Newspaper Page Text
"rrww "SfT" w""rmv W,"1"'rWWlPmFFlW"
nvKSMNrt nui.uvriN, Honolulu, t. it.. satuhuav, aphiii , 1007.
!. tm. j.
In The Pacific
BY DR. LELAND E. COFER,
Tasted Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Pub-
lie 'Health and Marine Hospital
Service Chief Quarantine
(limrnntlno mny bo do lined im mi
Institution which prevepts or mutinies
tho transmission of tllscnsa from ono
lornllty to nnothor by tho Imposition
of rortnln restrictions upon coimncr
clnl Intercourse. Thercforo while
iunranllno Is tho creature of medical
science, It ran only thrive when qunr
nntlniililo disease U present In com
munities! and Its operations nro not
then directed itRnlnst tho communi
ties Infected, hut against the social
mill commercial lntcrcourso existent
It Is predicted tlinl preventive In
terim! sanitation will bo developed
until (limrnntlno will bo considered
of so palllntlvc n nature ns to warrant
medical hcIciicc In dropping It as ob
solete. It Is true that sanitation Is
keeping pneo with the other science.!
In tho march of progress, and stud
ents of sanitary science nro nhlo to
make undlsputablo predictions ttint
tho future hns In store tunny rcdlcal
ic forms In public hcnlth work, but It
is alio truo that these reforms, It nt
nil general In their extent, ran only
tie brought about by much education
and persuasion of the peoplo at large,
mid the Interim, which under these
(onditlons will be n lone one, must
bo utilized In bringing About tho dc
sired result whllo public hcnlth work
Is continued for tho time being along
That Is to say, until wo reach a
slate of general municipal cleanliness,
whcicby our sanitary conditions will
Insure immunity from qunrnntlnnblo
disease eUher In epidemic or endemic
form, quarantine as nn institution
must bo maintained.
Tho sanitary renovation of Havana
after the Spanish war and tho result
ing freedom from yellow fever bo long
enjoyed by that city Is nn example of
the possible curtailment of quaran
tine lunctloiiB which municipal clean
llncci may effect. Yet this brilliant
achievement In public health annuls
was not n sign of tho times. Its ac
complishment having been tho result
of force, not of persuasion. Such
mcn'iurcH might bo possible today In
nn emergency, such ns an actual or
thrcitonod epidemic of disease In n
community, but tho constant mnluto
iiauco of such sanitary conditions can
only como' about by the gradual es
tablishment of n (IcDnilo coherency
Letween tho quarantine, municipal
sanitary and commercial Interests,
Unity of thought and action on tho
part of quarantine and municipal
health oflHcrs has characterized pub
lie health work to a greut extent dur
ing tho past few years, and this con
dition of harmony In tho general
work of sanitation will icrolvu u
trcsh stimulus whou tho results, late
ly achieved In Sun l'runclsoo and Now
Orleans are moro closely studied und
appreciated In other words this
' pooling" of quarantine and Internal
military Interests Is a natural uvolu
'tlon through which in this day and
rge all functions with allied purposeu
Tho law which determines nil com
binations of power is the ono of con
venience and economy.
This tendency will sooner or later
bring about the needed nddltlnn to
public hcaltll work of commercial ap
proval and cooperation, lloforo this
commercial cooperation can bo oc
quired, the ludlffprenco on tho part
of men of ('(jmmerro to quarantine
and general health affairs must he overcome.
Unfamlllarlty with quarantine
principles on tho part of the Inlty In
variably takes tho form of antago
nism, so that not an Inconsldornblo
part of cither a quarantine or sunt
tnry olllcer's tlmo is occupied In nink
Ing explanations for his otllclnl acts.
On the other hand tho lujnian has u
just grievance against a public func
tion, for tho support of which he Is
expected to contribute, when said
function enforces a restraint concern
ing tho rntlonnle of which ho Is kept
Tho hclontlflc part of qunrantlno,
the picclslou with which bacteriology
It mndo to govern tho acts of quaran
tine oflliors, and' tho tnnglblo results
attained are not made suMclcntly fu
nilllur lo tho laity. In other words,
quurnntlna must explain Itself to
lomiuoiio nnd commerce must glvo In
icturn cooperation, not liidlffeienco
' Thoro enn he no better opportunity
for quiirnntluo to niuko Its explana
tion to commerce than In connection
with tho rommuirlul nnd. sanitary
(ondlllons which will coufiont us In
the future In tho I'aclllc Ocean
It Is freely predicted that the de
velopment of commerce between the
I'nlled Stales anil tho Orient will
Meadll Increase until tho I'aclllc
Ocean becomes one of the greatest
commercial arenas In tho world.
