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COFFEE IN BRAZIL.
Sorao Famous Brnzilinn Fnzondas
How tho Borry is Oultivatod and
Proparotl for Market Com
Speeial Correspondence of tho Troy
Look into ouo of tho huts, and
yon will sob
A 1J1UTV HAMMOCK Oil TWO,
swung from tho rnftors that uphold
tho thnk'h, a fow cooking ntonsils
pilod on tlio onrth lloor, and traces
of a brush liro in tho middle of tho
roOin seldom anything moro or loss.
As ovorybody knows, slavery has
boon abolished in Brazil according
to law, but the negroos of tho inte
rior aro virtually slaves as much as
over in the bondage of ignorance,
poverty and debt. Tho freight on
a sack of coffee (138 lbs.) is about one
cent per niilo; therefore coffee com
ing from tho end of tho Dom Pedro
IT. railway must pay in tho neigh
borhood of .$-1 tho sack for transpor
tation to the shipping point one
third of its value when delivered in
Hio. From Rio to Now York tho
freight rarely exceeds sixty cents the
sack, and it is often as low as twenty
livo cents. Thus fifty miles of rail
way travel in tho country where it
grows, costs moro than R200 miles of
ocean. Many of the planters still
send their coffee to market
l)Y Mi'u: TRAIN,
considering that the cheaper way of
transportation. Tho entrance into
Santos-of amnio train from tho inte
rior is something worth seeing. Tho
train is always preceded by a white
horse, wearing a string of bells
around its neck, and all the mules
obediently- follow t ho leader. Some
times troops of several hundred ar
rive in the morning, and again there
are weeks when none appear. Every
inulo brings two bags of coffee on
his bauk, each weighing L'iS pounds.
Having made long, slow journeys,
often of hundreds of miles, tho ani
mals aro pitiable looking objects
when their burdens aro removed, for
the constant sawing of the loads has
not only abraded the skin, but in
many instances ground off the llesh
to the bono. The bags aro dumped
in huge piles in tho Custom House
yards, and around them cargadores
immediately collect like swarms of
black ilien. There is an export duty
to pay, ami u. . j cf ,M, Iliorc0(1
and a sample withdrawn, in order to
"determine tho quality and duty
thereon'. The "tariff, based on the
market price, is regulated anow
ovory Saturday. Tho sampling in
strument is a brass tube, shaped
exactly like a pen.
When the point is pushed into tho
sack of coffee, the berries run down
through tho tube; and after a hand
ful has been abstracted, tho instru
ment is withdrawn and its point
turned over like a crochet-hook, thus
closing tho opening. Tho operation
occupies only a few seconds, and tho
".samples" taken out amount to many
lous iu the course of a year. They,
together with all samples of export
ed sugar, aro presented to tho Lopor's
hospital. Tho gangs of cargadores
employed in "toting" tho coffee away
from tho Custom House and loading
it upon waiting vessels, aro a feature
of Santos. Naked except from tho
waist down and from tho knoos up,
glisten in tho sun and their well
cultivated muscles stand out like
whip-cords. Each gang has its
leader, generally tho tallest and most
powerful negro among them, who
carries a rattle, which ho shakos a la
tamborino, to tho barbaric music of
which his followers keep step in a
rapid jog-trot, singing a low, mono
tonous song meanwhile, in words to
us unintelligible. Sometimes tho
rattle gives place to a small Hag,
which is waved in unison with tho
stop, but the chant is never omitted
and seoins as essential as tho sailors
"Yo hoi blow tho man down." Jt is
said that tho average life of a coffee
carrier does not oxceud ton j'oars,
and tho wonder is that it lasts so
long. Time was when all tho hills
that environ IJio and tho shores of
its bay wore covered with coffee
grovos, roinuiiiH of which aro still to
bo soon; but with tho opening of tho
rnihwiys, coffee culture disappeared
from that section and pushed itsolf
farther and farther into tho interior.
