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EVENING DtU.ETrN7'lf6NOUJLTJ, Vh.'.'sATUIIDAY, JUNE 4," 1910.'
'w mm m ,' '' V
SHY' ON LABOR
FABMERS SAY THAT
JAPANESE ARE BEST
Sons of Nippon Arc Acquiring land
and Going: Extensively Into
Fruit Growing Hindu labor,
, (Asi6clnted Press.)
BACrtAMKNTO, (Cal.), May 29.
Some form of unskilled labor, such its
is now prcsentod'by tho Japanese, Is
essential for tlia continuance and do
vc'lopmont of h6 ispe'cjalliidd ngrlcul
turn) Industries of California.
This Is tho broad corloluslonot tlie
i icport of tho State Labor Ccnmls
Hlonor just submitted to tho Govern
or, on the .tnpanceo in California
nnd which was prepared after over
n J ear of caroful field ovorlc by a
torps of special agents among tho
farms employing Japanese. Tho Inves
tigation was authorized by act ot
Legislature just after the nntl-Jap-nneso
agitation in California In
1908-1909, and tho roport consists
of over 200,000 words cxcluslvo of
n mass ot tabulated Btntlstfcs.
Tho so-called Oriental problem in
this Stato Is thoroughly discussed In
tho report nnd after searching In
quiry into all economic and social
conditions finds that some form of
unskilled labor, capable of Indepen
dent subsistence, quick mobilization
nnd entailing no responsibility upon
the emplojcr for continuous employ
ment, Js Absolutely necessary! to Ca
lf6rula's field .orchard and vlnc
nrd Industries if theso vast enter
prises aro lo be perpetuated and do-
eloped. The report Is of the opin
ion that tho Japaneso are second
only to tho Chinese In meeting these
As to the complaints heard against
fthe Japanese In the districts in
which thoy Bre emplojcd In great
numbers, the report states that thoy
ariso largely from tho attempts of
tho laborers to Becuro higher wageB.
It Is pointed out, however, that
thorn nro few complains of this char
acter except In such districts as ate
dominated by tho Japanese laborers
by virtue of their numbers and the
almost absolute dependence of the
"growers upon them for the harvest
ing of the crops in tho short tlmo
tho seasons nllp.w.Jac'ho vorX-Tho
nvcriigo duration of employment on
farms Is less than tw'o months In
the yenr. In this connection tho
report points odt that (bo Japanese
liavo learned that they can inako
much more monoy out of contract la.
boring than working for dally wag'
es. Tho rough average wage In tho
fields, orchards and vineyards Is giv
en at approximately $1.50 per day
under tho contract system tne la
borers are able to tnuko from I4.0U
to $7.00 per day, Prom this thoy
h.io. paccod to a more liberal form
of contract, working together on
shares; to grpwlr.g crops un ground
held by them" under cash rentnl and
In comparatively Isolated Instances,
to actual lownorshlp ot tho land.
"Japinese ambition," says tho ro
port, "to progress beyond mere Bor
lllty to tho place of tho hotter class
of American workmen, to own n
homo, to ope rat p Industries, to bo
master nnd not slave' is of tho namo
quality ns that of (he Italian, tho
.Swiss, tho Portuguese, the Itusstan,
with whom ho competes, and Is In lino
with tho ambition of that typo or
American whd will pol compote wiin
him. The moment that this ambi
tion Is oxerclsod, thut moment tho
Japancso toae to be an Ideal lab
Of tho charncter of tho Japancso
laborer nnd his desire f6r an Ame
rican education, the report speaks
in high terms. Ot tho responsibility
and reliability of tho Japanese, con
traitors, 'small, Jiontructors, sub-,
bosses or Jaborcrs,'' (ho, roport stages
.y,,. . .
