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EVENING IlULLETlN INDUSTRIAL EDITION: HONOLULU, T. II., NOVEMISER, 1901.
est mechanical appliances and automatic
At Hllo the company has erected complete
blacksmith, foundry, wood-working, machlno
and other Bhops, and supplied with up-to-date
mechanical appliances (or turning out
tho rolling-stock of tho company. Adjacent
to the works tho company has erected a
number of cottages for Its employees.
Near Puna, which Is the present terminus
of the system on Its main line, aro tho ex
tensive plantations of tho runa Plantation
Company, as llkewlso a number of beautiful
warm springs and mountain lakes, surround
ed by a wealth of natural tropical verdure,
and backed by a magnificent and equable
climate. These warm springs are noted
for their wonderful curativo qualities, par
ticularly to those who are afflicted with
rheumatism. The erection of a fairly good
sized, properly-conducted hotel near theses
springs would not only prove a valuable ad
junct to the railroad system, but a matter
of necessity for tourist travel and local peo
ple. Adjoining the Olaa Plantation lands on
the mauka side are thousands upon thou
sands of acres of land that when once clear
ed of Its natural tropical growth, and popu
lated by a class of desirable settlers, will
be mado highly productive.
The main object of tho Hllo Railroad
Company In penetrating tho district of Olaa
was primarily for tho purpose of creating
an outlet and encouraging tho opening up
and settlement of these lands and connect
ing them with the milling plant of the Olaa
Plantation, tho city of Hllo and Its magnifi
Tho system was originally Intended, and
Is now conducted, as a public road, and,
although transacting at tho present tlmo
an extensive business with the plantations,
will bo conducted in a most liberal manner
for tho people relative to freight rates ana
passenger travel, and will bo tho finest
equipped road In tho Hawaiian Islands.
Following is tho list of officers:
II. F. Dillingham, President.
I.. A. Thurston, Vlco President.
M. P. tloblnson, Treasurer.
A. W. Van Valkenberg, Secretary.
W. M. Graham, Auditor.
W. II. Ijmbert. Superintendent.
C. H. Kluegel, Engineer.
Sugar Properties of the " Garden Isle," KAUAI.
CUE Island of Kauai, which Is
termed the "Garden Isle," has
of late years como forward and
added her quota to the sugar prod
uct of the group. At this tlmo tho isl
and Ib principally dovoted to tho cultivation
of sugar, although in some sections rlco is
extensively raised. .... j
Tho development of water upon tho Island
for Irrigating the vast areas of sugar cane.
Is being rapidly pushed forward. Geologi
cally It Is tho oldest Island in tho Hawaiian
group, and In about tho center of tho Island
It Is very mountainous, forming a splen
did water shed.
From theso mountains tho land rolls gent
ly to the ocean, whllo sovcral majestic
streams wend their way to the sea. There
aro several Important plantations on tho
Island of Kauai, and tho present Indications
aro very favorablo for a largely Increased
sugar output for tho future, beginning with
the season of 1902.
New mills aro being erected upon several
plantations and taking tho Industry as a
whole tho outlook Is exceedingly bright.
Communication with this Island Is practical
ly uninterrupted, mado by tho steamers or
tho Inter-Island Bteamshlp Company, on an
averago of five days a week.
It was at Koloa, on this Island, that tho
first sugar mill was erected, which consisted
of wooden rollers propelled by oxen with
whaler's trylng-out potB for oolllng tho
sugar. It Is needless to stato that tho mill
extraction of the sucroso contained In tho
cano was not very high.
Kekaha Sugar Company
In the category of prosperous plantation
properties on tho Island of Kauai appears
tho Kekaha Sugar Company's estate at the
place of the same name. It consists of
Government and former Crown land lease
holds under sub-lease from V. Knudsen of
Walmea upon shares. Tho llrst cano was
planted upon tho lands In 1880 by Faye and
Meyer and was all of the Lahama variety.
H P. Faye commenced planting in issj
In Mana, which lands latterly developed
Into themost extensive portion of the pres
ent company's holdings. ,,,
The Kekaha Sugar Company, Limited,
was formed In 1898 and now controls an
area of 2000 acres all planted lit l-ahalna
cane, extending from Kekaha to Poelhalo,
a dlstanco of two miles and varying In
width from one-fourth to three-fourths of
0 The gecnral character of tho soil Is doop
red loam, black adobo and marsh lands.
The average annual rainfall Is so limited
that Irrigation Is resorted to, tho supply
of water being obtained from artesian wells.