Though tho commerce of tho .Brazil
ian capital is dependent almost
entirely upon coffee, tho commodity
is now brought down from San
Paulo, Minns-Goroas and other cen
tral provinces. Tho railways were
built expressly for coffee transporta
tion and for tho convenience of peo
ple depending upon that branch of
commerce, Thus nearly ovory pas
songor one moots on thoso roads is
interested in coffee for a livelihood,
in one way or another, and about
ninoteon-twontioths of all the freight
transported has some relation to it.
Take away this ouo industry, and tho
railways could not pay for tho fuel
consumed by their locomotives.
First-lass' passenger faros
AUK FIVE CENTS PER MILE,
second class half that figuro, and
ovory pound of luggage, oxcopt that
carried in tho traveler's hand, is
charged for at so high a rate that a
trunk of ordinary size costs moro to
transport than its owner. Herbert
Smith, speaking on this subject, says
that though tho coffoo districts
drained by tho Dom Pedro and other
railroads aro so enormous, they do
not give ono-thirtioth as much
freight as would come from tho same
area in the United States. Tho great
plantations aro widely scattered, and
the majority of tho people upon
them being e-slaves I hoy have few
wants beyond what they can raise.
It scorns that there is a vast differ
ence in the producing power of laud,
according to what is raised upon it.
For example, you cannot produce
more than GOO pounds of coffee from
any one aero of ground in a year un
der tho very best conditions; while
in tho same length of time, from
eight to ten times that weight in
corn or wheat might bo produced.
But if wheat or grain wore grown
hereabouts it would cost more to got
it to lvio, at present railway rates,
than to bring it all tho way from the
United Stales. Strange as it niaj'
appeal", it has actually boon figured
out t hat wheat raised in Wisconsin
and Minnesota can bo laid down
cheaper in Rio do Janeiro than if it
wore grown at the end of tho Dom
Pedro railway. It is well known
that Brazil produces more than half
of all the coffee consumed in the
world, and that tho United States
takes more than half of all she ex
ports. THE FIRST COFFEE THEE
in Brazil was planted by a Francis
can Friar named Vallaso, in tho gar
den of the San Antonio convent;
but not until long afterwards (about
tho time of tho Haylian insurrec
tion) did it become an object of
great cultivation and importance.
Tho first cargo was sent to t ho United
States in 1S01), and all the coffee
grown that year in tho Empire was
barely 130,000 sacks. These coffee
districts, especially thoso of Gavaz
and Matto-Grosso, woro originally
settled b' gold hunters, who buried
themselves deep iu tho interminable
forests, in thoir search for treasure.
Their quest was so successful that
tho most eager avarice was more
than satiated. But people cannot
eat gold and diamonds; and agricul
ture being wholly neglected, it came
about that many who could count
4.1 i (raisuni he. llillioilS. 1 M'orcd
for tho very necessaries of life. Next
to Mexico and Pom (before tho dis
covery of Australian and Californian
deposits), Brazil furnished tho largest
quantum of hard currency to the
commercial world; and there woro
diamonds, rubies, sapphires, topaz,
opals and emeralds galore. But
thoso treasures retarded tho progress
of tho country moro than tho un
healthy climate, dense forests, ser
pents and savages have over done.
So much greater are tho riches of
tho present agricultural production
that tho annual sum received from
the single article of coffee not to
mention India-rubber, cotton, sugar,
dye-woods and other great staples
exceeds tho results of nearly a cen
tury of diamond-mining. A fow
figures will prove this. Take tho
era of independence, tho most pros
porous period of mining from tho
year 1710 to 1722 and of diamonds,
tho 232,000 carats exported woro
worth not quite three and one-half
million pounds sterling; whilo during
tho year 1851 exports of coffoo from
Bio alone amounted to 1,700,791.
