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THE WAGE QUESTION.
How the Workingman's Condi
tion May be Benefited,
An Adjustment ot the Labor Problem
Claimed In Profit-Sharing.
Address by Principal Grant of Queen's Uni
versity, Ciuada, Before the Pan
From the Moutn.nl Witne-.J
"NVhon co-oporatiou was proposed
by "Robert Owon as a practical sub
stitute for the relation of. employers
and omployed it was hailed as, a Gos
pel eminently English. The essence
of co-operation is that the working
men are to engage in trade with the
money thoy themselves hae aed
or borrowed. It is not a joint stock
company employing men, as a single
capitalist might employ them, but
the use of "joint capital by joint ac
tion for joint purposes." "In former
times," says Mr. llolyoake, "capital
ists hired labor, paid its market
price, and took the profits. Co
operative labor proposes to renor&o
this process. Its plan is to buy capi
tal, pa for it its market, piico, and
itself take all the profits." A co
operative workshop is one in which
labor hires capital, dovKos its own
arrangement and works for its own
need. In 1818 the tiitimph of co
operation was conidonth predicted.
Owon had succeeded sufficiently to
make others belioo that if they re
jected his extravagant views, which
had wrecked his best enterprises, his
methods would succeed. Louis
Blanc, as mombor of the Proisional
Government of France, was .allowed
to try it, with the aid of liboral pub
lic subsidies. But whilo IS 18 was
the year of faitli in a coming mil
Ionium, political, social and indus
trial, 184U turned out to bo the jear
of unfulfilled prophecios. The social
workshops in Paris aided by the
state, all failed, so did the co-opora-tio
ofTorts in England aided by en
thusiastic philanthropists; so did
most of the oiforts started on a solf
reliant basis, and conducted wholly
by workingmen. The failures dis
couraged most of those who '
preachod the co-operative faitli
Mr. Holyoako still believes, and, i.
like Elijah, ho does not complain 1
is loft alone. In his last work
"The co-operative movement to
day," published in 1891, hooxplains
away the failures, and is as confi
dent as over that, though it should
take centuries, the industiial world
must come to tho now way. But
surely tho fact that trades' unions,
including tho best and tho best paid
workingmen, do not iinest in co
operative workshops is more sugges
tive than ov n failuros that can bo
explained away. If profits are usu
ally so groat, why do thoy not reap
these for themsolvos? A. wise in
stinct dotors thorn, and thoy profor
to spotid their funds on "Benolit Ob
jects," and an occasional strike.
Thoy may bo willing or able to state
their reasons clearly, but thoy aio
too closely in contact with certain
facts and laws, not to appreciate
their full force. First, tho solution
of economic problems must bo econ
omic on peril of bankruptcy. Econ
omic laws aro as absolute in their
operation as tho laws of gravitation.
Secondly, inequalit of capacity is a
fact, tho range and reach of which is
almost incalculable, and its natural
coiisequonco is inequalitj' of remun
eration. Capital rocogniyes this,
but the average man kicks against it,
or admits it grudgingly. Thus co
operators would think a manager
well paid at $1000 a year, and would
refuse to trust him, but capital
would look out for tho right man,
pay him ton or lift' times as much,
and trust him absolutely. When a
syndicate agreed with our Govern
ment to build tho Canadian Pacific
Railway it offered a salary of JoU.OOO
to its chief engineer If the Govern
ment ventured to pajT any man half
that sum it would bo donounced at
every roadsido, j'ot it sponds millions
on public works, whilo tho difference
betwoon a first and second rate man
would moan tho saving of poihaps a
million a year. Thirdly, capitalism
has extended and consolidated it
self, and business has bocomo so
swift, complicated and extended,
that tho methods of co-operation in
competition with "corners," opera
tors, rings, or oven witli the regular
directors of industry that capital
employs and stimulates, would be
liko tho competition between the
stage coach with tho railway, or of
Brown Boss with tho arms of preci
sion. Thoro aro forms of industry to
which tho co-oporativo principle
lends itself and in those it should bo
triod. Last summer I visited Lunen
burg, N. S., and found tho harbor
tho noma of a hundred vvhito-vvinged
fishing vessels, almost all of thorn
built, owned and managed by tho co
oporativo mothod. So with tho
"Mackorol Adventures" of tin " t
of England, described at Uk
operative congress of 1880. But a
those cases a largo capital is iut
needed. Each vessel is managed in
dependently of others. Tho methods
Boldom vary. Tho product is always
(ho same, and little intellectual capa
city is required. In a fog, keen eyes
aro moro valuable than rarest genius.