, , .. '
The Choicest of all Ginger
I I I Ml II I I I I I 1 1 , 1 ll - I II I I I m II ' 1
" - 1
iiwrixwr i. vm un ...ij . ,u, , w a., irie 'ii r. .. i m f j- i .. .. i. 1 jr is t,i. j . ,i , i - , j- -v. , i i: a nr . i .. i it. . 4 i. . li .. . .lii . n. . r.ii i t e j- . . . j j t mj li f 'm !,., i.jLj ' m . 14. 1 r ..itj -.1' .1- . 41
Jppspspssssssssjssssjsssssssssssjssssjssjsssissiswr'.l, ,. ...,, i, 1 nn 1 'ifJJrJtmmwKwtnmmmwmmmTamwSmJIIIrfn
that they do not compare unfavor
ably wltli whlto men in tho Bamo
stations. As" to tho Individual Jap
ancso laborer as compared to tho ty
pical class of white laborers now In
tho fiolil and vailablc for tho work,
tho roport discloses thnt (ho hlghor
standard Is that of tho Japanese.
Of tho Japanese grower, whether
land owner, or leaser, it Is stated
that ho Is found to bo of h very
high type. Tho Investigators found
that the land-owning Japancso do-
sired to make his homo In this
country; that ha at once ndoptcd
American customs ind liabHs of life
and ciosoly followed his American
neighbors In many ways. Tho ngonts
Invariably reported courteous treat
ment and hospitality when visiting
Tho .report stales that It Is not
within Its provlnccs-to offof sugges.
tlons as to the solution of the la
bor problem presented, but merely
to present tho facts as they have
been found after a rigid scrutiny
of everything bearing upon Japan
ese life In California, Great stress
Is laid upon tho Inflnlto labor that
was expended In gathering the data
from which it is drawn. It Is point
ed out that virtually every farm in
tho districts where Japanese aro em
ployed was personally visited; that
tho opinions ot employers of Jap
ancso exclusively, of mixed races
and of white laborers only were In
terviewed and tjiolr views on the
Japancso Died with the Uurcau; that
aside from tho pergonal contact In
to which tho agents came with the
Japanese of all classes, over 20,000
census cards were filled out by Jan-
anesc and sent to the llureau, that
,1guro representing 4 4; percent of tho
total Japanese population of tlio
State. These cards printed In Eng
lish and Japanese, were prepared
with a view to determining accu
rately tho character ot each indivi
dual in order, that the Investigators
might have a firm basts on wnicn
to find their conclusions, a to tno
character und mode of life, ot the
typical Japanese resident of the
State. The information was readily
given by the Japanese and tho num
erous questions answered carefully
With this data before them, ami
with tho daily reports of tho agents
and thousands of interviews with
employers and others financially In
terested In tho problem at hand.
the investigators prepared the fol
lowing summary of farm labor con
ditions in the1 State.
"1, That (ho relationship exist
ing between t,ho farm I alio r utiliz
ed at the present time In the great
Industries of the orchard, vineyard
nnd field and tho industries them
selves have been developed nlong
lines of an evolutionary character,
and are practically Impossible of mo.
dlflcatlon in any material degree.
"That the problem of solving the
situation by1 drawing from the pro
se lit available white farm labor sup
ply by any known or suggested nid-
thods of modification of the condi
tions now obtaining In thin State
will afford no practical or material
"Thft tho creation ot an ideal In
telligent clans of. white farm labor
to be drawn from all sources' within
tho confines ot the United Stntes is
practically an impossibility for the
reason that such an effort would eu
tall an entire and radical readjust
ment ot economic conditions and the
relationship that now exists between
tho grower nnd tho system of trans
portation, distribution nnd market
ing. "4. The porpotnlty or continued
development of these great and
highly specialized forms of agricul
tural activity must lurgoly depend
upon a supply of labor coming from
without the United States, nnd or
such n nnturo and character as to
conform to tho condition reuniting
from tho application of thut labor
to the agricultural demands.
"5, That tho transition from tho
cereal-growing period to tho dovol
opmout of specialized agriculture In
creased the ratio of temjiofUry, help
required by the farming districts
boyood tho normal availablo supply
within tho State during tho perlous
ot largely Increasing population.
