t"THE LOUISIANIAN, OWNED,"W
EDITED AND MANAGED BY COLOR
ED MEN, IS PUBLISHED EVERY
THURSDAY AND SUNDAY MORN
INGS AT 114 CARONDELET STREET
NEW ORLEANS LA.
4Iam. G. BROWN, Editor aad Ptlihher,
MISSISSIPPI : - Daniel E. Young,
LOUISLLNA :-John A. Washington,
Black Hawk, Concordia Parish; Hon. G.
Y. Kelso, Alexandria; Antoine & Sterrett,
Shreveport, A. C. Ruth, Carroll Parish.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA:--James
A. D.Gieen, Washington City.
ILLINOIS : -Lenis B. White, Chicigo.
KENTUCKY:-Dr. R. A. Green, Louis
UR CHIIOIC'E FOR PRESIDENT. 1872
U. S. GRANT.
STATE CENTRAL" COMMITTEE
PRE'T---P. B. S. PINCHBACK of Orleans.
RBconDIso ac Yr-WILLIAM VIGERS
or.RESPON DIN SEC'-J. W. FAIFAAX
Fros THE STATE AT LAnGE.]
EDWARD BUTLER, of Plaquemines.
S. S. SCHMIDT, of Orleans.
THOMPSON COAKELY, of Rapides.
ALBERT GANTT, of St. Landry.
JOHN PARSON, of Orleans.
A. W. SMYTH, of Orleans.
H. RABY, of Natitoches.
JAMES McCLEERY, Caddo.
DAVID YOUNG, Concordia. "
F. J. HERRON, of Orleans.
First Congressional District-Hugh J.
Campbell, I. Mahoney.
Second Congressional District-A. E.
Barber, James L. Belden.
Third Congressional District-Thomas
H. Nolnud, George Washington.
Fourth Congressional District-E. W.
Deween, Raford Blunt"
Fifth Congressional District -A. W.
Fanlkner, A. B. Harris.
Hon. HUGH J. CAMPBELL, Chair
Hon. P. B. S. PINCHBACK.
Hon. HARRY MAHONEY.
Hon. F. J. HERRON.
Hon. A. B. HARRIS.
Hon. A. E. BARBEL.
Hon. F. J. HERRON.
lion. THOS J. NOLAND.
lion. E,. BUTLER.
Hon. A. W. FAULKNER.
JOHlN PAR.ONS Eiq.
- - -- I, 1M72.
SUNDAY FEBRUAIY 1, l172.
TO OUR CITY SUBSCRIBERS.
We will be glad if you notify our
office of any delinquency on the
part of our carrier, as our arrange
ments are such that every issue of
our paper should be regularly de
arV*We have several times pro
nounced the charges in the .Nalional
Faeq against Mr. Pinchback as lies.
As they were repeated in a recent
editorial of that paper, after this
anouncement the inference is plain.
.i-Schumacher now resorts to
begging the House for admission.
This is proper. The man who could
consent to the base design of using
a court of justice as a tool to com
pass political ends and reduce a
majority against him by putting the
members in jail, can expect political
vengeance. Contrition in his pro
per garb. But his regrets are cro
5-Pitkin wails in the Fay against
Hon. Mr. Speer for spearing Mar
shal Packard and pinning him to
the wall with his questions, which
were like the use of a battery bear
ing and beating down all before it.
PRIZE E r FIi.zzz-Rumor had
it that Tom Allen and Mike McCoolc
were to have a fight; but they have
an obstacle which it seems neither
of them is inclined to remove. Alien
refuses to fight for less than $2,500,
while McCoole will not fight for
more than $1,000.
is'Law is accepted to be a rule
of 'Civil Conduct' "--Cheste'rs
If that is the case, T. Morris
Chester must he an outlaw.
W~a ELvc-no-.--The Republican
Mother Club of the Third Ward
held an election yesterday for the
election of President and all other
officers of the Club. The polls
opened at 6 A. M., and tl c ontest
was a lively one all ay, a;ln closed
at 6 P. M. Up tothe' time of going
I- :ess tve have not learned the
TKtmas.-We return our thanks
'to Secretary of State, General F. J.
Herron, for a copy of his Report,
,mbraeing the report of the State
Librarian to the Secretary of State
,o the Governor of Louisiana
PACKARD BEFORE THE CO1M
The Honorable Mr. Speer is truly
named. He spitted Marshal Pack
ard on his questions in the Con
gressional Committee and brought
out an admission of every point
against the Federal officials and so
quietly that Packard himself was
not conscious even of the admission.