Cheese pioduction in Canada is also
managed on co-oporativo principles.
In this also, little capital is needed,
and tho other conditions of produc
tion and sale aro equally simple.
But the principlo cannot bo applied
Whore, then, is tho remedy for the
imperfect ion of the "Wage-system"
to 1)0 found? I do not beliovo in any
Morrison's pill. Neither do 1 be
lieve that the resources of Christian
civilisation aie exhausted. The evo
lution of man has been going on,
.and will be going on until wo
hear the gieat voice out of
the throne aying: "Behold the
tabeinacle of God is with men, and
lie shall dwell with them, and thoy
shall l)e his people; and God himself
shall be with them, and be their
God." Whatever solution may bo
proposed, the rights of the indivi
dual must be recognised; that is the
lights of the capitalist, tho director
of industry, the skilled and unskilled
workman. Hut the rights of society
aro as sacred asthoo of tho indivi
dual, and alo must bo recognised.
Individual freedom and state inter
ference must bo recognised. So must
tho laws of economics and tho prin
ciples of Christianity.
First, then, wo start from thowago
system as a basis. Except where
oluntary co-opciation is pt net Sua
ble, free contract and fieedom to
combine art) the postulates of indi
vidualism. Tho advance upon sla
very and serfage which wages indi
cate must not bo lost. But no poli
tical economist of repute now holds
tnat workmen cannot possibly get
more than the amount in a so-called
"wages fund." Thoro is no wages
fund. Thoro aro necessary charges
connected with all production and
distribution of wealth, among which
aro wages that must bo paid at tho
market late. And when all charges
have been met, the piofits should bo
divided equally between omplojws
and ompkywl. In other words, tho
employed cannot be regarded only
as pait of tho charges, or as nioio
"hands," clashed with horses and
machinery, and other charges.
Tho righfs in equity of every in
dividual connected with tho busi
ness must bo lecogmed if the wage
system is to last. And a mere ad
vance in wages cannot nieasiiio these
rights, for tho human element in
labor is different in kind from ovory
other element, and the moro it is in
troduced in the quality of tho
poduct tho better. 'flio wage
sv stein then must bo supplemented
b) profit -shaiing. It is said that in
some lines of business there aro no
profits, and that in others thoro are
looses. In tho latter caso tho wages
cannot bo recoveicd any nioio than
tho other chaigcs. "Where there aro
no piofits a division cannot bo made.
How to satisfy tho workman that
thoro aro no profits, or if the busi
ness is to continue wages must bo
lcducod, aro difficulties not beyond
solution. When tho piinciplo of
profit-sharing is acted on moil will
cortainby do better work, fewer bosses
will bo needed, moro labor-saing
inventions will bo made, and tho
w orkei s w ill be icady to submit, w hen
necessi'iiy, to a reduction of wages.
At tho samo time, tho ovils that
wrecked co-operative schemes will
be avoided. Capitalists and directors
will havo their dues, right of control
and remuneration pioportioned to
capacity, and shaio pioiits.
