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1 Vw &T!nQmKll!wHtBHKtBrM&!p """'' I ;w 1, tFvF ijit HW5; t """fT'f
r.vnxi.vo nm.i.irriN, Honolulu, t. h. s.tiiih)av, apiw. u. i7.
i ' ' ' i.- ....''' .....-.
In The Pacific Arena
BY DR. IELAND E. COFER,
lasscd Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Pub
lie Health and Marine Hospital
Service Cnief Quarantine
PART TWO In which Dr. Cofer
Deals with Diseases that Tend
to Follow in Wake of Commerce)
(Continued from Last Saturday)
Tlu inodpin largo Htrnm M'XKelfl.
nro inlilly replacing those (if tlio
olil typo on tlio trmiR-l'aclflc rout", ,
mill tlicro Is no doubt Hint an illseaso
uirrlTH tliey are far wifcr tint ti tho
old tM f osncR Tho largo steam
i rn am hi expensive; to maintain
that their rims aru quicker and their
Unit' In ioit mtic.li Hiiortcncil, all of
which lutx a hearing mi tho eh a men
(if their Ijcioiiilng Infected Willi tho
Intcrnicillato liostn of certain quiir
tilillnalilp dlicaipH. Tlicsu veKKelK
aio e(iiliicil with all the modern up
pliant ca for ventilating and for tho
i iilotnatlo HiiHliIng of latrines. Ilo
low I ho water-line tlio hull In dlvlil
d Into (omiiartmi'iitH by water-tight
ImllilieailH which piobahly limit tho
migration (,f erniln. liven the lottl-tii-KH
or tho hull affords Homo motec
tiou to (Ik I n Kress of vermin.
Tlio oliMypc' Hteain lion vorhHh
les'Mit lather the leNorno of tho con
(lltloiiH ennnieraled ahuve, and for
Oils icaxon me claKHllled separately
In ilotcriiiliilngfhclr prohahlo stntiis
1 1 olil a (luaiaiilliiu pofnt of view.
Xnnl vessels and nillltaij trans
pints, while they do at times heroine
Infected with, and are therefore ca
pable of uurjiiig, (iiiaraiitlaahln dis
ease, aio coniparutiU'ly wife, for tho
1 ennui that commercialism enlers
now the Into their ((induct, and every
ollleer on hoard Is ollleially and mor
all) tho Kiiaidlau of the sanitary In
tegrity of such n vpsmO.
Stiel nailing vcshels and trainn
steamer nmially luaKo long voyiiKes,
visit many roiintrlcs, liavo tho carry
ing of freight as their sole aim, and
In thort piescnt tho greatest hazard
to the quarantine ofllccr of any of
the varieties of (ico.in-uirrlerK.
Wooden vessels nro placed In u
clam to themselves simply because
once Infected they present, on n
roiml of their fonstriictlon, n great
many obstacles to proper disinfec
tion Tho loiito between Oriental
and Noi th American ports Is travern
(d piinclp.illy by tho largo modern
i.le.iiners, mid steel Balling vessels.
Itotwopu the Philippine Inlands
and North Amcilcau ports military
'I ho Smith American ports do tho
gi cater part of their exporting !
Me( 1 sallliig vessols,
, lictween the Isthmian and North
American ports tho old-typo steam
'llio route between Australasian
and Noith American ports Is travers-
ul in t ly by modetn and p.utly by
old-tvpo steamers, of a class distinct
ly Intel lor In thoso plying between
China mid the United States. Tho
wooden sailing vesaol Is also com
inonly used over tho Australasian
North American run. There are,
howover, inceptions to all of tleo
gcmoi.il Miles, Tho steamers plying
between China and tho United States
usually rairy Chinos or Jitpancso
ciows, but on all of the other routes
tho ciews aro either whlto or mixed.
Tho passenger loutes mo thoso be
tween tho Australasian, Philippine
Islands, mid Oileutnl ports on tho
oiio hand and tho North American
1 orU on tho other. Tho bujlc of
f I eight goes to tho Orient, tho bulk
of hilhiBt comes from the Orient.
