. Wilt'hl&Son'i.
Having received 11 full atsoitmcnt of
fr.rriat;eTilmml!iL' Materbdi fioin tho
Kiisi, 1 eiiii pre.vired to iixeoutoall onlci
with neatness nnd de&pHteli .it vnrv iiu. '
son a bio r it 'p.
Hawaiian Lime i ''
Moo 1'Kit i;aiii:::i..
PACIFIC HARDWARE CO., L'Dr
Oiy .Solo Agents. tf
NATURAL Mineral Water. For
xV. fale only by
AV. S. LUCK,
Solo Agent & Importer lor the Hn-
wallan IshindK. 523 if
Corner King it Bethel fltrcetw,
Hns just Imported Homo uew Htyle
3Iiuiilit & Ilavana Ciaavj,
Claaictto t Clioloo TobdoooH,
Fornale. Also, Cold Di Inks. B"7 2w
TAI WO CHAW,
Mtiniifaoturitr of I.adici'
French Kid, Calf & Kangaroo
BUI.',' BlinOS JIAIli: TO OltDRn.
I'i'UUeit or Kewriti ulho, Knilillen.
C'J Niiuaini SI., : : : P. 0. Hex iiO.'l.
11 pi 7.G0.ty
GOO KBSV3 & CO.,
No. 09 Nuuanu St., Honolulu,
And dealers lu all kludri of
CnaHlineren and Piirulaliliic UauU.
AIno, a full stock of Dry and rnney
Goods. Good lit guaranteed. 517 siu
CHANGE of KESIDENOE.
Hun iiinfiveil fioin Fort rlrect to Ho.
hollo Lane, Palr.na.
Okkicu Houiirt: t) a. ji, to 12 m. at d
r. m. to 0 J". M.
Mulual COB-SaTCLEPHONESfiS-Eell 470
IIHFAVOOD for talu nt Hawidihi.
A. Commercial HuleBrootni. corner of
fiueeti and Nmrniiu etteeta, 40a k ',