If there is one thing more noted
than another in the composition of
Packard's mind it is effrontery.
The idea that the Marshal's office
nets him "scarcely anything" in
other words that he is getting poor
on it is ridiculous. The true cause
in the divisions of the party is that
Packard desired to make the State
his dung-hilL In the convention
Judge Cooley and Wickliffe beat
him. In the political convention of
1870 he was beaten again. Which
is the more blameable, a State offi
cial using his office to protect his
party, or a Federal official using his
office, its prerogatives and powers
to destroy the influence of his poli
tical opponents? Can Marshal
Packard fling a stone in this
direction? We think not. It is
new in the history of the country
that Messrs. Casey and Packard,
by their own admissions, wilfully
ordered to be used, and used the
people's building, the people's
navy, the people's army, the people's
revenue patronage, for no other
purpose under God's heaven than
the pitiful and contemptible design
of compassing the political annihila
ticn of their opponents. So stand
these Federal officials before the
country. With a brazen face and
all the boldnes of successful turpi
tude, Casey, Packard & Co. stand
the confessed perpetrators of mis
demeanors in the public service,
which in any other country would
hold them up to public seorn and
make them recipients of the people's
j'If the calm way in which
Governor Warmoth has adminis
tered the police meets with opposi
tion from Chester, what would be
the result should he follow this
man's advice of imprisoning those
who violate the Civil Rights Bill?
Hot-headed demagogues are not
particularly incidental to the South.
Mr. Chester, we believe is from
s The Picaynu,' has changed
proprietors during the past week.
This journal is now owned by a
large number of wealthy and influ
ential merchants and business men
of New Orleans. It is now styled
"the people's paper," and we sup
pose from this that the "people"
are to understand there will be a
"new departure" as contrasted with
its policy hitherto. But if it be
true that Mr. Daniel Dennett, late
of the Plan.I.rs' Banner, is the editor
we don't believe there will be much
danger of the speedy advent of the
political millenium. One great "reform"
has been introducoed by the new owners,
the price of the paper is five cents
per copy instead of ten cents.
Too Tais.-The Fags of the Cus
tomhouse writhing under the search
ing enquiries into their iniquities
by the Congressional Committee
have resolved to divert attention
from themselves for a while and di
rect it towards the Legislature. A
Smove is on foot we understand to
summon nearly all of the members
soas to consume the time of the
Committee and thus prevent the
revelations of many a dark doing.
We believe the Committee will
perceive the object and defeat the
dodge. It is too thin.
I We had the pleasure of a
brief but welcome call yesterday
from Hen. G. T. Ruby, one of the
members of the Senate of the State
of Texas. Also from Andrew J.
Gordon Esq.,of Chicago, who many
of our readers will remember was
one of the editors of the Black Re
publican, a newspaper started by
I colored men in this city in the early
days of their entranchisementL Mr.
Gordon is on a visit to New Orleans.
W""Our first duty is to help
z urselve."-Burch's speech.
'lthat the Governor defeated
Burch's crowd from 'helping them
selves to the State money, is the
sole cause of this so-called "split
in the Republican party."
a The only question Casey
asked the members of the Congrese
sional Cemmittee: "Are you for
Sr. JAMES CHAPEL.
Elsewhere in our 'preeent issue
are reported the remarkable pro
ceedings which occurred in this
House of worship last Thursday
evening, and we have but little to
add in this place. We cannot
avoid, however, expressing the
earnest hope that the Ministers of
this Church *ill henceforward "set
their faces like a flint" against the
use of their place of Worship for
political purposes. The city
abounds in halls and club rooms
where meetings can be held and
speeches made, and we admonish
the controllers of the St. James
that it is high time their Church
was taken completely and forever
out Qf politics, and everything re
lating to it. We do not enlarge on
this topic here because we believe
from the assurances received by the
ministers and by the gentlemen who
promoted the meeting, that the
conversion of the proceedings of
Thursday into a wird wrangle, was
a deliberate breach of pledged faith.
But "prevention is better than
cure," and we hope that it may not
fall to our lot to record another such
desecration of a building devoted
exclusively to religious uses.