Tho Bleeingo passungerH on tho Orl-rntal-Oicldeutal
loiito aro for tho
most pait Chlneso and Japaneso coo
lies, on tho oilier routes they aro
either while or mixed Tho freight
rat i led consists of general merchan
illso on all vessels bound Boutli and
West. Vessels hound Hast from tlio
Oilent cany piinclp.illy silk mid
Oriental foodstuffs. Hteamem fioni
tho South am usually light vvitli gnu
eial'iiigo, while sailing vessels fioni
the South usually carry iImI.
DISEASES IN THE
The (IImmsos In tho Aicna aro di
visible Into two classes, tho iiiarau
tliiabhi and the uimqiiaiantlunhlo.
The (luai.intlniihlo diseases aio ynl
low fever, pl.igun, Hinallpox, cholera,
tjplius ever and leprosy,
Tho nominal antlnnblu diseases aro
rrarlct fever, dlplitheihi, muaehic
nml bndllaiy dvsentery, beilher
tinchnnu ami nnchylostoniiasls.
' Tho I'uhlle Health Ueporls of the
Vuhllc Health and Marlnn-Hospltnl
Bcrvlro show that during tho blounlnl
peilod ended December SI, lOOK, yel
low teer occuncd In tho following
countries bordering upon tlio Pacific
Coat7aHinl(.os , ..' 212 cases
8'illna Cru 2 "
Tehuanteiiec 85 "
(lunlan 200 cases
licuug "(JO cases
Puerto Cortex KG cases
8 in Pedro G2fi "
Cliolonia ISO "-
Managua .10 cases
Snn I'rnnclsco 2 "
Alajuela 1 J cases
Union 7 "
Panama , , . .1 1 or, cases
Colon S2 "
Hocus del Torn II! "
Il.trraiiPjulll.i n cases
Cartagena 2 "
lluenaveutiira i l'resent
(luaaiiill 2Sr, cases
1) ishl.i de Caraquez I "
I.liim 2 caseii
Calh s "
M.irchoux mid Hlmond's jirolest
ngalnst the assumption that It Is pos
sible for the Stegnuuln to become In-
fecled elsewhere than from man or
that the ellow fever virus rnn affect
man without the intermediation of
the mosquito, would show that tho
ports mimed above arc either con
tinuity Infected with yellow fever or
aio constantly Infectibto when expos
ed to this dlhcasc.
Tlio ports of Asia and the Islands
in the Pacillc Ocean nro either Infcct-
Iblo or etso may soon ho tendered so
by the Inevitable Introduction of the
Stegomyla fasciata from pints where
tills variety of mosquito nbounds.
This mosouito has been identified
in the Philippine Islands by Brinker
liofT, in the Hawaiian Islands by Van
nine oi the Hawaii Experiment Sta-
tion, and its 'presence in China, Ja
pan, Australia, and the Samoan Isl
ands is generally acknowledged.
According to Manson, tho 8tego
myla fasclatn Is tho most widely dls
ti Hinted mosquito known, being
found nil around the tropical world.
Tho reason for this, according to
Ollej, is tho fact that tho Slcgomyla
fasciata Is n good "sailor". The In
rroncp of Intercourse between tho
Isthmian ami South American ports
and those of Asia mid the Islands In
the Pacillc Ocean, consequent upon
tho general development of com
merce In the Pacific Arena and tho
opening of tho Pairnma Cannl will
muse the Asiatic ports and those of
the islands In tho Pacillc Arena to
he constantly exposed to Infection
by yellow fever.
Acrordlng lo the Public Health P.o
ports, plague has incurred during the
two jears ending December 31st.
190,. nt the following places in tho
Trujlllo . .
Plsagiin . .
Iqtllquo . .
, 1 .1 cases
. r. "
. 1 "
Australia, N. S
Newcastle . . .
(Jiieemiland . .
Ilrlsli.tno . . . .
Auckland . . . .
Hquglniig . . .
Yokohama . . .
I r, eases
. .. 2!l
. . .Hun cases
. .7421 cases
... r.:: "
. , .205 cases
. 1(1,1 S! easel
. . . 27 I'.'iMH
These stntlstlcs show such a wide
rpre.nl Infection of the Pacillc Aretn
with plague that not only may wo
expect In tho future a still further ex
tension of tho Infection, but also that
the said Infection will take on a gen
Smallpox has been present for the
two vears ended December "list, 1!)0",
at the following ports In the Pacillc
Hongkong 1 02 eases
Shanghai 7K0 "
Kobe 7 case J
Nagasaki 57!) "
Yokohama 7 "
(luuernl . .
