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EVENING BULLETIN. HONOLULU. T. t! . SATURDAY. OCT. 9, 1009.
Oceanic Steamship Company
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BULLETIN ADB PAY'
HOW PEARY WAS STARTED
M NORTH POLE SEARCH
Old Paper In Washington
Book Store Was
In nn old hook store In Washington
Puary camo upon a paiwr on the "In
land Ice of Greenland." A chord
which, as a hoy, had vibrated Intense
ly within him at the reading of Kane's
wonderful book, was touched again.
Tile pamphlet contained tho conflict
ing experiences of Nordenskjold, Jen
ion and others. Ho decided he would
sco for himself the truth of the great,
mysterious npex of the world.
At the time no onb hnd ever at
tempted to explore the vast, unknown
Interior of Greenland. No ono know
whether Greenland was an island pr
u pnrt of a great polar continent.
Peary outlined a plan for nn expedi
tion In a paper read Lefore the Na
tional Academy of Sciences. Having
obtained a leao of absence from the
navy In May, 188G, ho left for Orcen
land om his MrBt vojngo of exploration.
Though the expedition was Intended
only ns a preliminary reconnaissance,
Penry succeeded in penetrating moro
than 100 miles, for tho first time
reaching tho real Interior plateau of
unchanging Arctic snow. No whlto
mnn before had attained co great an
elcwitlon on the Greenland ice, and
no one had penetrated so fa.' Into tho
The reconnaissance, though brief,
for Peary was absent front Washing
Ion barely bIx months! added much to
the knowledge, of the world, besides
enabling Peary to outllno practical
plans for futuro explorations with sug
gested routes for crossing Greenland.
Nansen Forestalls His Plans.
Peary, liowoer, was not destined to
follow out Immediately his plans for
future exploration. Indeed he was
tn suffer the bitter regret of Boeing
his work forestalled, his planB carried
out by another for two jcars later
Greenland was crossed by Nansen,
In 188S ho married Miss Josephine
DIebltsch, who was to oxerclso an lnv
.rtsnMa t en nn. ttn titie.n
work. In all this time his projects forfrei Bom mu ' After reach
f....,. inn .inmtinn m,.!nv,i Ing a latltud.0 of 81 degrees 47 mln-
every brief Interval of lelsuro In his
exacting navy work; he was studying
the question of equipment and trnra-
portatlon, which really determines the
success of every expedition. Perhaps
no man who ever sailed tho polar seas
was more thoroughly prepared In
In 1891, having received an 18
months' lenvo of absence from the
Secretary of tho Navy, he sailed for
tho Arctic seas In June, 'accompanied
by Mrs. Peary and a small party. At
tho very outset he was stricken by an
uccldent that would havo sent most
men back to their homes. An Ico floe
striking tho Bhlp's rudder drove tho
pilot wheel against his leg, snapping
tho bones. Dr. 'Frederick A. Cook,
who accompanied tho expedition,
promptly set the fracture, and Peary
was strapped to a board. Though tho
pain caused by tho jarring of the ship
was excruciating, the explorer Insist
ed upon going forward without delay.
One Companion on "Whit. March."
Establishing hla headquarters In
McCormlck Bay, he directed the con
struction of a comfortable house, and
prcpnrcd for the expedition across
Greenland. With tho return of the
sun In tho spring of 1892. Pearv
whoso leg uas now healed, set off
with a single companion. Astrup. for
the long journey across 'tho great Ice
of Greenland, nn expedition which the
explorer well calls "Tho whlto inarch."
All winter long he had been prepar
ing, and his sledges were of tho
strongest and lightest, his equipment
was smallest compatible with safety,
and his dogs, zo in all, or tno ocst
It was a most remarkable journey.
To appreciate It faintly, ono must un
dcrstand homcthlng of what tho In'
terlor of Greenland Is like.
Greenland Is an elevated unbroken
plateau of mow ranging from 5000 to
10,000 feet abovo sea level 1Z00 miles
long, COO miles wide. It Is an Arctic
Sahara In comparison with which the
African Sahara Is Insignificant. In
Inner Greenland there Is no form of
lire, animal or vegetable; no frogmen
of lock, no grain or Band Is visible.
At theso great altitudes Peary set
his course exactly as a mariner at sea
would, even in hoisting a sail on his
slcdgo. They tramped northward,
often through storm and fog, often
half blind with tha sun glare, sleeping
on tho Ice usually without a tent, and
oatlng halt cooked rations. In 40 days
they cotcrcd moro than 600 miles,
teaching, 911 July 4, the rocky north
ern end of Grconlund, which no man
ever bef ni 0 had seen.
On a hlgli hill which Peary named
Nay Cliff, a cairn with tho stars and
sttlpes floating nbove was erected,
and tho wlntcry sea which flowed nt
Its feet was named Independence Bay,
lu honor of tho day. The land visible
across the hay now first discovered,
Pent) called Mellville and Hcllprln
Name of "Peary Land" Suggested.
HnWng readied tho end of their
journey, and piovci the Insularity of
Greenland, Peary and Alstrup return
ed, reaching McCormlc Boy In August,
whence the pnrty sailed to New York.
It had beon a brilliantly successful
expedition; It won for Peary the prise
medals of several learned societies
and "Petormann'a Mlttcllungen," the
most fnmoug geographical publication
In the world, honored .the explorer by
suggesting the nomo "Peary Land"
foi North Greenland.