The opening of thu l'anama Canal
will uuturully ho the moot Important
factor In the production of this re
sult. An enormous amount of traffic
will bo sent by water from tho Hast
crn States to the Orient after tho ca
nal Is ppened. Indeed, the opening
of the route across the Isthmus of To
ltuantepcc in the near future promises
to notably increase trans-Pacific ship-
ping. u liiu nivivnou ill mui-
mcrcc In the I'aclllc Ocean thcro will
bo a corresponding Increnso In dis
ease Interchange. Tho reason for
this lies not only In the fact of tho
Increnso of the commerce In tho I'a
clllc Ocean Itself but also in tho fact
that countries which nro now far re
moved from each other on account of
tho geographical barrlir which tho
Isthmus forms between the Atlantic
nnd Pacific Oceans will then bo dl-
icclly connected, nnd transmissible
diseases, no longer Impeded In their
course by trans-continental railway,
Interstate, or municipal quarantine,
will bo brought direct by the now inn
The yellow fever hazard In propor
tion will be Increased by tho neces
sary contact of tho shipping In tho
Pacific Ocean with tho Isthmian ports
of call, nnd with those ports In Ccn
trnl and South America In which ycl
low fever Is so frequently If not con
tlnuously present. Nor will our
dread of Infection fiom yellow fever
bo nlwins icferrcd to tho Isthmian
nnd South American ports unless
Australasia und tho Orient maintain
tlnlaslan, Philippine Island. Chi
nese, .In panose, llusslau, and Alas
The Ouiirniitlno Arena of the I'n
title specifically described comprises
the Pnclllc Ocean, with the port of
Honolulu occuplng practically a
central position therein and the fol
lowing ports forming its far distant
boundaries, namely: Victoria, Van
couver, 1'oit Townsend, Portland,
San l'ranclsco, Port ln Angeles, S.m
Diego, Mnznllan, Acnpulco, Sallna
Cruz, Panama, (liuonqull, Cnllao,
Iqulque, Antofagosln. Vnlp.iralxo,
nnd Honolulu, md another whlch-i j.ern always nnd the sc(ond-rnblu
(onnects S.m rriimlscii Willi Sydney ' insfjiigets ficqncntly live In a world
via Honolulu, Pago I'n go, nnd Auck-1 rparl from every one else on board,
laud. This route Is alto traversed The Moorngo passengers nro usually
by freight Bteamcrs and sailing U'i quartered ninund tho main freight
(els. I hatches forward and aft below tho
The North Ameilenn-lsthmlnn, tiia'spnr deck, nnd tho senmcii, flreincii,
South Amcrlrnti-lsthmlati, and tho r.nd messmcii are quartered on the
Isthmian-Australasian routes wilt , panic deck but in separate rnmpnrt
become very Important both from n! incuts amidships. The old type steam
coiiiiiicrrlnl nnd quarantine stand-Ivess"!, although carrying out our trn
point with tho opening of tho Paint'
ma Cnnnl. The South Amorlrnn
Auslinlnslun route, on tho contrary,
will never become Important ns n
Wellington, Auckland, Sdnc, llrls- quarantine factor In the Pacific Ale
bane, Singapore, Manila, Hongkong,
Shanghai, Nagasaki, Kobe, and Yo
Commercially speaking tho port3
mentioned are either centers of ex
port or Import or else arc simply
jorts of call.
Hvglcnlcally speaking they are or
may at any time become cither dis
ease centers of export or Import or
They arc Important from a quaran
tine standpoint both on account of
tho steady Increnso or Intercourse
between these ports nnd on account
of the fact that for tholr rcspcctlvo
countries they are points of central
ization and distribution.