During tho two years ending Juno
1871, Brazil exported coffee to tho
value of 5128,000,000, and during tho
same period, diamonds to tho value
of 10,500,512. Tho last official re
ports to which I have had access,
for tho two years ending Juno 1887,
give tho value of coffee exported as
102,273,512,031 milrois, and diamonds
only 227,280,000 milrois. This is not
beeauso tho famous mines show 0113'
signs of exhaustion, or that they aro
not worked as industriously as of
yore, but because tho area of agri
culture has boon so greatly extended.
Fannie B, Waiid.
Mr. J. P. Blaizo, an extensive real
estate dealer in Dos Moines, Iowa,
narrowly escaped one of tho severest
attacks of pnoumonio, whilo in tho
northern part of that state during
a recent blizzard, says tho Saturday
Review. Mr. Blaizo had occasion to
drive several miles during tho storm,
and was so thoroughly chilled that
ho was unable to got warm, and in
side of an hour after his return ho
was threatened with a sovoro ease of
pneumonia or lung fever. Mr. Blaizo
sent to tho nearest drug store and
got a bottle of Chamberlain's Cough
Remedy, of which ho had oft on heard,
and took a number of largo doses.
Ho says tho effect was wonderful,
and that iu a short time ho was
breathing quite easily. Ho kept on
taking tho medicine, and tho next
day was able to go to Dos Moines.
Mr, Blaizo regards his cure as simply
wonderful. Fifty cunt bottles for
sale by all dealers. Benson, Smith
& Co., Agents.
St. HjOTjiis, IMIo.
REWERS OF FIME BEE
Manufactured from Pure Malt and Highest Grade Hops!
JNo Corn or Corn Preparations ic-ed in place of Matt, n" is dono by otber East
ern Hrcwerics, in enter to cheapen tbo cost of tbeir llcer, mul to compete with our
world-renowned nml justly famed article.
With the Completion of the New Brewhouse,
the Brewing Capacity is the Largest
of any Brewery in the World.
Brewing Capacity: 6 kettles every 24 hours, 6,000 Barrels, r 1,800,000
Barrels per year.
Consumption of Material: Malt, 12,000 bushels per day 3,600,000
bushels per year. Hops : 7,500 lbs. per day 2,250,000 lbs. per year.
No Corn or Corn Preparations are used in the manufacture
of the Anheuser-Busch Beer. It is, therefore, the highest priced but the
i)ost wholesome and really the least expensive for its superior finality.
Annual Shipping Capacity : 100,000,000 Bottles and 5,000,000 Keers.
The AMir.uxKit-liiwcii On. have carried oil' the Highest Honors and tbo Highest
Class Gold Jledals wherever tliey have competed. At all of the International Exhibi
tions throughout the world their lioer Excelled All Other!
This Company have prepared a Special lirand of tbeir Highest fliade lleer for the
Hawaiian Islands, known ns "SPK01AI, JSKEW," with a handsome label and in White
liottles, which, with tbeir best "EXl'OIiT ANHEUSER" in Dark Itottles, heretofore
imported, we will now .supply to tbo Trade iu Quantities to Suit.
Equitable Life Assurance Society
OP THE UNITED STATES.
An Eminently Conservative and Safe Company.
The consideration of lirst importance iu judging of tho condition of any financial
Institution (mul notably of a l.ifo Assurance Company, tho majority of whoso contracts
extend over long periods of years) is its Surplus Strength. Tho ilijmTAiu.K has, over
and above all Liabilities, a Larger Surplus than Any Othor Assuiauce Company.
Assets, Dec. 31, 1891, -
Liabilities, including the llut.rvu on all existing
I'olleies (1 per cent. Standard), and Special
Reserve (toward the establishment of a y, per
cent, valuation or fl.fiOtyioo)
This Surplus remains after making provision for every obligation, on u rigid calcu
lation of Liabilities, based on the standaid pre.-oiibed by tho Insurance Law of the
State of Now Yoik, which assumes that Assets will be Invested n as to realize intorost
at tho rate of 4 per cent, pur annum. In addition to this, in a spirit of conservatism,
the Directors of the Society, on tho recommendation of its Finance Committee, have
set aside n Special Additional Itoserve, looking toward even a moru stringent and con
servative fittijte standard of valuation than the law now prescribes.