AntofagaKla . . .
Valparaiso , . .
Cartagena . . . .
Ilirrmiqultla . .
Hocus del Torn .
plies of Ho- I lilted Slates Public,
Health and Marino Hospital Service,
when lilts dlsense will lie studied J II
nil of Iib phases and from every
standpoint, so that the findings nro
llkel to be of ns miuh Interest to
quarantine olflrers and sanitarians in
the Pacific Arena as to the students
of Medical Science In general
... II 0 cases '
... f! '
... 1 U cases
... 32 "
. ..IDS "
... 5 eases
, . 30 cases
The smallpox circle In tbo Pacillc
Arena is made complete b the almost
((instant presence of this disease In
tho Pacillc coast ports of North
America. Therefore this disease may
he looked for in miy vessel from un
port in tho Pacific Arena,
' It Is extieniely important that tho
Islands in tho Mld-Pncllle should ho
kept clean r.o far us this dleeaso is
concerned. Its accidental Introduc
tion has on several occasions been
followed by large epidemics with i
Cholern Is shown by the Public
Health lleportB to have been present
In tho following ports In tho Pacillc
ArenJ during tho two venrn ended
December 31st, 1!05: I
Hongkong 3S cases
Shanghai f,02 "
I'ormosa 1 case
Kobe 2 cases
Nagasaki 1 "
Yokohama 1 "
Manila 2!lO cases
Provinces 2.11 1 "
Owing to the ellldent quarantine
work or tlu Public Health and Mar
ine Hospital Service, and also that of
the Japanese (lovernmeiit, choteia
has been confined to the western
ports of the Pacillc Alena. It is of
vital Importance that the Island ports
of the Mld-P.iclllc. tho Isthmian, mid
nil South Amcilcau polls bo kept
fnc from this dlse.oe, both on ac
count of the usual Insanitary condi
tion of then1 ports and the clmracler
ol their respective populations.
TmiIius fever, allhough occurring
from time to time In Isthmian, South
Ameihan, Chinese, Philippine Island,
and Japanese ports, Is seldom seen In
maritime quarantine work. It should,
however, be nlwas home In til I nil
when vessels fioni the above named
ports nre being Inspected.
Leprosy abounds In Chinese, Jap
anese, Philippine Islands, South
American, mid Hawaiian ports, and
Is rather frequently encountered In
Tho scientific Investigation of lep
los Is soon to begin under the uus-
The nonqunrnntinnbln diseases
should be studied by quarantine mi I
municipal sanltnry oflkcrs with tho '
Mew of determining the exnet henr-j
lug which these diseases hnve upon I
tho public health, and also whether
some of them should not he properlvl
classified as quarantliiablo. i
The nnnqunrnntlnable diseases nro
present' throughout tho Pacillc Are
na, allhough In location and degios
vnrjlng with th" Individual disease.
Tor example nmaeblc dysentery
will bo found mostly Ih vessols from
the Philippine Islands ports while
liacllhiry dysentery usually comes
from the Japanese ports, lloth va
rieties of the disease, however, aro
present In almost every port In the
PaclHc Atena. Again beriberi Is en
countered most often In Japanese Im
migrants, mid trachoma and michy
lostoml.isls aro seen principally In
Vcsvls finiH ports In Hie Orient, et
trachoma mid miclivlostninlasls may
be found loda In almost every port
III the Arena On the other hand,
seal let fever and diphtheria are sel
dom or never seen save In vessels'
fioni North American potts. I
With the expected development of
commerce these unnoqiinrautlnable
diseases will bo transmitted fiom port
to port until their geographical dis
tribution will become more even and
they will heroine distinct factors In
the mortality records of the varlom
municipalities. Scarlet rover and
diphtheria aie both attended by sut h
a lolatlvcl) hlgl, mortnllty rate
among Pnlincshins, that' these dis
eases should be legulaily quarantin
ed against at Polynesian ports,
THE RELATION OF TRADE TO THE
DISEASE IN THE PACIFIC ARENA
Tho trode between the Pacllle coast
of th" Pulled States ami the Hawaii
an Islands. Japan, mid China will al
wa) have the sumo relative bearing
l.pou the quarantine status of tho
Pacific Arena that it has at present.