As Infected places their relatives
importance Is subject to wldo varia
tion, but as Infectlblc areas they aro sels nil over tho world, and It Is pre
in. Tho passenger and irclglil
routes In the Purine Arena which
nrc most linportnnt today from n
quni mtlno standpoint nro tho North
American-Oriental, the North Amor-
liaii-lsthmlan nnd the North Amort-rnn-Australashin.
These great trans
portatlon routes, traversed by ocean
carriers of every kind nnd national
ity, ale tho natural avenues of Inter
change between the ports In the Pn
clllc Arena of suspected or Infected
persons, things, ' and Intermediate
THE PACIFIC ARENA
All signs point to tho gradual sub
stitution of steamers for sailing ves
dlllounl ideas of what Is nnutlcal, Is
rcliloni large, and Is devoid of ar
rangement lending to a wldo and
distinct separation of classes and de
partments. The decks sweep grace
fully fore and lift iniil tho superstruc
ture ficqncntly nffords direct com
munication with mi) or nil parts of
the ship. The quarters on such ves
fols are constructed with referenco
lo the conservation of freight space,
nnd the separation of classes on
boa id Is, from n quurantlno stand
point, purely Imaginary. Ocean-car-
ilcrs nrc classified for quarantine
purposes as follows:
1st Modern steam iron vessels.
2nd Old-type steam iron vessels,
3d Naval vessels nnd military
4th Steel sailing vessels and
5th Wooden vessels either steam
(Continued Next Saturday)
nnd Mrs. Arthur Will', Mrs. Jsmes Miss Ilotirn Irwin, n slsler of Mr.
lloiisliert. Mr nnd Mrs Pnxnii lllsli-. William Irwin. Is a guest Hi the lloyal
op, Mr nnd Mrs Clleo D.ivIps .Mojo- lluwnllan Hotel. Miss Irveln knew
und Mrs Vnn Mlet. Mr. md Mr ' lionoiitjii iicioie annexmnm, unci anu
Be'hoeffol. Mr nnd Mrs. Schuiiinn. t.p- sees ninny cbniiges She Is not In
tnln Dietrich nnd offlrer of the Iter- good health and does not care to nc
rogln reeelle. Mr and Mrs l'rcdeih- ccpt any Invitations. Miss Mills, n
Kininii mim (inmicl Mr. nnd Mrs. Itoi- charming young woman from Sail
tolnlee. the Misses Jordan, Mr. mid
Mrs I'.mll Waterman. Miss Waterman.
Mr. nil'' Mrs. Mott-Smlth, Mr. nnd Mis.
Hniinchcrg. Mr and Mrs. Schiiltze, Mr.
nnd Mrs. Itodlnk, Mr. nnd Mrs. Hart
'e Mr ntnl Mr Itieo of Kauai, Mr.
und Mrs. Cooke, Mr. nnd Mrs. Mon-
tnguo Cooke, Mr. nnd Mrs. Albeit
Kmuclwo, Is ith her.
On Mnnilnv evening. Mr nnd Mrs-.
Oeoigp I'alrchlld entertnlued a largo
company nt dinner. Among the guests
were Mrs. Oerrlt Wilder, Mrs. Jewell,
tho Misses Mncfnrlane, Captain lleltlt.
L. S. A., Captain Humphrey, nnd manr
Afong, Mr. nnd Mrs. Itoss. Mr. nnd others Mrs Kulrchlld wore a partis
Mrs. Wotcrhcmse. Mr. and Mrs. Iliock.
Mr. and Mrs IliMucrd Smith. Mr. nnd
Mrs. 0 Wall. I)r and Mrs Clltford
High. Mr and Mrs. Charles Wilder.
Mr. and Mrs Conrad von I latum, Dr.
Olid .Mrs Anderson, Miss II Ituth
Yoiinrr. Dr. nnd Mrs. Conner. Dr. nnd
Mrs. Harvev Murrnv. tho Misses Pali. I Miss l-ocl.e, Mrs. fionilcll nud .Ml J.
Mr. nnd Mrs. Klebnbn, Miss Marlon I Swanzy have been visiting Mrs. Jiuiiwi
Scott, Mr. nnd Mrs. Mellaril Isenbcrg. C.uile at I-a.le
lllnrl becoming costume und looked
Miss I.oche's lecture occurred thtl
morning nt the residence of Mrs. S. II.
Doli on l'nimn street. She gave tho
talk In her usual magnetic manner.