ALEX. J. CARTWKIG-HT,
Gonoral Agent for Hawaiian Islands.
(NKW JiUM.KTIN IILOCK, MKKCIIAKT KTW:CT)
REAL ESTATE BROKER
Fire Insurance Placed. Collections Attended To.
RENTS COLLECTED AND HOUSES RENTED.
I ANY UUgJNEJS ENTRUSTED TO ME WILL IIKOEIYK PROMPT ATTENTION, I
G-. W. MACFARLANE & CO.,
Agents for tho Hawaiian Islands.
- " -
W. F. REYNOLDS, Prop.
SOLE AGENT FOR THE
Domestic Sewing Machine.
This Machine is now Improved so as to
Chain Stitch or Lock Stitcli.
It Stands at tho Hend !
Needles Sc AUaohmsntB
KOI! Aid. KINDS OP MACHINES.
Sowing Machines of all Kinds Promptly
Don't foiget that this is positively a
No piivalo individual can obtain Credit.
Therefore everything is Cheap I
From $4 up.
-A.-utoliQ.r'ias : Mtxiiclolines.
Furncaux's Beautiful Views of the Islands.
Lawn Tennis Rackets and Balls.
BASE BALLS AND BATS.
STATIONERY AND BLANK BOOKS.
Popular Bound Books,
At 35 Cents Each 1
NOVELS! NOVELS! NOVELS!
Special Arrangements for School Supplies.
IS SHOWING A
Now so Popular
AND AT PRIOES WHICH YOU WILL
CONSIDER EXCEEDINGLY LOW
FOR SUCH man GRADE (iOODS.
T. l. Si:vi:uin.
A. W. IJoLSTr.it.
Fort st., over F. Hertz's Shoo Store.
VIEW, LANDSCAPE, and PORTRAIT YIEWS
OF THE ISLANDS,
Such as Natives Milking 1'oi Grass Houses
Hawaiian Style Hiding Hulaliula
Dancers Cocoanut Groves Palm
and Date Groves Street Views
and Duildings War Vessels
Shipping and Marine
Views, Etc., Ktc.
Also a Largo Collection of nil Prominent
and Interesting Views of tbo Hawaiian
Islands, either Mounted or Unmounted.
Books of Hawaiian Views
Made up to Order at tbo most Reasonable
Rates in Honolulu.
Cabinets S6 and S5 a Dozen.
HHJ Y. O. Box -193 tf
Wm. G. Irwin & Co.
"Win. 0. Irwin, - President and Manager
Clans Spreekels, - - - - Vice-President
AV. M. Gilford, - Secretary and Treasurer
Theo. O. Porter Auditor
AanNTS or tub
Oceanic Steamship Company,
OF SAN FRANCISCO, OAL.
C. BREWER & CO.
.1. O. Carter President and Manager
G. II. ltobertson. Treasurer
E. F. llishop. Secietary
W.F.Allen .. Auditor
Hon. 0. It, llishop ..1
11. Waterhouso )
HUSTACE & CO.,
WOOD and COAL.
White and Black Sand
Which we will sell at tbo Very invest
Market Rates for Cash.
Bell 41 TELEPHONE - Mutual 19
IMPORTER AND DEALER IN
Steel & Iron Ranges
Stoves & Flxit-mres,
HOUSEKEEPING GOODS & KITCHEN UTENSILS
Agate Ware in Large Variety,
WHITE, GRAY and SILVER-PLATED;
LAMPS & CHANDELIERS,
Crockery, Rubber Hose, Lift and Force Pumps,
"Water Closets, "Water and Soil Pipes.
PLUMBING, TIN, COPPER
DIAMOND BLOCK, Nos.
CASTLE & COOKE,
Importers and Commission Merchants.