His majesty the King of the
Mardi Gras Carnival which c ,mes
off on February 13, has issued
several edicts to those who propose
to appear on the streets that day,
as to the best method of making
the display pleasurable and orderly.
The police have been instructed in
their duties that day ; the Mayor
and Council have been told what
they are expected to do in the pre
mises, and yesterday mornings pa
pers contain the latest exercise of
the authority temporarily assumed.
The following edicts were yes
terday promulgated by His Royal
To His Excellency, the Governor of the
State of Louisiana :
In order to avoid any unpleasant
complications which might arise
through conflict of authority, you
are hereby directed to close your of
fice on Mardi Gras, between the
hours of 3 P. M., and sundown, and
during that period to refrain from
the exercise, or attempt to exercise,
any gubernatorial privileges or du
Further-In order to better pre
serve the peace and maintain the
dignity of the realm, you are also
directed to disperse that riotious
body known as the Louisiana State
Legislature, and close their halls of
meeting during the same period of
A prompt acknowledgement of
your Excellency's submission will
be esteemed a favor.
Given under our hand and seal
at Carnival Palace, on this the 2d
of February, 1872. REx.
STAs or LoTIuIANA, ExICUTrrE DEPT.,
New Orleans, February 2,. 1872.
To His Royal Highness the King of the
The Governor of the State of
Louisiana entertaining the highest
regard for your Majesty's person
and authority, will feel hcnored in
obeying your ro'al mandate as far
as lihes in his power.
He regrets that his influence with
the State Legislature is not suffi
cient to control their action to the
extent demanded, but will cheer
fully transmit to that body your
Majesty's gracious communication.
With a high sense of the honor
conferred he remains obediently,
H. C. WARMOTH,
Governor of Louisiana.
SSubsequent to the occurrence of
the above important correspondence,
His Majesty was pleased to order
the promulgation of the following:
To all Whom it May Concern-Greeting :
In view of numerous petitions
laid at the foot of the throne-all to
the following tenor :
Nzw ORLEANS, Fun. 1, 1872.
Your Majesty would confer a
great favor on a large number of
employees if you could succeed in
having business suspended on the
evening when your dictum will be
the acknowledged law of the city.
Wishing you abundance of fun, and
hoping through your aid to be able
to assist in the frolic,I remain your
Now, therefore, we, "the King of
the Carniv:dl," do hereby order and
ordain, That "all private places
of business in this city be closed at
one o'olock P. x., on Tuesday,
February 13, 1872, (old Probabili
ties permitting;) so that none of
our beloved subjects may be de
barred from participating in the
honors to be accorded their liege
Given under our hand and seal
at Carnival Palace, this the 2d day
of February, 1872. Rex.
'There is no doubt that the
amuements will this year be oon
ducted on a grand and more oraerly
style than has obtained latterly.
The mythical sovereign of this revel
will donbtles be quistly obeyed.
AISTUm ll IK=II FIZZLE !
SET CwSII PEEA I AULEM1
Civil Rights Ignored !!
Attack on Gov. Warmoth
and his Friends!
BREUSAL OF ORATORS TO SPEAK.
Early Break Up of the
Meeting ! !
For several days the Custom
house organ kept up notifying its
readers that there would be a
"GaAND MAss MErmnro held in the
Methodist Church, on Roman
street, on Thursday Evening, Feb
ruary 1st," for the purpose of hear
ing appropriate addresses, and
signing a petition to Congress urg
ing the passage of the bill known
as Mr. Sumner's Supplementary
Civil Rights Bill. Certain speakers
were announced; and on Thursday
pains were taken to say that the
"Congressional Investigating Com
mittee" might be expected to at
Identified, and most cordially
sympathizing with the movement,
we put in our appearance at the
proper time, and found the build
ing already crowded with a large
and respectable audience of ladies
Mr. T. De S. Tacker called the
meeting to order, and suggAsted the
selection of Hon. J. Henri Burch as
president which was acquiesced in.
Mr. Burch took the Chair, and
requested Bishop Brown to open
the proceedings with prayer, after
which, on motion of Mr. Tucker,
Wm. G. Brown, who was in the
audience, was requested to act as
Around the stand were Senator
J. H. Ingraham; Bishops Shorter,
and Brown; Elders Thomas, Young
and several others, whose presence
in the city is attributable to the
fact that their Ecclesiastical duties
call them here in conference.
