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I Section II j
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EVENING BULLETIN ATLANTIC FLEET EDITION
Honolulu and Pearl Harbor Vital Centers
Of America's Power In Pacific Ocean
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MAP OF THE PACIFIC
THE WHOLE PACIFIC
il t-i ru u Eli tnl W tel 64 csl ej 0-4 mi tnl ua tt rl vrj tj t4 J fa til mmiirjh!
Oo n llunvi! vii, the. mwi.
u Mill way between Unabmla mid the Society Idanilx, miilwuj be
iween ,s'(7. hw Suiiim, mill way between I 'mi I'nwiwmlaiitl the, Fiji
Jf-lmuh. mill mill between San. Fmiwiico unit the Uaiiilinctt, multeity
between the I'nnuma 'until unit llumj Komj, aim m tna aura route
fiiini South American junta to Jiijitin, the central location of these isl
uiiiln makes theij- etimmeirial iinniinnre, critical,
"Hut vntl.v renter is their strategic value to the I'uitcd .States.
"Captain .Malum snvs: 'Too much stress cannot lio laiil upon this
iiiiiui'ii-t! (INuilviit:ij( tn Hi of any niarit hue enemy luiviu a coaling
station well witliiii iJ.'itlO miles, of every point of our coast lino from
Puget Sound to -McNieo. Were there many others availalile, we might
iiiul it ilillienlt to exclude from all. There is, however, hut the one.
Shut nut from the Sandwich Islands an a coal ha-o, an enemy is thrown
hack for supplies of fuel to distances of :i.i()(l or 1000 miles or lu
tweeu 70t)) and 8000 g'oiiur and coining an impediment to sustained
maritime .operations well-nigh prohihitivc. It is rarely that mi im
portant a factor in the attack or defence of a coast line of a sea
frontier is concentrated in a single position, and tlm eircuinstiinco
renders itdmihly imperative upon us to secure it. if wu righteously
"This was written in lS'.KI, and the final annexation of Hawaii
'shown that tlm lesson and warning conveyed in the tthovc were minded
at the right moment;
"With tho Sand wich Island wo have acquired l'curj llarhor, of
M'li'ioli Ailniii-ul Wnll.-cr miiil: Tt should not lie forgotten that l'earl
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Harbor offers, strategically and otherwise, tho linost sito for a naval
mill coaling station to bo found in tho whole Pacific' "
PEARL HARBOR PROGRESS
-Treaty negotiated by President Orovcr Cleveland and Kinp Kala-
kaua, givinR the Unites! btatcs exclusive ngnts to rcan Jiaruor
1898 Annexation of Hawaii to the United States.
1008 Appropriation of $3,000,000. by Congress to straighten channel
and establish Naval Station at Pearl Harbor.
PEARL HARBOR STATION
PROTECTION FOR AMERICA
(Ilv llox. .Iij.vaii I.m..niax.om:, DkMWAn: to Conukkms.)
1 simply cito Mime historical facta to-Hhow how conclusively ami for
how long n time tho strategic valuo of Pearl Harbor and tho Hawaiian
Inlands hn.s hpen.ollicinlly recognized by tlm Government of tho United
States. " tiW,
beginning in IS 12, Piesident Tyler gave notico to European na
tions that tho United States would never voiiM'iit to their occupying
the Hawaiian Islands.
Jn lS.ril. when the Eiench were threatening to occupy Hawaii,
Daniel Webster, then Secretary of State, wrote: "L hopo tho French
will not tako posjPssion of Hawaii; hut if they do, they will bo dis
lodged" if my advice is taken, if tho wholo power of tho Government
is required to do it."
William L .Mnrcy, when Secretary of Stale, reiterated tho declara
.-. . : . . ..... .. i
(ion that Hawaii would not bo pornut,ted to tall into tho hands ol any
European nation. Up to that timo there was no mcuaco of Hawaiian
occupation by any nation other than European. '
Almost a third of n century ago, when King Kalakaua was tho
roigning monarch of the Hawaiian Kingdom, tho United States, by
reciprocity treaty, obtained rights over the water of Pearl Harbor.
Thin was tho first stop toward carrying out tho policy announced by
President Tyler thirty-five years previously.
