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EVENING BULLETIN. HONOLULU, T. H, SATURDAY, JUNE 22, 1912.
DARING SCIENTISTS DELVE DEEP INTO MYSTERIES OF .HAWAII'S
i; INTERESTING THEORIES EVOLVED ON ACTIVITIES
All the points in favor of
BY 'OF, MERRILL J
$ 1 Ml 'it It: &I .5
UlnmN of Onliit, .Mnloknl, Mnul mid
In Hip Interior of llit- curlli. lip
Why Isjands' Craters Are
"Good" and No Danger
(Hpclnl nullotln Cornnpondencf.)
III1.U. Hawaii. Juno 20. Kllauca la
lurnlxliliiK n liinRiilllccnt spectacle now
lor tlin lourixtH Mint como herd (o boo'
Din famed Volcano. Moreover, tlio re
rout illutovcrlofl mid experiment by
Jho oxpertH who arc living at tlio Vol
canii iintl KtiidyInK 1(8 "linlillfl" nro
tirotinliiK widespread Interest, and
Homo tlicorlcH arc being cnvolved tliat
will lo rilficiiRsetl all ovor tlio world
Kllnnea, although tlio largest active
volcano In tlio world, Is a Rood volcn
no. Whnt It did In I lie dim past, far
back of any historical record, In not
known. Hut If It did get on a "ram
r-iiKo" an did Vestivlim, Ktna and Mont
l'eleo it may tmnln becomo iiulto act
lvo and nearly everybody who vlalta
Kllauca for the first time and sees tlio
everlasting marks of great convulsions
of tlio nast is minded to tread easy
lest I10 call (o life tlio powers that nro
bencntli Jilm and ho be forced to be
como an unwilling witness to nature's
most tcrribljj phenomena. This feci
IiiK of respective and recrcuco for
Miidumo 1'clo's retort Is enhanced
mnu)-fold by the steam-racks threnmh
which HcnlilliiR steam Issues, showing
that tho cause Is not far below one's
feet, and nt tho same tlmo tlioso steam
cracks nix; In some cases miles from
tho boiling pit whoso waves of molten
lava, when not broken by founts, many
lect IiIkIi, wash from shore to slioro of
tho pit : - nt times scorning to reach up
11 ml pull down to Its embrace lame
portions of the restraining wall.
No Calamities from Kllauea.
Wlitlo It Is trim that tho volnuioos
f Hawaii have at different times with
in tlio memory of men living todny
overflowed thejr pits and canned n cor
lain amount of destruction, and In ono
Instance threatening the principal city
of that Island, thero liao been no
frightful calamities biicIi as havo ac
companied tho eruptions of Vesuvius
and that within our own recollection
ill Mont l'eleo, which completed Its
work of dostriictloii In about tho samo
number of minutes that It took Vcsu
Iiib dnys to destroy tho lloman city.
While tho (ires of Kllauca rise and
fall continually, noer nt any length
of tlmo holding nt a certain tldomnrlc,
tlicro Is but ono record of tho Arcs dis
appearing, completely. That was In
tlio month of March, 18GG, according
to Mr. Thrum, tlio historian Whllo
the tires were sunk out of Bight, groat
luinbllngs an (I a scries of earthquakes
Itept 0110 reminded that Kllauea was
Hllll doing business oven if it was li)
According to Ilnuaiians, tlio amount
of deposits of "I'clo's hair" has been
Moaillly Increasing of late, which
foretells Increased activity In tho cra
ter, l'elo's hnlr Is a throadllko Ilia
inVnt n gliihsllko composition which
Is u product of tho tires In tho pit nnd
ipsembles n mass of matted hair, be
ing brought up with tho heat curieiits
end donoslted on tho lavn rocks of thoiKllaupa The mass that (Ills tlio ton
Kcfi.iuln rpsnnreh linn ilpmnnstrnt.
cd tho fact that In tho formation of n!
now volcano there Is no great nnd
iudde upheaval of rocks, as was at
ono iimo supposed to occur. Tho
world carries no record of any ejo
Hint lias watched tlio birth of a vol
cano. Still It is very clearly and con
ctseiy shown that tlio first net in tho
Iidvelit of a voUnun is tlio earthquake
wbli li Is lespoiiBlblo for an opening
In tho earth's crust. The admission
ol water nt onco creates gnsjs of dlf
foient density which form vapors and
gently but firmly force tho crust, ns
In slow cooking mush. After a vent
has onco boon formed, explosions suc
ceed each oilier rupldly. A volcano
that lias, to use a slnur phrase, got
Its stride, and Is of tho spouting va
riety, has great force vvltllln Its depths.