In profit-sharing I seo a bit of
solid giound rising out of tho un
quiet sea. Labor feels that it has
rights in equity as well as in law,
aud though rights in equity aro al
ways indefinite, they can and must
be recognized. How then shall wo
secuio tho acknowledgment of theso
rights and how shall wo secure that
the workman shall hoioaftor bo not
juggled out of them? To define and
onfoico thorn by statute would bo
full of danger, but wherever an in
dustry accepted tho principlo and
embodied it in a plain form, why
should its books not bo inspected by
Government officials? Tho great
difficulty will bo to induce employers
and companies to accept tho princi
plo. Tho piogioss nury bo slow, but
tho rate will depend upon tho reality
of our Christianity, and on tho suc
cess of the establishments which try
tho experiment. It is being triod
now in diffoiont countries and gen
erally with success. Cleaily tho only
objection to this pioposal will como
from capitalists who consider that
thoy aro ontitlod to all tho profits.
But if tho principlo is sound, and
tho only objection to it is from
human greed, why should not tho
Church assort tho principle? Tt is
not enough to proaeh sermons de
nouncing Nabnl. David's men had
no legal claim against that ancient
capitalist. Thoy only had a claim
in equity, but Nabal would not
acknowledge that. With all the in
solonco aud fancied security of
wealth, ho asked, "Shall I take my
bioad and my water and my ilosh,
aud give it unto men whom 1 know
not whence thoy be?" Our working
men aro not interested in Nabals
who died ii(KX) years ago, if wo can
not apply this story to tho Nabals of
to-day. Thoy do not think much of
churches that blow trumpets in
honor of men who throe or four
hundred years ago .shook society to
its base and turned everything up
side down if thoy only whispor feebly
against tho class selfishness of to
day. Tho writer of tho opistlo to
tho Hobrovvs tolls us that it is but a
thowless Christianity, a Christianity
of giown babies that spends its timo
in assoi ting sound doctrino and on
forcing right ritual. Let us loavo
those tilings behind, ho says. Wo
aro all sound enough on them. Let
us go on to full growth: that is, lot
us apply our piinciplos to tho mak
ing of men, and to tho loconstruc
tiou of society. A church may call
herself holy, Catholic, apostolic,
I'resbytorian, but if it cannot apply
its principles to tho questions of to
day it is dead, It is not to take sides
in tho strife between capital and
labor, but it should bo able to medi
ate aud to assist righteous principles
with authority. Tho Christian capi
talist need not bo afraid; his work
men will pull with him.
Wo must also recognise tho rights
of society and tho principlo of State
interference. Hero wo como into
contact with tho policy of old Radi
cals and the economists
spired, llerbeit Spencer
voice against the growing
to Mate intervention in
economic matters. He has, however,
an inadequate conception of tho
St at o, and ho argues fioin the par
ticular to the universal. Tho State
is not an aggregation of individuals,
but an oi ganic unity that has to
dischargo different duties at differ
ent times. Governments must now
think of tho general welfaie, and as
a comparison of Morocco or Turkey
with Britain or tho States shows
how much the production, the pio
teolion and enjoyment of wealth is
duo to society, just ice demands that
society icceive its share. This is
now goiiorally admitted though
thoro will always be dicusion as to
the extent and methods ol state in
terference. Measuies that were
scolded as Utopian tho other day
aro now accepted b$ tho goneial
reason and conscience. Among
theso aio the protection of work
ers, and especially of women and
children; sanitation; tho exten
sion of municipal laws; free common
schools and compulsory attendance,
and even free text-books; technical
schools and schools of art. open to
all; industrial schools ana leforma
tories for waifs; limitation of tho
hours of labor; income tax, with ex
emption of small incomes, and pos
sibly a graduated scale according to
income; a tax on inheritances with
possibly nu increase of rate as tho
amount of properly loft increases
and the appropiiation of tho tax to
objects most likely to benefit the
residuum of society. Wo aro face to
face with pressing questions and Mr.
Spencer offers no solution. If no
solution is attempted wo shall soon
bo face to face with tho very mili
tarism out of which ho believes wo
aro emerging into industrialism.
What should bo the attitude of
Christianity towards these questions
which tho principle of state intor
feionco raises? Chiefly dynamical
Christianity balances tho economic
law that inequality of capacity in
volves inequality of lemuuorntiou,
by tho spiritual law that superiority
in capacity must provo itsolf by
superiority in service. It alom has
tho dynamic that dolivois mat rom
selfishness and lccieates him im
planting a now spiiit. Tho Church
exists to work miracles of this kind.