The President briefly stated the
object of the meeting to be to unite
with other States in urging upon
Congress the passing of Mr. Sum
ner's Supplementary Civil Rights
Bill, and illustrated his position by
the perusal of Mr. Sumner's letter
to the South Carolina Convention,
[and which we published some
time since,] and in further illustra
tion of his object, the Secretary was
requested to read the bill itself
(which we published last week.)
During the reading of the above
Lieutenant Governor Pinchback en
tered and took a seat among the
audience, which he exchanged for a
seat on the platform at the urgent
request of the President. Mr. J.
Sella Martin was shortly after in
vited to a seat also on the stand.
The first Speaker called on was
Mr. T. Morris Chester. This gen
.tleman started out with a remark
ably laudatory account of him
self and his sufferings "for the peo
pie's cause" in the State of Louis
iana and declared his readiness for
martyrdom if necessary. He then
soared into the region of abstract
statements and vague generalities,
coming home on a gross and nunbe
coming attack on Governor War
moth, violently shocking the moral
sensibilities of his audience, and
the proprieties of the occasion, and
the terms on which we understand
the building was lent. Indeed so
improper was the thorough diver
gence from the object of the meet
ing, and so evidently provocative of
political discussion, that two or
three times some of the Elders
drew the President's attention to
the matter. But yet for nearly two
hours was the patience of the peo
ple imposed on. At the conclusion
of this tirade, the other orators de
clined to speak. They saw the dis
satisfaction, and felt the affront
that had been so gratuitously of
fered. Mr. Burch rose and deplored
deeply the unexpected and decided
lyreprehensible course which had
been pursued. He said:
After what had been said by the
gentleman on some points, he should
feel that he had allowed injustice to
be done toward some persons an
les he said something--injnustice
first to the colored members of the
Legislature, and secondly, to Gov
ernor Warmoth. The audieance
came here to diecus Senator 8um
ner'sCivil Righte bill, and he had
hoped more would have been said
on that subject. If there has been
to embore existing laws,
to t oper laws on te sub
j.t of vil ghts, the blame cold
h be po t hon the colored meam
ba of the eIn this
community, and before this audi
ence it was not necessary for him
to say that he was no apologist for
Governor Warmoth, and yet it was
only just to say that if the civil
rights of the colored people of this
State were not enforced it was not
Governor Warmoth's fault. It is
our own fault and not his The
wrong lies deeper; it is all over the
nation. I have traveled all over the
United States, and nowhere have I
been protected in, or enjoyed equal
rights. What we want is Sen
ator Sumner's bill, and when it is
passed it will do for us what the
gentleman says Governor Warmoth
should do. Governor Warmoth
says to you just what Sumner says:
Help yourselves, and then others
will help you. If I choose to go
into a pen in some theatre, I don't
blame Governor Warmoth for it.
What we want is a national measure
which shall be operative everywhere.
At the conclusion of Mr. Burch's
remarks, Lieutenant Governor
Pinchback was called for. Mr.
Pinchback expressed his amaze
meat at the course pursued by Mr.
Chester, and the endeavor to con
vert a meeting, such as was called,
and in the place it was, into a po
lical ward club gathering. That as
it had been done and remarks were
made alleging great blame against
Governor Warmoth and his friends,
he would rise to a brief personal
explanation: He then briefly and
pointedly disposed of the pyramid
of silly objections raised against
Governor Warmoth, eliciting loud
applause when he referred to Mr.
Chester's complaint that Governor
Warmoth should take his police and
arrest every one who does not ac
cord civil rights to every colored
man on application, by saying if
this was good argument against the
Governor,. it appeared more appli
cable against the President, who
was far more powerful than the
Governor; "why don't the Presi
dent by these means enforce the
Civil Rights bill all over the coun
try?" The speaker concluded with
a deep regret at the turn of things,
and hoped tih blame would be
placed where it belongs.
At the conclusion of these re
marks, Mr. Tucker rose and said he
regretted that the object of the
meeting had been entirely lost sight
of, and the character both of the
assemblage and the building out
raged and insulted. That he held
in his hand a set of resolutions
which he would offer with the ex
ception- of one, which, from the
feeling evoked, and the evident
temper of thejassemblage he would
omit. Theme are the
Whereas, We regard the passage of
the Supplementary Civil Bights Bill
introduced by Hon. Charles Sumner
into the United States Senate as the
crowning act of the complete ianvest
ment of citizens of African descent with
all rights in common with their white
Whereas, It k not only politic, but
sound statesmanship, that the last em
blance of legal prejudice, either of a
positive or negative nature, against
color, should be erased from our State
and National laws; be it therefore
Resolved, That we ask of Congress
as a matter of simple justice to t'e
colored people, and to the welfare of
the country, the enactment of the Sup
plementary Civil Rights bill.