Tills In lurger part Is duo to gases that
cscapo perfect combustion, Tho forco
behind solid bodies that arc thrown
from volcanoes Is cnnimous. The vol
cano of .(lotopaxi, In tho Andes, has a
lecord of throwing a block weighing
2(0 tons a distance of nine miles
L,-wa Last Composition.
ava is tno last composition to como
from n volcano llvcrythlng of vvlintl
might be considered a foreign sub-
itiinio. hiiUi ns stones, dust, snlhefii lotion Iho theory of eruptions than
nnd mimic. Is exhausted before lav.i honjo distant volcano gets to work and
Is brought to tho surfneo or thrown. Knocks their theories Into n cocked
out. 'Iho ninienient of lava, wlicm!''"'- The latest along this lino of to
onco it overflown tlio rim of tlio crntor,lh';'i''m Is that tho shrinking and cool
nil dependH on tlio Incline It finds. ling of tho Inner mass causes fractures
Uccords of flows on Hawaii show In tho outer portions of tho earth's
the fact that visitors walked leisurely trust Tlio inollen mass, over seeking
ahead of tho lava wnvo with no dnn-
ger threntenlng. nnd this has glvou
ilso tu tho Idea that lavu moves slow
ly, Vesuvius l.as u rccoiU of spilling
Ilunnll, kIiomIiii:, rnnjidtirnllv, a
my Minildl portion Is ciirlliN crust
Maud of llawiill llir ilninlnir shownlic-. Ilniv) shaded portion Is part of
the vol""h"i" Hint art ns safe!) v. conjectiiriilh, Ihls Island nlunc and
Homo laa over Its sides that ran
thrco miles In four minutes.
Experts at Work,
Tho vultanologlsts arc again nt their
post nt Kllauca, delving Into tcrrestrlnl
physics but largely conjectural will bo
our knowledge of tho causes of tlio
two great convulsions of naturo, tlio
volcano and tho earthquake Wo know..
n tlilnlr un Irnnvr Hint the Itllnrlor (if I
" . .'.'.. . ; . , V
tho earth Is liquid, and Judging from
tho Incrcaso of temperature as ono
sinks deeper througli the earth b crust
nnd, beginning at n point somo thirty
miles from the crust. It Is tho consen
bus of opinion of tho scientists tnut
all beyond that point Is a seething,!
Fulrllng mass with a temperature so
high that solids or any nature; must
yield and becomo n part of tho mass.
Allowing that tlin whole center of
the enrtli is a boiling mass, according
to the simplest of physics, tlicro must
bo n vent, a safety-valve, as It wore,
and in such capacity tho volcano
nets Without this cscapo vent for tho
pent-up energy It Is probable that tho
earth's crust would be burst asunder,
nnd other occurrences tnko place
that would tend to make tho surfaco
of the earth a most uncomfortable
placo to live "
Two Clams of Eruptions.
eruptions of volcanoes nro or two
classes tlio explosive class and tho
quiescent, Vesuvius Is of tho former
class and Is occasioned by the pres
ence of large solids or partial solHs
that aro not In n commute flu d con
dltion, and being forced to tho top' by
tho energy of tho molten mass below,
gradually till tho vent and in time tho
largo volumo of vapors that generate
below- hurst through tho lino of least
lcsistance, cnrtylng everything with
them to great heights abovo tho
When the quiet types of volcanos
get Into a stnto of eruption tlio lavu
c onics to the surface! In a decidedly
liquid form, thoroughly fused, nnd
will How down an Incline with tho
freedom of water. Such a volcano Is
dult (call it so for want of n better
term) of Kllauea is thoroughly llaua-
' "1 Klo cry llttlo room for the
accumulation of gases, unci even
tho lattor forming escanlng without!
explosions or violent demonstrations. j
Within tho knowledge of living men
today aro Instances vvhoro votennoes
l.nvo blown their heads on. Tho vol
cano of Coscgiilnn, in Nicaragua, Is
such a one In lK.'I'i this volcnno,
known ns nn explosive volcano, woik-
ed itself Into a statu of eruption As
described elsewhere, tho conduit of
this volcano became clogged with rock
itud enrth which did not readily glvo
way to the fast generating mass below,
Willi tho result (hat tho summit por
tion, n number of miles In elrcumfcr
clue and a few thousand feet high,
was completely blown awny And lu
recent )iars, so short ifSiline ago us
1883, tlio volcano nf Krakatoa, in tho
Straits of Sunday, blow Itself all to
pieces, and so complete was tlio work
that the whole mountain disappeared
It does not soom that wo aro to
know much moro about tlio motive
power that Is henenth tho lava than
wo do nhout that city In tho beyond
whoso streots nro paved with gold.
wticuco no traveler returns, llardlj
" "e geologists settle to their satis.
n rellovlug channel, rushes Into the
fissures, meeting the wnler-chnrgoj
locks, tho result being lucreused
amouiitB of gases und sUatu, wliltli,and fructluiial paper currency,
part nMlic mrHi' crut itllli xitriinlr
liclow inrfmc of nrrim.