Builders' and General Hardware,
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS and PLANTATION SUPPLIES
Paints, Oils, Varnishes and Lamp Goods
Agate Ware, Tin Ware, Never Break Ware and Cutlery.
Blake's Steam Pumps. "Weston's Centrifugals.
Wilcox & Glbbs and Remington Sewing Machines.
0 H A S . II USTACE,
IMl'OKTEK AXD DKAI.Klt IN
GROCERIES, PROVISIONS, FLOUR AND FEED;
Fresh California Roll Butter and Island Butter
New Goods Received by Every
t& All Orders faithfully attended
bolicited and nfiukcil with care.
LINCOLN BLOCK, King Street
WEST CORNER NDUANU & KING STREETS.
P. 0. Box 480. Mutual Telephone 90.
M IP YOU WANT TO SAVE TIME AND MONEY IJUY YOUIl FUltNI-
TUUE AT THE 1XL, COItNEU NUUANU it KING STREETS.
FOUND The iilnco to lluy New qwb and Second-hand Furniture of nil
kinds at Lowest l'rices: Tho IX1, k j& corner Nuuanu and King streets.
Bedroom Sots, Wardrobes, Ico jMy Koxes, Stoves, Chairs, Hanging
Lamps, Kut;i,Hureaus, Choll'onicrs, .JML ctc, Sold Chenn for Cash at tho
I X L, corner Nuuanu and King grjk streets.
Steamer and Ycranda Chairs. J&r yfa. Sofas. Bed Lounces. liabv Cribs.
Clothes Ilabkets, Sewing Machines, '""l Whatnots, Meat Safes, Truiiks,etu.,
Sold at thu Lowest Cash l'rices at tho I X L New and Second-hand Fur- HHHB
nituie House, corner Nuuanu and King streets.
S. W. LEDERER, Proprietor.
STORE OPEN SATURDAY EVENINGS TILL 9 O'CLOCK.
LEWIS Sc CDO-7
TELEPHONE 210 HI FORT STREET. I. 0:iJox297.
IMl'OllTEHS, WHOLESALE AND KETAIL DEALERS IN
Groceries and Provisions.
ON ICE Hy each steamer of tho O. B. 8. Co. from California Fresli California Roll
lluttcr, Frozen Oysters and Fresh California Fruits, Fish, Game, Vegetables, etc.
Acomnluto lino of Croso & Ulackwcll's and J. T. Morton's Canned and Bottled Goods
always on hand.
Just received a Frosh Lino of Gorman Pates and Rotted Meats and Bottled Preserved
Fruits, Lewis it Co.'s Maltese Brand Sugar Cured Hams and Bacon, Now Breakfast
Cereals, Cream Oat Flakes and Cream Wheat Flakes, Sicily Lemons. California River
side Oianges, Oregon Burhank Potatoes, etc. Satisfaction guaranteed.
H. E. McINTYRE & BRO.,
IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN
Groceries, Provisions and Feed.
Now Goods Received by Every Paekot from tho Eastern States and Europe.
FRKSH CALIFORNIA PRODUCE BY EVERY STEAMER.
All Orders faithfully attended to and (ioods delivered to any part of tho Oity free
Island Olders solicited. Satisfaction guaranteed.
East Corner Fort, 8c King Streets.
METROPOLITAN MEAT CO,
8 K WU S". V,
Wholesale and Retail Butchers
G. J. "Waller, . . . ftfanager.
AND SHEET IRON WORK.
95 & 97 KING STREET.
Steamer from San Francisco.
to. Satisfaction (,'Uiirnnteed. Island Orders
Bet. Fort and Alakea Streets.
P. O. BOX 372.
-P. 0. BOX 115.
The Best Lunch in Town.
Tea. el.xicX OofFee
-ft-t .A.11 Hours.
The Finest Brands of
Cigars and Tobacco
Always on Hand.
K. J. 3STOLTE, OProp
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ifS&.'s.O' "r"5 . ..j
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