Resolvred. That in view of the dere
liction of the State Governments, es
pecially those of the South, to enforce
the civil rights and privilege. of the
colored citizens before thelaw, we hold
that Congress will be fully justified in
the passage of the above bill.
Resolved, That we deprecate the
efforts of the white people of the South
in continuing the spirit of caste, by
denying to the colored people the en
joyment of civil rights, by force of
white ppblic sentiment, in violation of
the constitution of the nation, of the
State, and the laws made in conformity
Resolved, That our thanks are here
by tendered to the Hen. Charle Sum
ner, for his ardent advocacy of the
Supplementary Civil Rights bill, and
also to President Gant, for his offcial
friendship for our race, in the impar
tial execution of our civil and political
They were then unanimously
adopted, amid loud applause. At
the conclusion the audience were
invited to come forward and sign
their names to a list which was pre
pared, and they did so with much
And the audience thinned out,
expreesions of disapproval of the
course of Mr. Cheater, and regrets
at the failure of the move openly ex
pressed by the disappeinted audi
W The House of qepresent
tives adjourned on Friday last to
Mo~may, Fbruany 5th, in order
that members of gommittees may
be eabled to meet during Satur
day and dispeos of some of the
large number of bills now before
" THE MAN OF NERVE, AND
THE NERVOUS MAN."
In the play from which we have
borrowed our tittle, if we mistake
not, the nervous man was thought
to be a man of nerve, and the man
of nerve was thought to be a nerv
ons man until the sequal of the
story revealed the mistake. The
man of nerve was so brimful of
sympathies that every critical situa
tion made him tremble with anxiety
for the safety of others though his
own heart was firm with every im
pulse of manhood, while the nerv
ous man appeared to be cool amid
the most appalling dangers for the
reason that selfishness and fear were
constantly suggesting expedients for
securing his own safety.
These characters have had their
political counterpart in our State
within the last week or so, except
that the melodrama changed some
of its features for that of tragedy,
when young Wheyland was rath
lessly assassinated in the streets of
Our political opponents have been
wont to make merry over the charge
that Gov. Warmoth thinks discre
tion the better part of valor, while
the disorganizers in our own ranks
have been loud and extravagant in
their eulogies of George W. Carter
for his bravery. It was boasted by
them that during the four years of
the war the enemy never saw Mr
Carter's back, and asserted that
Warmoth's enemy but seldom saw
his face, hence the Governor was
set down as the nervous man, and
the late Speaker of the House com
mended as the man of nerve: here
comes the sequel.
On the first day of January, when
the House of Representatives as
sembled, Gov. Warmoth occupied
the usual executive departments,
surrounded by no other force than
his private secretary and his janitor,
giving free access to all important
visitors and granting an easy egress
to all who desired to leave, without
questions or surveilance of any kind.
Anxious that the community should
not be disturbed by the presence
either of a large police force or that
of military companieg he transacted
his usual business unsurrounded by
the revolvers of policemen or the
bayonets of the militia though he
had reason to sunspect, and the se
quel sustains such a muspicion that
Carter's thugs and aF s. ins would
have sought the slightest proocation
to take his life. He knew that the
businees of that holiday season and
the continuation of those social am
menities that belong to it, sad the
quietude of the community and the
rules of order under which it rests,
all hung upon the display of com
posure in his deportment and nerve
in his administration-that is the
so-called nervous man.
Now mark the conduct of CoL
Carter, the so-called man of nerve.
He came to the House of Repre
sentatves on the same day surround
ed not only by his immediate fol
lowers in the band of disorganisers,
but flanked by a Democratic fol
lowing composed of some men as
worthless, as unscrupulous and as
ragged as Falstaff's famous army,
and of other fossil self-important
and punotillous Democrats, as pre
tentious as Si~ Hauddleston Fuddle
son. The agitation of his nerves
needed not only the reasuring ar
rangement of a false award of seats
by which he placed his henchmen
of the Legislature nearest to him,
but it was needful that all the time
twenty outsiders should hold revel
in his own private room, screwing
their courage to the sticking point
by large potations of rye and bour
bon in case the man of nerve should
need them-these facts, we hope,
will forever set at rest the rival
claims of the nervous man and the
man of nerve.