If not accommodated by the usual vent
or conduit, must force out, nnd the re
sult is tho eruption.
The Flattest Volcano.
Not only dots Kllauea enjoy tlio
distinction of being tlio largest nctlvo
volcano In the world, but It can also
lay claim to being tho flattest volcano.
! It ta nt tlm nml nf llin tun extremes.
(.,,,,,.,1 t10 loftiest volcano In tho
. .. , 1.-1 aa inn e l.x .1 I. ..J
IWOriU, UCIIIK iUiWW irui, no iu' '"i. .. I r I l -1
" , verv 8mnr to fool's-cup. and tho National Exhibit
who risnR from n plateau. Cotapaxl
u niu,i ,1.,. uii-kcnlont of nil vol-
lcnloeHi BI11 Kllauea as ono of the
Tlu (() n( ilman life exacted
I)u, ywmn volcanoes f tho world Is
terrlhlo to contemplate The follow
lug will give some Idea of this toll.
11 C 2S.ri Japan, son square miles
engulfed nnd volcanic eruption; many
A I), fa Italy, rompell pnrtly do-
,tro)i-d, large numbers killed.
A. D "li Eruption of Vesuvius,
I'omptill completely burled; must of
A I) fiSfi Karthquako and volcanic
oruntton: 2",0.)00 killed.
A, l). S'M i;artnquaKo ami volcanic
eruption, 180,000 killed.
Hr0 Eruption and quake at Naples,
1703 Quake, Yeddo, UlO.flOO kilted.
1772. Jaya, volcanic eruption, 301)1'
177.V-Quako, Guatemala. 33,000 kill
1783 Calabria, quako. 40,000.
1783 Iceland, volcanic eruption,
li'lS tluako, Ecuador, 41,000 killed,
lHlS Voknnlo eruption on Island
of Sunbawa, 12.000 killed.
1822 Quako at Aleppo, 120,000 kill
1822 Java, volcanic eruption, 4000
18r.7 Naples, 30,000 killed.
1883 Krakutoa, volcanic eruption,
1801 Hondo, .Inpan, 10.000 killed.
1902 St. I'ikrro, Martinique, volcan
Ic eruption, Uu.UOO killed.
11)02 St. Vincent Isle, votcnnlc orup
tlon, 1CU0 killed.
Ktr.1,1,,. f.n t f a IaA. nlnnmu akIiIaa,
, ...ui.tit, ,', tu n irn, ttiwvui oitujci,, ,
in,rU ni ,!... ti-i ,i m. ... ,i.v
giuuce uc cuu uc'cuuipKiiyinK uruw
mt wo iu0 i Ono of these shows
the Island of Hawaii, with Its thrco
lafcty-vents. It will bo observed that
Kllauea Is the only vent that is ripen
clear to the top, but that the obstruc
Hon nuVv existing in Mnuna Urn and
Mnunn Keu Is lira naturo and ccffislst-
cucy that will quickly glvo way to the
pressure beneath when Kllauca Is not
equal to carrying off safely tho gases
and steam that may generate.
Tho other dranlug shows tho 1st-
flltdlct tt flntin Atfafrtlnl fttntil nil tin
wall, with a few of tho volcanoes that! "tfJa,lk
are at present considered extinct, but."'"1 """"""? """' "l0 icct.
ore, nevertheless, very attractive to "" """- - J""T
tho tourist, as well as to Island people
FIRE BURNS DOWN
At nhout 2 o'clock this morning a.
lire brnkq nut tu tlio resttiuntrt nnd
bnkery of Qunng I.eo Kee, Vineyard
street, near Cniup No, 2 The Hie ele
pnrtment responded proniptly, nnd
although the building wuh b.irnc-d
clown, tho friiiiu tenements in the
vicinity weio saved from destrui tlon
The tlin, according to Uhl-f Ihiirs-i
trn, stiirti'd from n charcoal pile of
tho shop Tho loss Ik about i"W. cov
ned by n iollc for $000
'PI in fMlllillh..! Mlntul. r if IIii.iinm
"' ' ' "r
(UinOUtlCOj Hint till tfmi rilllH'Ilt WOllM
u - iiN or sufitj villus frim Hie lire.