'0, The necessity for providing
Ihp large' number of temporary cm-.
nlolos engaged In tho harvest with
'employment ddrlng (ho, various' pe
riods other than tho harvest reason
is a vital clement in tho solution ot
farm labor problem,"
Ot tho resident Japancso engaged
In commercial or other,, pursuits
within tho state thfopirt speaks
at come length. ThV Investigation
was as-ctrcfully conducted in tho
l.lrco elites' 8 in the farmlnir rd
gtdiis nnd periaxial visit made (o
many establishments, Hojords were
soaiched -to- determine tho exact
number and extent of this phase of
the situation, 95 per cent of thu Jap
anese business; libusos filling out
schedules fully stntlng their ro.
source and: he nature of the busi
After stating tho lellcr thnt tne
Japanese commercial clement IS
merely an Incident In the problem
nnd the prcsonco ot the Japancso In
tho' titles and towns a natural re
sultant ot -the farming element
"without Vital., effct ro far ns tho
nosslblllty of competition with the
whito man may be considered," the
report dismisses the question with
"The displacement of these people
would bo accomplished without any
disturbance of the commercial acti
vity of tno wiilte people."
The Japinese poimla'tlo'irfdf Cali
fornia U- given by a report as
11.G2S on January 1, 1910, about
10 per cent being females. Of this
number CO per cent are engaged .n
agricultural pursuits and IS per cent
In domestic t)crv(co of one kind or
' Of tho, 817 Japancso children at
tending California public schools the
following' table, or distribution Is tur
nlched1; Kthdergarten I' male, li females.
Pilmnry school 209 males, 149
Ornmniar school -IBOj male,
High schools 1 27 male, 3
livening schools 71 male. 1
Totals, 028 males, 189 fomalcs.
Tho reduction of subsistence to n
science is given In the report ns the
basts ot successful competition by
tho Japancso laborer against thoso
ot any other races but tho Chinese,
It Is stated that tho average Japin
ese supports himself on 20 per cent
of his earnings or less. The aver
ago expenditure Is about 25 or 30
cents a day and the highest figures
recorded was sixty cents. American
food articles, It Is stated, aro being
substituted rapidly among them tor
Japanese. It is given ns tho opin
ion or tho Japanese themselves that
the adoption or tho American diet
has Increased their capacity for a
The report goes at length Into tho
boss s)stem among the Japancso by
which mobilization Is accomplished.
Work, it Is stated, Is not dono on a
fco-opcratlvo plan, but competition
is so well adjusted thnt It might bo
guided by a central head, Tho con
tractors, field nnd gang bosses, It Is
said,, nro fully Informdil on nil crop
and markot conditions and oven on
tho characteristics of various grow
ers before nuy contract Is made ihls
Information Is gathered by men de
tailed to traversa the sections ui
dcr consideration nnd such parts Of
tho reports a are deemed expedient
nro given publicity in tho Japancso
prebs of tho State. As a result tne
men nro ready to come, knowing
what they wilt meet, whenever liar,
vesting tmo Is at hand.
Thu report states positively that
tho number of Japanese laborers
obtainable for tho harvesting v.xrl
this ycur'Is fur Bhort of tho number
required.. With labor is unobtain
able at prices within reason nnd us
n irsult of tho evident withdrawal
of Japancso, witnessed by tho Immi
gration (tnd, emlpintlon reports
' Sparkling, Sharp, Right
Which show tho tlde of Japanese
travel to bo setting toward Japan,
Hindu, lnbor has como to the state.
In tho fifteen months cntlliig Janu
ary 1, 1910, 83C Japanese entered"
tho port of San Frnnya'o from Jn
pan.nnd Hawaii .and 1 182 departed,
in Ilin ihtK UpV.viI at limit, mnr."
lpOsV'llfertTwiro SflO births nnionff
the Japanese In this stato and 1,3.1'J
deaths,-,. Of this featuro the Invest!
"Close, obiofVaitaD fl
nd. vruiil ,ln
It lh Ili1 in
... ...... ...
the bi-llef tha
the permanent nbsomo or the Jap
nheso front the various Holds or agri
cultural labor In which they i.ao
become prominent and dominant
would moan, tho probnblo substitu
tion of Hindu labor Tbu picsencoi
of large numbers of Hindu employ
ed in the, orchards -anti bict, fluids
In, tli,o teuton of J909, and the fie
quent demand tor others of that racr
'because of tho; scarcity of wlilto and
lapuuvso labor, conflriuvi: that tie
lied and Indicated that the Hindu
was the only labor then available
far tho flliltig In of tho rapidly wid
ening gap between the 0mand for
labor nt:d tljo supply. Theie wore
obaorvod Uolated Instances of par
tial Futlsfhctlon wlt,h this typo o.
farm labor, but the major 'exptcs
slpn wag that tho detffue of ofltrlcn
cy attained In tho employment on
tho Hindu Is so smalt nnd Mi pres
ence so lepitgunnt, thnt If he should
sucrved tho Japanese It would menu
it loss to tho farming Interests and
n I evulsion ofsontlment "
Tho report .contains some Inter
esting statistics pit thophyrfcnl as
pect ot tho Japanese In California.