Two pumping plants havo been erected,
fitted with tho Illsdon high-duty pumps with
an avcrngo dally output of 18,000,000 gal
lons. There Ib another pumping plant, mak
ing three In all. Tho cano Is planted at
elevations ranging from thlrty-flvo to 90
For plowing the lands two sets of Fow
ler's steam tackle are In use, although
some plowing Is performed by ordinary
plows and mules. Here, like many plan
tations, the cane Is ripe and ready for the
mill In from eighteen to twenty months.
The 1901 crop is from 300 acres of plant
and 1000 acreB of long and short rattoons.
In tho cultivation of the soil from 1500 to
1800 pounds or high-grade fertilizer and ni
trate of soda Is used to tho acre, the latter
greatly stimulating the growth ot the cano.
The total sugar output of tho mill for tho
season of 1900 from 1108 acres of plant and
rattoon canes, part of the latter very old,
was 901T tons. The general average of rat
toons, however. Is 7 1-2 tons of sugar to tho
acre, and of plant cane 9 1-2 tons.
The method of transporting the cane from
Held to mill Is by rail, there being main
tained some fifteen miles of permanent and
three miles of portable trackage, and the
rolling stock consisting of 334 cane cars
with an average capacity of 2 1-2 tons, six
teen sugar cars and four locomotives.
Somo 650 skilled and unskilled laborers
are employed upon the plantation, most of
the labor being carried on by day work,
with the exception of the cane cuttingload
ing and unload'nr o' cane carB, which aro
done by a profit-sharing system. The labor
ers. In addition to their wages, receive house
room fuel, water and medical attendance.
The company does not maintain a hospi
tal of its own. but contributes to the sup
port of the Walmea. hospital, the various
plantation managers of the district being
trustees. Besides, the company supports
the foreign church at Walmea.
A complete nine-roller mill made by tho
Honolulu Iron Work has been In
stalled, the rollers being 32xC0, and the
cane being fed through a Krajewskl crusher.
Tho hvdraullc pressure on each three
roller mill Is as follows, which varies some
what according to tho fibre of the cane, etc.:
No. 1 mill. 250 tons; No. 2 mill. 275 tons,
and No. 3 mill, 300 tons. The mill Is oper
ated seventeen hours a day,' during which
tlmo from forty to forty-five tons ot sugar
Is turned out.
Tho principal apparatus which has been
Installed consists of two quadruplo effects,
six filter presses, two Honolulu Iron Works
and one German vacuum pans with total
striking capacity of eighteen tons, open
clarification system with carbonic acid gas
process, thirteen centrifugals and tho nec
essary pumps and other appliances, etc.
Tho mill Is driven by a large Hamilton
Corliss engine, steam being generated by
tho U80 of the bagasse or cane traBh. Water
for condensing purposes Is obtained from
artesian wells upon the place.
Tho company has its own ltmo kiln and
manufactures Its own enrbonte acid gas as
well as lime for clarification and building
Adjoining tho mill building aro tho ma
chlno Bhop, electric light plant and general
offices of the company. In addition, tho
company maintains Us own telephono sys
tem, using portable Instruments. Only
ono grade of sugar Is manufactured, which
Is known as the "A" grade, all tho low-grado
sugars and molasses being worked over. Tho
mill was erected by tho Honolulu Iron
Works Company of Honolulu and is com
paratively a new mill, this being only the
Bccond season that It has been operated.
Tho sugar product when ready for ship
ment Is conveyed from the mill to tho land
ing at Walmea by rail, from whence it Is
shipped to Honolulu and loaded direct Into
vessels for the Pacific Coast and tho East.
E. K. null Is manager of tho plantation
and has been Identified with the sugar In
dustry for fully fifteen years.
Following Is tho list of officers and direct
ors of the Kekaha Sugar Company:
G. T. Wilcox, President.
II. P. Fave. Vlco President.
H. A. Isenberg. Treasurer.
F. Klamo. Secretary.
A. S. Wilcox, Auditor.
The cano as it Is brought to the mill Is
dropped onto the endless carrier, passing
to one 3 and one 2-roller mills, with a ca
pacity for turning out twelve tons ot raw
sugar in twelve hours. The mill was' erect
ed by the Honolulu Iron WorKs, and con-'
slsts of open clarification system, trlplo ef
fect, two Honolulu pans, centrifugals driven
by separate-power, and much other machin
ery. The bagasse Is used for lucl, as Is the
caso In other mills. Only ono grade of sugar
Is manufactured, all tho low grade sugars
and molasses being worked Into tho A or
No. 1 grade. Iho annual or season's output
of sugar Is 1000 tons, but owing to heaw
fertilization the company expects to increase
the output In tno future.