Islnn.l Ixncnlli Mirficc of
l.i-low llif Mirfnce of li.ejiroiin.jilth
AS A SCIENCE
llou to wnxli the iitr. why the tutor
of tlio wall nrfrcts n child's vision.
the "cuivii iif-le.irnlng"', nnd the oprr
( tlon (f the uiijtlasliiiiittir.iind irgn-
Kmpli ure niiiong tin exhibits in no
li nilp I) the I'nltcd KtiiUs lltirc.iu if
IMuentlim nt J lie llmt exhibition pur
given In AimrTcn which ib aU Villi the
g( lit nil ll lit of public heiilth lb'
liiireiiu's exhibit will show the hwtrri
of the hi hoot mid the Hdinol did i
pint of the exhibition to In- held be
fore tie nrtitiitli lutcrn.itlniul i'iiii
griKK un Hyglfiu nnd l)i'iuigr.iph
inn tluu In vviiHhliiKton, 1 ' . next
Among nihir iidvniica Information
Jtiht given nut, the education buriiiu
Hptili.lhU who have the School lo
gic lie- exhibit In i lutrgi'. make the stiite
loilit tint cine exhibit will show that
Htuttcrliu. Is nl out three times ns
common among toss as nmung girt
Vie bur, tin nf education's exhibit Is
c'lvldul Into Mellon The llmt ul
tliiK, considers thcT liRlino ut the
K.liool child, liiltlng'-up Kin li subjictn
Ur I niil sleep mill clothing. With tin)
ceiipenitliin of school iirchlterts mid
milkers nf school furniture mid school
jppllnncc-H from nil over- the eoiintrj,
Hie bureau Is also preparing exhmist
IV e fxiiiimn nil llif- lljKirne- in in'
ipIiiioI bllllilluif mill tilt- lUKleltn (if lll-
triullon llllii r Ni-ctlmis of tbesihool
I'VRiiui ixhlblt will take up the lis -r.lc
lie of phi Hit ul defects, the iitedieal
Inspictlon of scliool children, mid ope n
CHRISTIAN SCIENCE LECTURE.
Perhaps no subject is moro widely
discussed todny than Christian Scl
once. In halting the public to nt
tend tlio free lecture at tho Hawaiian
Opera Hoiiso tomorrow evening ut 8
o'clock the Christian Scientists of
Honolulu fpul that they aro giving to
those Interested nil opportunity to
lieur a dear statement of Its teach
lugs. Tho lecturer, Mr Bliss Knapp,
is a member of trie lioanl or Lecture
shlu of the Mother (Jhurcli, Tho First
Church or Ihrlsl, Scientist, In Huston,
A Skin uf Beauty Is a Joy Forever
rvB. T. FELIX GOURAUD'S ORIENTAL
CREAM OR MAGICAL BEAUTIFILR
Uciuovca Tin, rinipU
Mill. I I
kQl tTCrj? Itflulfl
jd trKutf. ii'l tu
lies ilrlfeilluii ll
hiMkttxl tH litl
ft w yvftn, bb1
U t liftrmlfit
la i roiMy urn if
Ittt bf lu lk3
linil Ii, I A
H4rr itlil to
Mjr of tL blub
tiu (a ptifbtli
b (a p-UDtl ,
A you tfcJlei j
win ubv twrui. .
" V X . . I '?'1.'.tI '
'.J'iuhiiiiI. ith Hiirtmitt ummii tr hum
Uuirluriion ir Mly W U druiM n I lct
; nao. i.tiuriHj, riip, n utm km ttiut, iwt,
-J- .......... . .- - mt ' U mi
--fll". ,,.a. si
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rfarhwai u L.v. .. ... rTTTT"
"" mm rmmmmmt II I .m. 'A. 4 1
FIAm5I5IS II kOlti. tTArv ttanum ... ........
el VWCXInlnl II I wnw, ifiirwH UHVlJff
I I I
bmht or vtr l f
TO CtLUUTID J 1 rT ..
LOTS FOR SALE 'feglP
ON EASY TERMS
WATERHOUSE -r11111 -T
TRUST CO., Ltd.
Safes Agonta '
Prompt attention to day and night calls.
Particular care given to preparing and embalming of bodies.
Facilities for shipping remains unexcelled.
Jno. H. Townsend, F.D. Roy J. Williamson, Mortican.
Day and Night Telephone - 1325
Have been tested by leading chefs
and domestic science teachers.
For- cooking CRISCO is better than
butter or lard.
At All grocers
THE map tells
the story of
ity foi people ol
to secure a home
in a district until
only to the rich.
Every lot is acces
sible to the best
bathing beach at
health and tun
tative will meet
you at Beaoli
walk and tell
you nf its many
,1 rt.(-Jl'', '' ' 'V-fi- ltjfattkmWlkl.tm