The lecord olf thn county assessors
show 199 farms, continuing lO.itil
acres, owned by Japanese in the
State of California. These farms
were heseesed nt $:i.'.0,t01 on land,
and 110,927 on Improvements, mak
ing total of $377,328 and were
mortgaged tl tho oxtept of $173,
581. Tho records nltfn show 18.
holdings ot town property asscsked.
at J174.GM of which $70,000 was
on land nnd $85,3(11 on Improve
ments. Tliese holdings were mort
gaged to tho oxtolit or KiO.srft.
exposure; TO COLD
and wet Is tho first stop to Pneumo
nia, Tnkn lnrrv Tla Ih P.ilnkllUr mill
tlio danger Is averted. Unequal for
colds, foro throat, quinsy. 2Zc 3.c and
A large) and complete stock
of the Famous
BABY'S AND CHILDREN'S
SHOES ' '
have jttit arrived, Brint; the
Baby and show it this beau
Al.Ii Ni:V Al) KXCM'SlVr,
sty m :s
Regal Shoe Store
KING A1ID BETHEL
4f' : ft nE "ALl'll S. IIOHMHIt.
.ftjfb'ili'nati, Territorial Conservation Commission of Hawaii
Within tin1 I'ist three )cars ft new
lirrin, CQNSKItVATlON, ,hiin,roiind a
piaru in tlio Americru ocimiiary. At
first u soliuwhnt aguo designation or
little understood nnd but slightly np
predated principles, It has now comu
to, characterize a very defliilto, prac
Ileal movement that has fur Its ob
ject I bo rational development and wise
use cit tho souiccs of natural nealth
on which rest the material voll-bclng
of the Nation.
Conservation cleats primarily ivith
tho four gient classes or natural re
sources, lands, waters,, rorests and
minerals, but tt has rightly been ex
tended, to Includo as well the consid
eration or means looking to the safe
guarding or public health and to the
Increasing or our vitality as n tin
In lils message to Congress trans
milling tho teporl of the Nation Con
wrvatlon Commission, President
Hoosovolt said, "To bo fearless, to he
Just and lo bo vinclent arc tho thro;
great requirement? of national life.
National efficiency Is the result of nat.
oral n sources well handled, of free
dom of opporunlty for every man, nnd
of tho Inherent capacity, trained abil
ity, knowedgo and will collectively
and individually to use that oppor
tunity. Conservation has been defined as
tho application of common senso to
common problems for tho common
goo'd. If this ilcscrlpt.'m correct,
then Conservation is tb a funda
mental basis Tor Nation! "cleucy."
In that its essential il tnd pur
poso Is the permanent bet. -.incut ot
nil (ho people. Conservation has been
termed tho "new patriotism," while
another 'definition or tho purpose of
the movement tins added to a time
honored phrase n rew additional wnds
or pregnant significance, tho greatest
good of tho greatest number ror tho
Tho nurnoso of tho present paper Is
lo outline brlolly tho growth of Con-
scrvatlon ns u definite movement, to essentlnl that tho people retain the
tiimmnrtzo tho principle fur 'which i ownership of tho supplies of coal,
It stands nnd to Indicate tho trend wroil nnd water that still vest In tho
that events seem now to bo taking. Nation. Ily so doing absoluto mono
r.inriMi.ni u n lirnn.i nn.i rm. . pollstlc control can bo averted nnd
,,r'i,niw, .nlilerf nnit totu-lira vnrl.
nn. n'nl.u nri.nilminr nt miii'iHilnta.'