At tho mill tho company has a warehouse
with a capacity for noldlng 3000 bags. Tho
sacked sugar Ib conveyed by cars to tho
landing at Walmea, a short dlstanco away,
and shipped direct to Honolulu.
John Fassoth Is manager of the planta
tion and has been hero for eighteen years,
'first as sugar boiler, then engineer and now
manager. Ho has been Identified with su
gar In the Islands slnco 1882.
Following Is tho 11st of officers ot th's
J. II. Athcrton, President.
H. W. Schmidt. Vlco President.
E. D. 'j'enney, Secretary.
W. A. Howcn, Treasurer.
E. P. Clmpln, Auditor.
Castle & Cooke, Agents, Honolulu.
Hawaiian Sugar Co., Ltd.
The Hawaiian Sugar Company, Limited,
Is ono of the prosperous plantations on tho
Island of Kauai, its headquarters being locat
ed at Makawell, where the flrBt cano was
planted, under the co-operative system In
Iho '90s by the present company.
The total area Is approximately 600 acres.
Method ol Planting One on Lands ol Hawaiian Sugar Company, Island of Kauai
1'noTti tv William-, llosomul
Waimca Sugar Mill Co.
The Walmea Sugar Company, Limited, Is
ono of the small but dividend-paying prop
erties on the Island of Kauai, the total acr.j
age being only 400 acres, of which area 300
acres havo been planted to tho Lahalna va
riety of cane, although some experiments
are being carried On by the management
with the Robb Bamboo and Yellow Cale
donia. About one-third of the area In cane Is
plant, tho balanco being rattoons, whllo tho
highest elevation that cane is planted lu
100 feet. The soil Is a red loam, the method
of preparing same for planting being oral
nary plowing with mules. Tho method ot
cultivation Is hilling up, fertilization and Ir
rigation. The rainfall from October, 1899, to Octo
ber, 1901, was forty-two Inches. Water sup
ply for Irrigation purposes Is from wells,
the water being lifted by the aid of Rlsdon
high-duty compound pumps.
In transporting the ripened cane to tho
mill two miles of main and one mile ct
portable track are In use, supplied with
thirty cars with a capacity 01 five tons to
each car. All the cane on this plantation
matures In from fifteen to eighteen months,
as It does not tassel,
Under favorable conditions the cane will
run six tons ot BUgar to tho acre, or flf'.v
tons of cane to tho same area, varying of
course in some seasons.
The averago number of laborers upon tho
plantation Is only 110, most of tho labor be
ing performed under the co-operativo sys
tem. Fertilization Is carried on, using abon:
ono-half ton to tho aero. Upon tho placo
are somo twenty-five head ot horses aui
which lands aro held under a 50-year lease
from Gay & Robinson, and extend from Wal
mea Gulch to Hanapepe Valley, a distance
of several miles. That portion ot tho area
In Hanapepe Valley In formor Crown land.
Practically the entire area is under culti
vation, and planted principally to the La
halna cane, although a Bmall area Is given
over to Caledonia, Striped Singapore canes,
etc . The growing crops are about equally
divided between plant and rattoon caneB,
and the management alms to plant about a
thousand acres each year.
The land has a gentle slope from tho sea,
the soil being a reddish loam carrying pyrox
Ide ot Iron. The method ot preparing the
soil for planting Is by the use of two sets of
Fowler steam tackle, whllo tho method of
cultivation Is by fertilization and Irrigation.
The water supply for Irrigation purposes Is
obtained from Hanapepo Valley stream,
which flows to tho lands by gravity.
The method of transporting cane to mill
Is by a complete railway system, which con
sists of some twelve miles ot main and port
able field tracks, while the equipment com
prises 400 cane cars having an average ca
pacity ot from three and one-naif to four
'tons ot cane, while three Baldwin locomo
tives propel the cars to and from tho mill.
In the development of the property some
100U skilled and unskilled laborers aro em
ployed, who occupy several camps adjacent
to their work, where have been erected
better houses and better camps for the ac
commodation of tho men and their families
than Is usually found upon the majority ot
Tho laborers receive In addition to their
wages, which average $20 per month, house
room, fuol. water and medical attendance,
and have little patches ot land whero they
aro allowed tho privilege of raising vege
tables. Tho carrying out of tho dally performanco
of labor Incident to tho successful operation
of tho plantation Is by two systems, one-half
of tho labor working under a co-operative or
picflt-sharlng system, and being known as
company men or contractors, white tho bal
anco aro day laborers who aro simply pnld
so much a month for twenty-six working
days. About 225 mules and horses aro required
In tho general plantation work, which aro
given excellent care.