Uno reason wny it laus is that now,
as in all ages, sho is apt to mistake
religion, or oven leligiosity, for the
godliness which involves brothorli
ness. It must beware of this. It
must train its members to bo noble
citizens and noble statesmen. Why
should not its courts take cognisance
of social questions? Have wo no wise
men who can confer with organised
capital and diaw up repoits that
would receive the earnest attention
of general assemblies? Tho children
of tho Chinch should hear tho oico
of tho Church, not in tones of child
ish boasting, aud not as an infallible
voice to bo submitted to on pain of
excommunication, but as tho utter
ance of calm unselfish wisdom, near
to God and apart from strife.
This would seem next to bo wise,
for I declare to this Council that tho
subject on which tho heaits of mil
lions aro set, in Christianized Eti
ropo and Amoiiea, tho questions
they passionately crave to havo solv
ed, aro not those that convulsed Eu
rope in tho sixteenth and seven
teenth centimes; aro not questions
of doctrine, ritual, and of a luturo
slate; aro not homo missions, foreign
missions, and missions to tho Jews;
are not funds for aged and infirm
ministers, or for widows and or
phans of miiiisteis onlj. On all theso
their minds aie made up. Thoy aro
thinking of things more pressing,
nioio primaiy and fundamental, and
moro in accordance with Old and
Now Testament ideals. Thoy ask
that their labor bo not exploited,
and that weaiy, honest workingmen
bo sure of a decent homo. A society
so constituted would lie an aigu
niont for Cliristinuitj that India and
China would understand. TI103' look
round and seo such wealth as earth
never groaned undor before, side by
side with povortj', quivering all
through life 011 the blink of starva
tion; miles of palaces in tho same
city with hovels and tho crowded
tenement house; and as U103' reflect
that without thoir faithful labor, this
wealth and splendor could not havo
boon created, thoy ask whether tho
present adjustment is the best that
Christianity can make? If so, thoy
do not understand Christianity; nor
do I. J
For tho Season.
Tho Pacific Hardwaio Co. aro dis
playing Dinner, Breakfast, Chamber
and Tea Sets in Doulton Ware and
Copoland; examples suitable for
presents in Haviland, Copoland,
Hoyal Worcester, Royal Devon and
Bisque; Bisque Figures; Rochester
Lamps; a few Fancy Clocks, and
many other articles.
Ilinghain Iluckots, plain and paint
ed, in nests. Every housekoopor
should havo a supply of theso.
Refrigerators and Ice Chests of
the most improved patterns.
Bicturos and Picture Frames.
Picture Framing in all its branches
lsit to tho art rooms is invited.
Aro your children subject to croup?
If so, you should never be without
a bottle of Chambei Iain's Cough
Remedy, ft is a certain euro for
oioup, and has never boon known to
fail. If given freely as soon as the
croupy cough appears it will pro
vent the attack. It is tho solo roli
anco with thousands of mot hois who
havo croupy children, and never dis
appoints ( hum. There is no danger
in giving this Remedy in largo and
frequent doses, as it contains nothing
injurious, fit) cent bottles for sale
by all dealers. Benson, Smith k
Co., Agents for tho Hawaiian Isl
ands. FOR BALE
15 Pair of Working Oxen
W" Applj to
Wi-'M 11. A. WIDUMAN.N.
Subitorilie for the Daily llullrtin, GO
cent per jiututh.
Pen MgB mar,
W. F. REYNOLDS, Prop.
i'ull 11 m: ok
prices which wo established
commencing f RH Business.
Turkish Bath Soap, 4 Cakos 25 cts.
Farina Bouquet, 4 Cakes 25 cts.
Oatnioal Soap, 4 Cakos 25 cts.
Curly Maplo, 4 Cakos 25 cts.
And Other Soaps at 3 for 25 Cents.