Imt all seriosner, let us say that
a man who, like George W. Carter,
arrests his opponent by illegal pro
cesses and steals the advantage of
hls ashense to do a deed which he
would not dare do in his presence
who swears in five hundred ser
geante-at.-arms to protect him in
his seaust, and sets three of them
upon one of his opponents, two of
them to hold him in front, while
the third ashootsa him from behind,
who fills two or three armria
as many mobs armed with
speciea of deadly weapons to
ter his ambitions designs and
fortify his quivering nerves
abandon forever all claim to
man of nerve, especially whenbit
added that he has taken safer
Let but our people gat, ,
conduct of Governor Warmoth
has mingled nwvering resol
with prudence and -,
held in check the exasperatin. a
ing of his followers and tets o
dignity and violence ealtdQ
fan them to a flame and who
rendered as fall an obedwt
law as his exactions to its teo
have been firm and manly aadt
will eventually ascertain tn
entire satisfaction the differe
tween a nervous man and, j
THE NATIONAL EDUCgTI
The untiring zeal and industop
our able Representative, the R1
L. W. Perce, has again brought h
prominently before the Ame4
people as one of the championsi
the National Education Bill. lh
bill proposes to devote the proeed
of the sale of all the public landsa
an educational fund to be distribod
through all the States in proporti
to population. The bill is meeting
opposition in Congrss from the
Democratic wing, who imagine they
see another scheme of Radical
plunder in the measure. These old
fossilized hankerers after the "fle
pots of Egypt," think theyr s
another "chicksaw schoo fuis"
Their summary way of dispowi of
surplus school funds will, no dot
commend itself to Congress sd
may be the means of plasig t
National School fund in the haui
of the "party of honesty" for di
bursement, if the bill should p.
TIE WHITE IAMR3 OF NEW JEff
The Philadelphia P'res hay th,
lowing very brief notice of a very=
The New Jersey Grrind Lodg.
Masons, in session at Trenton. wain.
cupied during the whole of Wernewsh
in discussing the action of (Grrai
Master Pine in revoking th chart
of Alpha Lodge, ot Newark, \eate:
proposed to admit a negro tounmhr
ship. A number of able and nwg
speeches were made on tlrh ~e
mainly in opposition to thl. aetx'.
the Grand Master. Sev.rdl ht
guished representatives of h~bth p10
cal parties spoke with great emphas
in favor of re-instating the lodge, ad
the vote being taken this re ult s'
reached, the charter being orderle by
a vote of 112 to 103 to be reton'
Hereafter, in New Jersey at least, tb
black man will be admittel to the
order upon an equal footing with th
The N'ashua (N.H.) Gazette say
yonng lady of that city, who has bt
studying law for a year, has nmadli app
cation for admissiontothe Law Shou)!
of Harvard University, and the subhjt
is now under the consideration of the
controlling authorities of that insti
tion. This is the first 5apphtion of
the kind that has ever Isn in thi
department of the uiwierty..
application of a similar charct,'r
made a year ago for admiBionf0 1
medical depart, but it was rejecdt
--'"Hallo, Jake, wh(rt did :o:
boy those fish ?"
"I didn't buy 'em !"
"Well, where did you get them
"I hooked 'em."
There has been some feelild
hostility to Spain developed by th
murder of the students st Hasv
and Mr. Cox, of New York, h- 'I
troduced in Congress resolutions
recognition of Cuban belligerene
But however deeply so walnton
crime as the massacre of the st
ents may stir the foreign readfr.a
however urgent may be the dsYd
our government to insist uapO
amplest protection of our ci~
in Cuba, the concession of be~Z"
ent rights, or, in MIr. Socn'O
phrase, belligerence, is another d
tion. It is, indeed, the qa
which Burke asked of the sher:
of Bristol a hundred years ,o
reference to the American eOlO50
-whether they should enjoy t
benefits of the law of nations It
thc question to which a 5fmno
ply was made by Sir James .m
intosh, in his speech upon the of
aognitio of the indepe.dde
the Spanish-America olo i . E
aid1 that independence waS O
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