For tho next expedition ever) thing
was against Peary. He had no money
no Bhtp and few wealthy friends
With difficulty he Induced the Navy
Deportment to give him thrco yenrs
leave of absonco. Lecturing, Bales of
his book and contributions for his
letters, as well as proceeds from a
book written by his wife, brought
money enough to charter the Falcon
ami provide moat of the equipment.
In June, 1893, the expedition Balled.
It was an III fated expedition. The
Falcon, after landing Peary's party,,
was lost on the return with all on
board, although the explorer knew
nothing of this fact until a year later.
Against his own best judgment Peary
had taken with him a large party' of
men, and dissensions having arisen,
nearly all members of the party re
turned bythe first relief ship, leaving
Penry with only two men.
"Snow Baby" Born In North.
These were his faithful negro. Matt
Henscn,' and Hugh J. Lee. Only one
bright event lightened the darkness.
The birth In tho Far North of a, daugh
ter ' Mrs. Peary, little Anlghltb, "the
snow baby." His party thus depleted,
Peary found himself terribly handi
capped. His means were exhausted,
bo It devolved on Mrs. Peary,' who also
returned by tbo relief ship, to raise
money to send a ship to her husband
In tho following year.
Though short of provisions and fuel,
far from the best phj steal health,
Peary and his two companions Bet out
In April, 1895, to cross tho Ice cap.
Misfortunes camo thick and fast
They could not And a cache contain
ing 1409 pounds of pemmtcan. Some
of their dogs went mad, Lee fell III.
They were reduced to the verge of
starvation for days until they dlscov-
utc. 10 n'"eB ""J" """
Hd. en before they were compelled
to turn back.
It then was a raco for
tiro. 1 l 1
Eve-t thin? absolutely unnecessary,
even their tents, were thrown away to
lighten their march. From 42 dogs
and flvo sledges, with which they
started, they wero reduced to one
sledge and two dogs. They had but
one dog, their Inst morsnl of food was
gone, and still they wero 20 miles
from tho home camp. It took them
two days to complete the starvation
march. There they found their store
Intact. They remained there until the
arrival of tho relief party organized
through Mrs. Peary.
In 1816 and 1837 Peary mado two
yages Into the Arctic region, bring'
Ing back' the famous Cape York mc,
leorltcs, the largest in the world.
In 1896 his book, "Northward Over
the Great Ice," appeared, and ho dcllv
ered a lecture before tho Royal Geo
graphical Society of Great Britain
which received flattering honors.
Sails for Seventh Time.
Peary now prepared for the su
preme attempt to reach the Polo. In
1897, through Influential friends, he
obtained a four-years' leave of ab
sence rrom tho Navy Department.
The Peary Arctic Club was formed
through which the expedition was
financed, and In 1899 Peary sailed to
the frozen North for tho seventh time.
The first winter out, while on tho long
march to Fort Conger, Peary froBtcd
both foot, and the surgeon decided
soven toes would have to bo amputat
ed. Having no Instruments at hand,
however, Peary lay prostrated and
suffered acutely for six weeks. Then,
strapped to a sledgo, with the ther
mometer CO to 70 degrees bolow zero,
ho drovo 250 miles over the Ico to
his ship, which was locked In, where
he was operated on and recovered,
Refusing to return home, Peary soon
was able to walk and even jump as
well as ever.
Finding the Ico disintegrating, he
turned back tn 1900 from 83 degrees
and 54 minutes north, fixed his head
quarters at Fort Conger arid attempt
ed the Cape Heckla route In 1901.
Tho northern advance In April was
abandoned at Lincoln Bay. His base
was transferred the next winter to
''Undismayed, Peary started out
again In February, 1902, (Ind by 12
wonderful marches reached Conger.
He' left Capo Heckla April 6 wjth sev
en mon and six dog sledges. The'dls
Integrating Polar pack was constantly
shifting, whllo strong gales' kept them
storm bound and further broke up
the pack. At the farthest observa
tions gave 84 degrees 17 minutes
north, 70 degrees west, magnetic va
cations 99 degrees west. This not
able northing, mado from a base 300
miles Bouth of the Alert, over Mark
liam's route exceeded his latitude by
57 miles. Peary surpassed the lati
tude of Lockwood on llaien Land by
(3 miles, and so Attained the highest
latitude reached from tho Western
27 Years In Ice Fields.
Notwithstanding he was preceded
to the Polo by Dr. Krcdorlck A. Cook
nf Brooklyn, the subsequent triumph
of Com mod oro It. D. Peary of tho
United States Navy, together with hla
27 years' services In Northern Ico
fields will gn down in history ns the
most brilliant nclileement In Arctic
He was tho first to round the north
limits of tha Greenland Archipelago,
the most northerly Known land In tho
world, the first to reach the latitude
of 87 degrees 6 minutes north, which
until a year ago' was the nearest ap
proach to tho North Geographic Polo
and the first to determlno the origin
I of (he so-called paleocrystlc Iceberg!
An old man at 63 years of age, with
ono broken leg and only three toes,
as the result of his former ndlenturcs.
with Indomitable courage and Inde
fatigable energy he pressed onward
until he reports ho reached tho goal
of his ambition.
I, On Yong, of Wahlawa, Oabu,
have this day sold all my Interest In
the laundry business to Lau Lock,
and after this day I shall not be re
sponsible for any clothing delivered
short or any other obligations of
said laundry business.
Wahatwa, Oahu, Sept. 6th, 1909.
4410-rm ON YONO.
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