See onr FI111 Line of
Blank Books of all Descriptions.
rTase Balls, Tennis Balls, Tennis Rackets.
t.1f Call ami seo onr (foods bcfoie bu
iii(j (Wcvvlii'ro. I.iea Imtnot least
A l.Klli: VA1UKTY Ol"
Novels & Popular Bound Books.
MIAN H0Ti:i. CO.
JL has loaded
the iiroicrtv holonniiiii to
A. Herbert, K-u., in YvnlKiki, vvlui.li for
tho irc-cnt, will ho open to the jmhiic as
an annex of the Hotel, and will hu known
as the "Hotel Park Annex." He-ides the
main hou-o theio aie Three Cottages ad
mirably adapted foi families:
1 The "Windmill Cottage" containing 0
llooiib, Kitchen and 1. mm.
12 The "(trecn Cottngi." containing Par
lor, 1 lied Itooms, Kitchen, l'antiy, ll.itli
:j The "Seaward Cottage" with 1 Good
llooms and a Dressing Itoom.
All the Cottaires are wtll-anDointed in
rurniture, FittingSj etc., and temnts will
he entitled to b idling privileges. Tho sea
bathing being unsn-iia'.sed cm the Island.
Tho Main Uuilding will be reserved for
the iiM! of tho gut sts of tho Hotel, but it
may bo rented for 1'ilih'cs, Jiutlnng Par
ties", Dinners and Dames, etc., foi all which
iui poses it oilers exceptional advantages.
A charge of Twontv-lhe (2) Dollais will
bo made for the iwj of the House and
((rounds 1111 hiding Ilathing, Lights, etc.;
prepayment is rcquind for iiileuiUd use of
tho Main liuilding and Grounds.
C& For further particulars application
should be made to the Manager of the
ltoval Hawaiian Hotel. .r-'7-tf
llKii. Ill TIlIiKPHOXr.S MuniAi. IH
$ il.75 Per Cord
flASO Per Cord
$11.00 Pu Coid
1 Foot Lengths
. . ..Sawed
Sawed and Split
if lll.OO Per Coid
$l.r..r)0 Per Cord
$17.00 I'oi Coid.
I Coot Lengths
Saw id aud Split
1 to any pirt of Honolulu
HUSTAOE & CO.
N. II. Wo guarantee our Wood to ho
sonnd and freo from worms. 018-tf
)....i.... n.. ' p.
)iiA er hmm w
IN O(JOi) WOltlvlNO OlSDKIt.
XT For particular or (onus apply to
Union Gas Engine Co.
(Incorporated Mav 1(1, 18'l..)
- MAXlIFACTUltUltS or Till: -
Regan Vapor Engines
PACIFIC GAS ENGINES.
Horizontal A ITpiight,
btatiomuy it Marino,
(lltn A. (iasolluu Hnglnos,
Pumps A. LaunclieH,
518-tf Solo Agent for Hawaiian Inlands.
F G- & co'
offer ron sale
Ar.. CIWXR .tt sons'
Celebrated High Grade Cane Manures.
Wo aro nlso piepared to take orders for
Messrs. 2ST. Oliletiiclt 8c Co.'s
Insuring prompt delivery.
&- This is a superior Paint Oil, con
suming loss pigment than Linseed Oil, and
giving a lasting brilliancy to colors.
Usui witli driers it gives a splendid lloor
Fairbank Canning Co.'s Corned Boef
PHIIII IMi l'.VINT C'O.'H
Compounds, Roofing & Papers,
Reed's Patent Steam Pipe Covering.
Jarboos' Diamond, Enamel & Ever
Especially designed for Vacuum Pans.
Hartford Fire Insurance Co.,
London & Lancashire Fire Ins. Co.,
Thames and Mersey Marine Ins. Co.,
New York Life Ins. Co.,
C. 0. BERGER
General Agent for Hawaiian Islands.
Armory Building, - Beretauia St.
Day cSc Evening.