That Is to say, while tlio opening of
tho Isthmian canal will greatly lu
1 1 ease the commeice In the Pacillc
Aren i, the old and established route
Just mentioned hIHhxikIi lt
trad will pi iiilm i iin i
tiontitrl Inof.ised will sh- v
no relative difference In the amount
of quarantlnnhle dtwnso trannil'tid.
That the Increase In thp trade In thi
Pacific Arena nd ospcrlnlh lb
(Itangofl In the trade routes win in
fluence If Hot reorganize rninruutin"
procedure ti a faut wblcb en t ,i
rrdute. In the Ttoport of the Isthmian ( a
ual Commission It Is predicted that
for each doendo up to the opening of
the cnnnl. commerce In tho Pueiiie
Oienn will Increase 2'f. It is umi
predicted ttmt b tne year 10-4 Muf
fle will be further Inerensed in
C2 V? of what It Is at present I. at
It Is not thp Increase in tho traffic
which Interests the student of quai
rntlne so miirb ns tint now trade con
nections which will bo fortnid be
tween disease centres hitherto wide
ly separated Tho present trade
toutc between the Pacific Coast ports
nml China and Its boarlng upon tho
tiiinsmlaion of qua- ntinablo dis
eases Is fulrl) well linden. tood nt the
present time and an increase In vol
ume of that Ira flic un be pnsll met
b a relative Increase In ndmlnlstta
tle c'liulpioent litit a prospei tie
Inere-iso of trade Involving new
unites, new climates, anil new d's
inses unliirnlli opens up a new pi,h
leni in the quarantine work In tho
In considering the present and pmh
piotlvo trade In tho Pacific Arena and
Us probable bearing upon the gen
eral public health, mention of the
principal ports and tho character of
the trade dulled on In them will bo
Tho ports In the I'ncifle Arena may
be divided Into North American. On
tral American. Isthmian. South Amer
ican, Australasian, Philippine Island,
1 aelflc Island. Chinese ,uud .lap.mes".
The North American ports are tho
shipping ikiIiiIb for food products.
Iron nml steel manufactured sup
plies, the basic mateilals of Industry,
mid general merchandise The On
tin! and South American ports am
tho shipping points for wool, nltrato
of loda, sugar, ores, and cacao.
Thtough the Australasian ports nro
shipped wool, coal, food supplies, nud
raw matcil-ils. The Philippine Isl
ands export hemp, copin, sugar and
Through tlio Japanese ports nro
shipped raw silk, straw mattings.
nigs, tea, notions, rnttnn, cane, bam
boo, nml coal.
(Continued Nc:;t Saturday)
All Pure Beer Is
Not Good Beer
Some Large Brewers Claim Purity and Sterilization and little else.
We Guarantee Purity, Sterilization and Excellence of Materials.
Superiority of Quality is the Test.
MOST beer, no matter by whom brewed, is clean, pure
These primary conditions prevail in nearly all
breweries. Many pure, clean beers, however, are not good
o o o o o
Clean, pure beer may be made from almost any cereal
and may be aged and sterilized, but it will not necessarily be
CORN OR OTHER CHEAP MATERIALS WILL
NOT MAKE GOOD BEER.
The maximum of Quality is not there.
The brewers of Corn-made beer can and do justly claim
purity, cleanliness and freedom from germs.
BUT THEY CANNOT JUSTLY CLAIM QUALITY.
o o o o o
Science and experience have proved that good beer MUST
contain two essential ingredients HOPS and BARLEY, and
for pale beer a small percentage of rice.
But it is much cheaper to use Corn-Grits as a substitute
This is why some of the large brewers use Corn it
costs' less. o o o o o
We use those materials which are recognized in the
science of brewing as the essential elements for a really health
fill, palatable, honest and superior beer ; and of these only the
very best, regardless of cost.
Not a grain of corn ever enters our brewery in any
manner or for any purpose.
Our precautions for pure, clean and perfectly sterilized beer
are unequaled. o o o o o
Our storing capacity of 600,000 barrels, exceeding that of
any two other breweries in the world, enables us to lager (age)
our beer from four to five month".
For these reasons
of Al! Beers
must and does command a higher price than any other beer, and has a
greater sale than all other bottled beers.
Anheuser-Busch Brewing Ass'n
St. Louis U. S. A.
11. HACKFELD & CO. Ltd.
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