Coining down to the day.s of Bliiino and iMelunloy, wo find thoso
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MAP OF PACIFIC THAT DEMONSTRATES CENTRAL LOCATION AND VITAL STRATEGICAL VALUE OF HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.
RKLIEF MAP OF'PEARL HARBOR SECTION OF ISLAND OF 0AIIU,
SHOWING OUTLINE OF HARBOR AND LOW-LYING
LAND OF IMMEDIATE VICINITY
statesmen repeating tho declarations of their predecessors.
liy tho timo that President JicKinley reached tho Whito House,
it had becomo apparent that tho danger of tho occupation of Hawaii
by a foreign power had licen shifted from European nations to thoso
of tho Orient.
Einally, ten years ago, when tho unexpected ovents of tho Spanish
American war thrust 11 new situation upon this nation, it became
apparent that it was necessary for tho United States to acquire thd
boverciguty of tho Hawaiian Islands, both for thu protection of tho
Pacific coast and 111 order to inako it possible to maintain any naval
base in tho Far East.
Hut although this Government nnnoxed tho Hawaiian Islands for
tho particular valuo of their strategic location, they jiennitted almost
ten years to pass without turning' 11 sod or Juying ono foundation stono
toward tho actual construction of u nnrnl station at Pearl Harbor. '
A magnificent sito of over 000 acres of ground has been acquired
for thii purpose.
Tho 10 bquare miles of landlocked waters in Pearl Harbor could
easily accommodate the combined, fleets of this nation nml of Great
Britain, hut that can never give shelter to a battle ship till docks arc
built and tho channel approach is htraightcned.
Tho importanco of Pearl Harbor as 11 naval and military baso has
been repeatedly urged by men ablo and experienced in military and
naval science: among them Captain (now Admiral A. T. Ialian,
who pointed out with unanswerable arguments tho commanding im
portanco of Pearl Harbor as the key to tho Pacific.
J his Government for ten years neglected the safeguard of piO'
paring a naval baso in tho mid-Pacific. Our relations with other
nations 1110 such to-day that it would bo inexcusable neglect of tho
responsibility of Congress to tho nation to postpone this work another
The development of l'earl Harbor is not a Hawaiian proposition;
it 13 a national need. Hut as my nation gavo ovor its soveengnty
to this country ten years ago, wo lmvo a right to ask, and wo do ask
that adequate protection bo provided for our islands, bo that wo could
not bo captured by a binglo hostile battle ship as could bo done to-day.
Coast fortifications alono aro not sufficient; there must btfiin operat
ing baso for war vessels as well as coast defenses, and tho latter aro
useless without the former.
Hawaii should be defended for ili own protection; bin I repent
that it is far more important for tho offensive and defensive plaus of
tho nation as a whole,
m f tii n t 4- t
FIRST PEARL HARBOR TREATY :
Orovcr Clcrelniul, President of thu
United States, and Duvld Kalukuua,
KIiik of lliiwnll, concluded tho treaty
which first iilnccd l'earl lltuhor with
in thu control of tho United States.
The proclamation scttliiK forth the
terms of thu trcnty Ih now in tlio
archives of Hawaii und leads us fot
Whoreus, 11 Convention hclwccn tho
United States of America nnd tho
Kingdom of tho Hawaiian Islanda, for
the purpose of definitely limiting tho
duration of tho Convention conrcrnlnc
Commercial Reciprocity concluded bo-
tween thu name High Contracting Tar
tics 011 thn thirtieth day of January,
1X75, was concluded and rlgnud liy
their reupcctlvu plenipotentiaries at
tho city of Washington, on tho sixth
day of December, in tho jcur ut our
Lord, 1S84, which Convention, an
amended by thu Sonalo of tho United
Slates und being la thu Kngtish Inn
guago. Is word for word as follows:
Supplementary Convention to limit
tho duration of thu Convention re
specting Coinmorclnl reciprocity be
tween tho Unltod States of America
und thu Hawaiian Kingdom, concluded
January 3D, 1875.