It has ninny ramlflcntlcns but tho
broad outllncH nro qlear and tho fun
ilamcutnl principles aro Blmple. The
chief danger that Conservation now
has to fear Is that attention may" bo
distracted from these low slriiplo. tiW'it?ml'ln'lon ,or .. c"mP'er' "nlro
dameiitnl principles by somo interest
ing or tcnqiorarlly exciting sblo issue.
In this paper tho effort will ho mado
as tt should alwajs be mudo in any
serious consideration or Conservation
proliloms to Btlck tn tho big, slm
ilo. central trullis, tor it h on tho-'p
that rest the roundatlons of our pros
perity. The Underlying Principles of Conser.
Conservation as It has como lo tio
understood deals esscutlaily with tho
right usO ot such of tho four great
sources of natural wealth, lands, wa
ters, forests and minerals, us mill re
main In public ownership. Until very
recently wo as n nation liavo been In
the ploncpr stngo and necessarily have
looked nt things from tho pioneer
btnndpolnt, nut of late wo liavo como
to renllzo Hint tho bounty or Nature
w,ns not Inexhaustible. With tlio de
velopments of recent yean, tho gra
dual settlement of tho West, the In'
i rosso lu facilities for transportation,
nnd most of all lr tho better under
standing or tho relation between the
right uso of the natural resources nnd
continual economic, prosperity, a new
view point has been reached which
necessitates tho readjustment or our
attitude on u number of subjects. Wo
find thnt wo may hnvs now (rt revise
laws that have long been on Iho ntn
'tuto hooks; laws without which tlio
Nothing common about it
Nation ronld never have reached
present stngu ot development. Pi
urlly, II has come to ho seen lint tho
remaining sources ot material wealth)
ought lo be ratlonhlly do; eloped and
svstL-matlcally exploited, not for tho
benefit ot tho few hut in tho Interest I
of nil the people, their rightful own
ers Certain of the natural resnurccs,l
If onco exhausted may be replaced
Porests can bo made to grow ngalnl
nnd streams that hove wasted away bo.
canso their watersheds were denuded
of vegetation can bo renewed albeit
only with the expenditure or long
tlmo and heavy labor. Other resour
ces, like coal and Oil and phosphata
dvpoHlts, and in many places thq soli
Itself, when lost through unchecked
erosion, arc gone rorcver
Iho object ot Conservation Is to
bring about the wlso use or theso
sources or wealth so that they may
scr,vo man now nnd also In tho dns
lock them up for the sole benefit of
posterity, but rather so to use them
that those aro renewnoio snail oe
urougnt into ever neuer producing
condition, nnd those thnt must In time
bo used up shall be mado, while serv
ing fully tho needs of the prcVnt In
go as far as may bo toward supplying
the wants or tho future. Abovo all
Conservation stands for tho retention
by tho pcoplo.ot tho ultlmato owner
ship In this great Jicrltagc. Let tho
development bo by private capital by
all means, under rcnsonablo condi
tions nnd with grants or sufficient du
ration to permit Justifiable profits, but
novcr let such grants bo made In per
petuity in- without Just componsutlon.
These arc the baulq principles of Con
scrvatlon the object for which thu
And the reason ror It nil Is plain.
Willi the rapid developments blowing
tho application or Science to mol(?rn
Industrial lire, with tho diminishing
supply of many or tho resources nnd
the steadily Increasing demnnd, It. Is
tho rights of tho future safeguarded.
If :howovcr the ownership ot Iheso
things, inoro especially of tho coal
and thn water powers, passes" Into pri
vate hands wo nnd our children shall
bo nt tho mercy of tho row- ni hnr?
never a ikiopIp boon herore. Tfior
Iiiroiigii comuiiiaiiiia ib -inn bii-uiih i
bo resisted. It Is not what tins no
far been dono that counts, but tho
liability may tho practical certainly1
ot what nlimWt surely will happen lf
tho tendencies of today nro not clfock
cd, that Is tlio essence of the present
situation. Conservation stands tor rd
mcd)lng this condition betot'6 It be
comes chronic. Tor uiilesrf tho euro
Is npplled nnd that speedily, It bodes
lit for the future.