Mr. and Mrs. Klugel. Mr. and Mrj,
Paris, Miss llohertson, Mr. und Mm
Will Sopor, the Misses Soper,
Mr. Pressor, the popular lawer, was
a passenger In the Korea. He Is innK-
Mr. and Mrs. M Phillips, Mr. nud Mii. jlng n business trip to San Krunclsco.
C. llallciityne. Misses Margery I'reeth, ' Owing to bis recent Illness the dinner
Klbel .Monsarr.it, Vera Damon, Dag
mar Sorenson, Hdllh Kopke, I-tdy ami
Allco Macfarlnne, Madge McCandlcss,
Urown, Ada Hhodes, Irene Dlckbon,
Margaret Wood, Creonuell, Irene Klsli
er, Helen Alexander. Mr nnd Mis
Ilnbhltt, Misses Center. Mr nnd Mrs.
Alhcrton, Mr. and Mrs. A. Levels, Mr.
nnd Mrs. live, Mrs. Ilneees, Mr. (lor
Vlt Wilder, Misses Maclntjre, Meesre
Ulchnrd Wright, Derby, David Antler
ion, Jnmleson, Soiicr, Ocorgo Puller,
lltlchnrd Cooke. Harry I,on, Paty, Jor
dan, Cnptnlu Hclrtt. I 8. A Arthur
Mackintosh, nud many others.
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ToAmkxi St:errto.v 211 op tiii: IeKVPi:i l,.vn ip Hawaii.
c il linntlril by the LrijUhiliiro of the Territory of JIflti.it!! :
.SiX'Tiei.N I. .Section 211 of tlio licvisotl J.uws of lluwitii U
licroliy niiiutiilcil mi us to rend iiie follows:
"Sect ion 211. Tlio l'!tilisli liiiituip- slmll o tliu inuditiiu
nnd basis of instniclioii in all pttliliu und privulo schools within
tlio Territory mid nny ,-cliool wliurn KtiglUli is not thu liiodiiim
und lmsis of jiitnicli(iii sluill not Ih recognized ns it liiildic; or
private m-IiooI within the provisions of this chapter nud itttcnd
unco thereat shall not 1h considered attendance nt school in
compliance with luw. Provided, however, tliut whero it is de
sired that another huif;iiap' hhall ho Intiht in udditiiui to the
Kni;IUh laniiae, sncli instruction may be authorized by thu
department, hy direct order in nny particular instance."
Skotiox 2. This Act shall tuko u fleet from unci nftcr thu
date of its njiprovtil.
Apiroved this fltli duy of April, A. I)., 1U0".
G. It. CAKTHK,
(inveriior of the Territory of Hawaii.
THE PACIFIC ARENA, OF WHICH HAWAII IS THE KEY
u quarantine stunthutl as efflclent as' equally Important from u general
Hawaii, particularly its principal
that maintained by the United States.
The Orient, the Philippine Islands,
Australasia, and Polynesia may ha
classed from u qunrantlno standpoint
us "Infectlhlo territory" so fur as yol-
low fever Is concerned, and tho Infec
tion of any ono of these countries will
not only be attended by tho most dlro
tesults to tho Inhabitants of tho conn
tries so Infected, but In tho enso of ,rom H qunrantlno standpoint
those countries which urn cltlicr trop
ical or seml-trnplrul, the eradication
of the dlseaso will ho cither Impossi
ble or most dimcult or accomplish
me,nt.. Therefore tho Pnclllc Ocean Is se
lected us u fitting aronn In which tho
necessity and vlow-polnt of qunran
tlno may be explained to commerco
and shipping for tho Increased er
fectlveness of the former und for tho
'onvcnlcuco of tho luttcr.