WhcieiiB, n Convention was conclud
ed between tho United Status of Amor
lea, nnd Ills Majesty thu King of tho
Hawaiian Islands, on thu thirtieth day
of January, 1875, concornlng commer
cial luclproclty, which by tho fifty-second
urtlclu theroof, was to continue,
In force for seven years from tho dato
after It was to comn Into operation,
and further, until tho expiration of
twelve months after either of the High
Conducting r.irllos should give notico
to thu oilier of Its wish to termlnnto
tho same; und
Whereas, tho High .Contracting
1'urtles consider that the lncreaso and
consolidation of their mutual commer
cial Interests would bo better promot
ed by tho dcflnllo limitation of tho
duration of tho n,ld convention,
Theroforo, tho President of tho
United States of America, and Ills
(Continued on Page 2)
BACKED BY NAVY
AMERICA IN PACIFIC
The U.iwtMr.ti M 'ti Is, WiiUc Itland,
nnd (liium form a lino of communica
tion in Manll.i llug hoKvceu thu nnr
low limits of the 1.11b mid lrt paral
lels. The Ami-rlc'iu ti rmlnar points
of Ibis lino o-i located at Si'i Fran
cltco, I.ih Augolos, and 'atininn, and
to nil three of there Honolulu holds n
central position. The prooinl.ienco
which It nun enJoyH 11s thu radiating
point of thu great coinmercl ll routes
of tho Pacific will only he ualnnccd
wllh the opening ofJlio Panama Can
al, becauso It will llu In tho pnth of
mi Incrcas'iiK fl'c of vos'cls moving
nlong fiom I'.m-inia to I'll I tin Japan,
or Asiatic Ilusrla At llu wc-tsril cndr
of this Irliud chain of nnimiuilcitlons
are the Philippines. This l-rg" group,
scattered over nil nrea measuring 1000
mites nnith to south and half us much
cast to vet. In lunted wholly vrlthlu
thu tropics, nil 1 I'Utrlhtitcd r.iornd It
In a whle-wec;:liig U'lalclrclo a.o tho
l'ar Asian countrli k whofo vast pop
iil'illoiiH nmko thu markets it tho
At profi-at we ciipi-ly this wholo
nnrkct with only nbout 11 per cent,
of Its Imiiorls while tho commercial
count rica of Kuroiie have 11 Rhrro of
HO per cent of till liupoit trado, Tho
lotnl conuiii-co 'f tin "nltd KtatcS
with Afl-i and AilHtralitstu ha:) rlfOH
frmu J13R0C0,imii u 1S92 to S287.000,-
000 In laop, havlnf moro' thn dOuhleil
within 'n Hlnglo decado, Under tho
now conditions which we nro now fac
ing. thoc figures will rapidly, rlso to
double nnd (reblu tho nmount.
uonBiiicnng increiorc, 1110 pruuicm
of thu future Pncldc suprciiiuy from
the thrto point of gcographlc-U loca
tion, commciclal ndviintogn mil fa
cilities for manufacture, nnd. lastly, ot
ptratcglo stirngth, we find tho United,
States Imprignablo. No other nation
or group of intloiiR possesses nhj thing
approximating our combined ndvniit
ages. Two other ikiIiUb remain for
consideration. Om Is population, nnd
thu other is iinvnl strength.
As to thu foimcr, tho facts nro welt
within our ken. Wo shall soon havo
pasbed tho 100.000,000 point, uud tho
middle of this century will probably
sec this nation fairly under way to
wards the second hundred million.
Our Immigration, far from diminish
ing, has of Into" years risen to heights
equalled only during a few exception
al ycnrH beforehand tho annual aver
age Is now higher than ovor. Willi
Hint, while In tho older Kastcrn
States (duo to a ynrlety of causes)
tho rata of 'natural' Increase has been
diminishing, it In steadily oil tho ln
creaso In tho West nnd South. Wo
may easily look forward, therefore, to
the time when, witli thu slhglo pos
slhlu exception of ltiissln. our mero
numerical superiority will exert nn
iinparallclled inlluonro In a policy ot
expansion In tho I'nr Kast and In
South America, Von Schlcrhrnnfl'a
"America, Asia and tho Pacific."
Honolulu has 2 Iron roundrlesnnd
Machlno Shops rapnblo of making; ex
tended ships' repairs.
Honolulu has 24 miles Electric Car
Lines; scnlco tho best.
Honolulu has 125 miles well-piwed
RELIEF MAP OF ISLAND OF 0AHU, SHOWING HIOH MOUNTAIN
RIDOES AND SOUTHERN COAST WITH HONOLULU
AND PEARL HARBORS
t , 1
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