Scores anil scores or tho vouug peo
pla ot Honolulu gathered at the Young
root garden last evening ror tho sec
ond annual ball ot tho marine batal-
lion, and from tho tlmo of tho march
nt ti o'clock until tho githcrlng broku
up In tho wee sum' hours gaiety
i:iaborale decorations were mado In
the bull rooms. In both ot which danc
ing wns held, and tho whole roor be
tween was draped In Hags nnd bunt
ing. The march was hold to tho music or
tho marine bugles and drums, tho long
llilo passing through tho two ball
rooms nnd tho whole dlbtnnco or tho
Aro you easily" tifgdi''
Is your work a
Imrtlon? Do you
r often f col weak
nnd fro n't? Ift"
Aro you easily di-'
cotiragcd? If. so, your
nervous system ib weak
ened, your blood h impure,
and serious illness is not far
was mado for just such cases.
When tlio blood in illipilIO
tho wholo nervous system bo
comes poisoned. It is im
possible to (brow off I bat
terrible fooling of depression,
and tlfero ii no ambition to.
work. Ayer'fl Sirfsainrill.t "
will purify, viUtlir.", ami en'
rjc, your blood, and lift) will
aWlm no woiui lini0.
.,' ,iiii nintlc, Ayer'i Stra
lmrUla rontttln uo ntculinl,
Theroaro many imitation
Bo suro you got "Ayor'c.''
tniirti i, tt I. C ,w 4 C , tl.ca. Mm . U I .
walks between, y
Two stringed orchestras furnished' u,
music (aid alt or tho twenty dances 6n "
tho program wt.ro started . slmultan- ,
eously'ln each room, electric bells giv
ing tho signals to the orchestra lend- ,
llcfrcshmcnts were served durlnf ,
tha evening nnd Iho battalion had ,..
cautc for feeling proud ot tho cnlor
tnlnment It rurnlshcil to tlio hundreds
ot guests present.
The cotnmlttPcs which had chargo ,,
of tho affair woro: "
Sergeant John V. Chalmers, presf- '
dontj Klrst Sergeant Oanlel C. Gor'
don, vlcoiprcslilent: I'rlvnto Rogcno J'.f t$,
Ixvc, sccrctnry; Qiiarlermnster 8ot' ,,
geaitt llalph Morton, treasurer. ' ,
Commllleo on arrangements 8prl-'k ,
geunt II. V. Conkey, chairman; Cor- ,'
lioral A. lAJseniilt. Corporal O. J. Dus-
cr. Private O. 8. Head. --j
Invitation Commltlco First Ber- ,J
geant U. K. Camp, chairman; Corporal , ,
AV. n. iSchtiman. Private T. K. Alblri,
Prlvnfo A. Illatt.
Dccorattoti Commltlco Prlvnto
Johii''Cair, chairman; Drunimcr ti. B.
Hopie. Privato W, I). Mokln, Private
O. Ji OI.nre, Privato If, Prlngio. , ,
Itecepllon Committee Cinincrjr 8er- l(
L I" TI ttA...l llinn' frtt".
ge'aril J. II. I'cppard, chairman: Cor
noral O. W: IlORcna. Private H, A. Par-
leer. 'PrIVMo H. Hanks, Private C. J.
Tainfuany, Prlvnto K. Wcbr,.Prtvalo
W. II. Day, Prlvptp J. B, Via. .
TlOor Committee Drummer D'. 8ar
eomi, c'hnlrmnn; Corimrnl C. P. Tern
plOton. TTtimpeter O. Miinn, Trumpet
er C. W. nhonds, Privato 11. A. Thomp
son, Prlvnto A. P. Peterson. Prlvnto 8.
lieczkowskl, Prlvnto G. J. Iloblnson.
-Itctreshmcnt Committee Corporal
b. P. liallcss, chairman; Prlvnto It, C.
Kruyne, Prhnto O. Adams, Privato II,
A. riscus. Private n. M. Allen, Privato
U J. Van Pccpnn.
When llaby was sleK, wo gave her
When sho was n Child, she crld for.
When she becamo Miss, she clung lo
When kho had Children, she gave thorn
NOTICE TO MABINERS,
San Pranclsco, Cnl. Notice la
hereby given that Presidio Shoal
(las llnoy, San Pranclsco Day, Cal.,
heretofore reported extinguished,
wn rcllghled Way 21.
out trie price