dieted that this substitution will pro
ceed moro rapidly In thp future than
It has In the past. This fact baa nn
port Honolulu, is from its geograph-ni"rtnnt bearing upon the quarnn-
u mo raciuc Arena lor
ical location the natural stratccicitlno outlook I
point in this vast arena. the leason that quarantine work In
llll) jumciimn use ih lionuiuill us
n port of call will greatly modify, it
not absolutely eliminate, the danger
of any ono of tho above-named ports
IN THE PACIFIC ARENA
THE PACIFIC ARENA
Tho Pacific Aronn comprises tho
The great trudc routes In tho Pa
rifle Arena aro tho North American
Oriental, tho Isthmlan-Orleiitnt, tho
South American-Oriental, the North
Amorlr.in-Austrahislnn, tho Isthmian
Austinlaslan, the South American
Australasian, tho North American
Isthmian, the South American-Isth
mian, and the Austrnlastun-Orlcntal,
Tho North American-Oriental
route Is traversed hy n line of pas
btiiKcr Btcamers from Vancouver to
The tioldflclds fever bus struck tho
Alameda people nnd bus developed In
to u regular epidemic. Pornier Chief
Steward Haihctt, who was some time
steamers presents far greater ill 111
cultles than in sailing vessels, steam
em being more easily and moro often
Infected than sailing vessels.
Thn oiiiirantliin future therefore,
hohU many refoi ins of procedure and "K transferred to the. Sierra, iiw.lo
judgment the hazard of Infection-; $' touX
transmission Increases with thu ... ...... r.ir,nn i the mines.
I Surgeon Nelson Is no lunger with
the Alameda. He, loo, bus gone to the
change from sail to steam.
Fortunately for thu United States
und Its possessions and dependencies,
the action of Congress In restricting
the commerco between Hawaii und
American tcrillory to American
ships has been followed by similar
legislation icgnullug our shipping
with the Philippine Islands, which
will shortly bo limited also to ves
sels Hying thu American Hag. These
restrictions may even become more
far-reaching and causa u large pro
portion of tho vessels In tho Pnclllc
Arena on tho Occidental-Oriental
roulo to, bo of American registry, In
order that such ships might engage
In tho Philippine and Huwnllnn, as
well ns In tho foielgu trade. Thn in
suit will ho that In tho I'aclllc Aiouu
American vessels will bear tho brunt
nt quarantine restrictions.
Tho most Important general rl.is
flfieutlou of ocean-can lei s from u
practical quarantine standpoint Is
that of modern vessels us opposed to
those of tho old typo.
The modem steam vessol Is almost
without exception largo, with n gen
eral arrangement tending to tho wldo
and distinct separation hy bulkheads
anil douliH of thn three classes of pas
U'Iikhih mi the ono hand and of the
different departments of the Bhlp's
personnel on the other. Such ves-
formed by the Canadian, North Anier steamers which piles between Vlcto- sols huvo high superstructures nnild
Kau, iBtlimluu, South Ametlcmi; Au- ilu uml Sydney via JJilshune,' X'lJI, thins lu which thu flmt-wMu luesou-
Pnclllc Ocean nnd Its continental unit Hongkong vin Yokohama, Kobe, and
Insular boundaries. Theso boundur- j Nagasaki; another passenger lino
les nro Siberia and Alaska to tho from Seattle bound for Hongkong via
North, Now Zealand to tho South, jjapancso ports; und lines from San
North and South America to tbo Pranclsco, via Honolulu, Yokohama,
Kust, and Asia and Australia to the' Kobe, Nagasaki, and Shanghai, lo
West. I Hongkong. Arniy transports usual-
Tho Pacific Arena, in a tonunor- y fen II fiom San Pranclsco, occasion
clal sense, comprises every contlnen-jnlly from Seattle, hound for Mnnllu,
till port bordering upon or tributary, via Honolulu ond Nagasaki, Prelght
lo tho Pacific Ocean, Including tho tteaincm nnil sailing vessels ply bo
ports of Polynesia and Micronesia. tweeu nil of the principal Occidental
Tho I'aclllc Arena lu n niurltlmo and Oriental ports, The Isthmian
quarantine, senw only,,.lucludcs tho Oriental icpitu will not lie Important
principal tea ports which bound tho until after tho completion of tho Pn-
Pnrlllc Oconn nud tho Insular ports nanii Canal, when it win neconio t no
which Ho within Its confines. most Important of all of tho routes.