Ladies' & Gents' Bicycles For Hire
11Y THE DAY OK HOUIL
Puhlio &kating: Monday and Saturday
evenings, from 7:30 to 10. Friday evening
for Ladies and their Escorts only, llicjelo
lessons: TueMla, Wednesday and Thurs
day. Bicycle Repairing Solicited.
Wm. 6. Irwin & Co.
Win. (1. Irwin, -Olitus
W. M. (iillard, -Theo.
President and Maungei
- - - Vice-President
feecrctary and Treasurer
ACIKNTS OV THE
Oceanic Steamship Company,
OK SAN l-'KANOISCO, OAL.
C. BREWER & CO.
J. O. Carter ...Pusident and Manager
Q.JI, ltolieitbon. 'Ireasurer
E. V. liislioi). becretarv
W. V. Allen Auditor
Hon. U. It. Jllahon
8. O. Allen ) DIrei tors
Bicycle Riding Schoo
The Best Lunch in Town.
Tea. and Coffee
AT M.U HOURS',
TUB FINEST JJKANDS OF
Cigars and Tobacco
AI.WAlh ON HAND.
H. J. 2STOLTE, Prop.
THE SAN FRANCISCO
HAS ESTABLISHED THE
WHICH 01FKRS OPl'OHTirMTIFS TO
The Residents of Hawaii
For the Purchase of floods In tho
Markets San Francisco
We Can Buy Goods
Lower than the Lowest Market Price !
matter what you want,
Household Articles. Furniture,
Musical Instruments, Carpets,
Groceries, Ituggics, Harness.
Dress floods, Hoots, Slioos,
Wearing Apparel, Etc., Etc.,
At Astonishingly Clo-o Figures.
If nil nrn in noe.l nf nnvt.hint
from this Cit, w lite us and wo will quote
jou prues on it, and, if the prices suit,
j 011 can forward us tho Cash to make the
Don't he hackward ahout asking us con
cerning what ou want.
Experienced and Careful Buyers
Are in charge of this Depaitmont and
they are at jour hervice.
Writo for Information 1 Get Acquainted
with Onr Methods!
We cm save on money by executing j our
jESJ?- Address all comniunii.itions
EXAMINER PURCHASING DEPARTMENT,
U. S. A.
The undersigned having been appointed
Sole Agents for the Hawaiian Islands
foil mi. itii imuni
FltOM THE WOKKS OF
Burham, Williams & Co.,
Are now piepnrul to give Estimates and
receive Urders for these Engines,
of any sue and style.
The Baldwin Locomotive Works
ARE NOW MANUFAOTUKINO A
feTYI.E OF LOCOMOTIVE
Adapted for Plantation Purposes
A number of which havo rccontly been
received ut these Islands, and wo will havo
pleasure in furnishing plantation agents
and managers with particulars of same.
The Superloiity of these Locomotives
over ail other makes Is known not only
hero but Is acknowledged throughout tho
WM. G. IRWIN & CO., Ltd.,
Solo Anents for the Hawaiian Islands.
DAILY AND WEEKLY
Leading Journals in the Kingdom.
The "Daily Hawaii Holomua,"
Has the Uirgest Ciiculation on tho Islands
aud is the Dust Medium for
Mil. Thus. K, Natii mi i, will receive all
advertisements and trausui t all business
On'ii'K: " llrcnlir lllock." corner
Mliuiuu ami (ueen strict (upstairs).
''pun WEEKLY BULLETIN M COL
JL limns of Interesting Heading Matter.
Islands, $1; mulled to foreign countries, If,
Arc Receiving New Invoice of r
BOOK AND. JOB STOCK
BY EVERY STEAMER
Where they aro fully prepared to do all
Kinds of work in the latest styles,. at
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most Reasonable Kates.
Fine Job Work in Colors a Specialty I
Executed hi the Most Attractive
Read the follow ing partial list of spec
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Petitions in uny language,
Envelopes & Letter Circulars,
Sporting Scores & Records,
Perpetual Wasliing Lists,
General Book Work,
Piintcd uud Blocked when desired.
tiaf No Job is allowed to leavo the of
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BULLETIN PUBLISHING CO.,