Tho avcrngo yield or sugar from all cano
fields now under cultivation Is between six
and seven tons of sugar to tho aero, but tho
plantation has had fields that yielded much
heavier than this.
Upon tho plantation has been erected a
diffusion mill tor the manufacture of raw
sugar, having a capacity for turning out 110
tonB of raw sugar In a day of twenty-four
hours, and Is tho only mill of tho kind now
In successful operation In tho Hawaiian
Islands. This mill Is Identical in construc
tion with that of a beet sugar mill Tho
cano Is fed from tho usual carrier to largo
revolving drums, which aro supplied with
a series of knives, which sllco tho cano to
n one-clghth part in thickness, and tho. cano
Is then elevated from the knives to tho mill
by a system or carriers suppled with n
serloB or rakes to what Is known as battery
cells, thcro being two batteries or fourteen
cells each, having an Individual capacity for
holding C000 pounds or cane. Theso batter
ies nro supplied with water, which Is hcati'd
to 130 degrees Fahrenheit. From hero tho
process or extraction or sugar begins und
Is carried on until the sugar Is sacked and
ready for shipment.
Tho mill Is supplied with tho Demlng
apparatus, ono 20 and ono 30-ton vacuum
pans, twenty 32-Inch Watson & Ijildlaw cen
trifugals, and much other machinery. Thcro
have been Installed 10 boilers of 100 horse
power each, while three Putnam engines
run all the pumps. Tho bagasse from tho
batteries Is fed by an endless carrier to a
roller mill for tho purpose of reducing tho
moisture, and is then fed automatically to
the furnaces and utilized as fuel. Tho mill
extraction by this system is given at 96 to
97 per cent. Tho relative cost of operation,
when compared with tho modern nine-roller
mills. Is not ascertainable.
Connected with tho mill nre tho machlno
nnd blacksmith shops, where all repair
work is done. ,.Jacent to this is tho loco
motlvo round-house, etc. Tho company oper
ate their own Ice and electric light plant,
the entire mill nnd grounds being supplied
with a system of Incandescent lights.
In the still greater development of tho
plantation the company are about to enter
Into n water proposition of great mngnltudc,
which consists In conveying by means of a
flume nnd ditch svstcm r grent length a
supply or wnter for Irrigation purposes that
will bo eoiinl to miv amount that will ever
bo demanded. Surveys have already been
mado for the bringing In or tho supply from
the mountains and boiiio work of construc
tion has been done In a small way.
With Iho abovo supply or water tho com
pany will rnpldly extend their enno area
nnd bring under cultivation much good' cano
Like other plantations tho Hawaiian
Sugar Company has had its share or labor
ttoubles, but, on tho whole, everything Is
moving along ralrly well, and the cano Is
looking very fine. Following Is tho list of
officers and directors or the company:
II. P. Baldwin, President.
W. M. Olffard. Vice President.
J. P. Cooke. Treasurer.
W. L. Hopper. Secretary.
W. G. Taylor. Auditor.
Robert Catton, Director.
McBrydc Sugar Company
The property of tho McRrydo Sugar Com
pany's extensive plantation Is located on
tho Island of Kauai and comprises approx
imately 17,000 acres, or which area about
8000 acres may be considered as vell
adapted for cane culture, while the remain
der of the area Is about equally divided
between pasture and forest lands. Accord
ing to surveys made of tho lands adapted
for sugar cane, there Is nominally 5000
acres below the 400 foot elevation and tho
remaining area being between the 400 am!
1000-foot elevations, all of which has a
moBt beautltul slope to the south and all
under tho company's Irrigation system.
Since the acquisition of the above prop
erty, somo two years ago, which consisted
of tho estatos known as the Koloa Agricul
tural Company, tho Eleele plantation and
the Wahlawa ranch, together with all the
appurtenances thereon, with slight reserva
tions, much work of a permanent character
has been completed. This plantation ex
tends from tho Koloa landing on the east to
and into the Hanapepe valley on tho west,
a dlstanco of eight miles, with no Interme
diate lands held by outsiders excepting a
few acres hero and there which are leased
for a nominal rent per year. These lands