Tho "Quarantine Aronn of the Pa-, Tho South Ameilcuii-Orlonlnl route
cine" mny serve, then, us n phrnso Is traversed principally by vessels In
which will describe the Pnclllc Arena balhsl, mid Is of relatively little Im
as u Iiuro cartwheel, 0f which Ha- "oifince as it dleeaee avenue. The
waii is the huh fiom which lines of, North Ametlcan-Auetralaaian rnulu
ttnwl iadlao ns spokes to a tlio Is traversed by one line of passenger
mines. Chief Stcwurd Thurlow, who
succeeded Hackett on the Alameda, In
tends to tollow his brother (inkers ut
ter another voyugo.
Dr llarretl of San l'ranclsco is on
tho Alameda au surgeon this voyngn.
On the relum of tho steamer to tho
Const, tho present doctor of the Ven
tura will be transferred to the Ala
Thu third annlveisary of tho Ma
klkl Chiirrh organization will bo cel
ebrated on Monday evening nt tho
church, rumor of Kliiau and I'ensa
tola streets. The exercises will com
mcueii at 8 o'clock p. m. Following
Is the program'.
ll)iun I no.
Hemline of tho lllhlo.
A Song Sunday School, Children.
Au Ail ill ess Mr. Mlkl Snlto (to bo
translated lo thu Kngllsh),
The Sunday evening services at the
Methodist church begin nt 7 ocloclc
Instead of U HO as heiotofore, mid end
lit s ohai'i). The pa-dor will ive spec
lal addresses to young people during
tho month pf April. Tomorrow even
ing he speaks on "I'eills nnd Pioni
ca." The public Is luvlled.
Ami:niu.n(i Smition 2011 or Tin: Jti;vini:ii I.awh op Hawaii.
Ik il Kmicled by tho LnjisUUuvc of the Territory of lluutiii:
Kkctio.v 1. h'eclion 2011 of the Uevihed Laws of Hawaii U
hereby uiiieudeil mi ns lo rend ns; follows:
".Section 2(1!). Any person or penuitis dc.tiriiiL? to pstnblisli
it privulo school within the Territory of Iluwuii tsliull, prior to
tho establishment, thereof, muke mi npplieiition in writing lu
tlio Department of J'nblie liistrnctioti (if tho Territory, which
npplieiition hluiil bo signed by tho applicant or applicants and
idiull Mute in substance (1) tlio iiumo or iniines of tho person
desiring to estnblish such tchool; (2) the iroio'e(I location
thereof; nud (.'I) tlio course, of instruction and the laiigiitigC))
in which such instruction U to be kivcii.
ITpon the receipt nnd upprovul of such application, tho De
partment of Public Instruction shall issuo to tho person or
perilous applying therefor it permit in form to Iki by it. un
proved, authorizing the estublisliment of such school; nnd no
'private school shall bo established within tho Territory except
in conformity with this Chapter.
All persons conducting schools within tho Territory other
Hum public schools shall on or before the iirst day of Octolier
11107, h'lo with the Department of Public Instruction stato-i'
nient in' writing signed by the pen-on or persons conducting
such school, showing (1) tho name or mimes of tho persons in
charge thereof; (2) tho location; (il; tlio course of instruction
und tho languiif.tw in which such instruction is given.
Upon tho roeoipf of such statement nnd upprovul by tho
Department of Public Instruction of the eonrso of study and
instruction given, the Department of Publio Instruction shall
issue to the person or pcri-ons in charge of suid school u certifi
cate, in form to Iki by said Department of Public Instruction
prc-eribed, iceogui.ing pitch school as u privulo school within
the meaning of this Chapter.
Attendance at any school established or maintained without
complying with tlio terms of this .Section shall not lo consid
ered iittcmhiucc nt it public, or private school within tho meaning
of this Chapter."
Si.ction 2. This Act. sliull tuko cilYct from uml nftcr thu
date of its upprovul.
Approved this nth dny of April, A. D., 100".
(1. K. OAltTER,
Governor of tho Territory of Ilnwnli,
which his friends proposed giving him
on Sunday night was postponed.
Mrs. Wnll.cr'a cake nnd uindnlchcl
are very much In demand.
Mrs. Rudolf Slattcry Is nt Athens,
Ohio, visiting Captain Hlattery's moth
er u Idle he Is on duty lu Cuba.
The voting contest Is going on well.
Kvcrybody seeint Interested to havo
the nicest girls here take advantage
of the trio, nnd onlv bv voting for tho
right ones this ran ho accomplished.
wusfr'v a tjOi'.:
J. j&Ut -