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title: 'The Princeton union. (Princeton, Minn.) 1876-1976, August 31, 1905, Page 3, Image 3',
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ORIGIN OP GOLD PENS
TH E FIRST ONES WERE MADE IN ENG-
I LAND AND WERE FAILURES.
Then an American Citizen Discovered
That Iridium Could Used For
Protecting the Points, and the Per
fect Pen Resulted.
To an American is due the credit
for having made the fountain pen the
useful article it has come to be, for
without the gold pen point, which can
not corrode, the fountain pen would be
The manufacture of gold pens was
commenced in the United States in 1835
by a watchmaker of Detroit. Attempts
had been made in England to make
gold pens prior to that time, but they
met with little success. Alloyed gold
is too soft to make a durable point, and
this circumstance made it necessary
to protect the pen points with dia
monds or rubies until John Isaac Haw
kins, a citizen of the United States, but
residing in England while the experi
ments in the manufacturing of gold
pens were in progress there, accidental
ly discovered that the native alloy of
iridium and osmium ore, one of the
hardest and most refractory of all me
tallic alloys, could be used for protect
ing the points to much better advan
tage and more cheaply.
Hawkins' rights were purchased by a
clergyman of Detroit, who induced the
watchmaker above mentioned to manu
facture gold pens. The first pens made
by him were poor substitutes for the
quill then in use. In 1840 his plant
was taken to New York, where the
business was enlarged.
Quite an improvement was added to
the plant by the machines for the mak
ing and tempering of the pens, invent
ed by John Rendell, one of the em
ployees of the establishment. This es
tablishment soon produced a gold pen
so perfect that it combined the elas
ticity of the quill with the permanency
of the metal. About 1850 it was dis
covered that by imbedding the iridium
points in the gold instead of soldering
them on the corrosive Influence of the
ink on the two metals, the solder and
the gold, was avoided and a firmer
hold in the pen was given to the points.
The gold pen has been brought to its
present degree of perfection by the
American manufacturer, and the in
dustry from its inception has been
characterized by the use of American
methods. For the production of the
gold pen a high degree of skill is neces
sary, and only experts are employed
in the different plants.
The gold used in the making of the
pens is obtained from the United
States assay office. It is then melted
and alloyed about sixteen carats fine
and rolled into a long, narrow ribbon,
from which pen blanks or flat plates
in the shape of a pen, but considerably
thicker than the finished pen, are cut
by means of a lever press or die and
punch. The blunt nib of the blank is
notched or recessed at the end to re
ceive the iridium that forms the ex
ceedingly hard point which all good
The iridium is coated with a cream
of borax ground in water and laid in
the notch formed in the end of the
blank. It is then secured by a process
of sweating, which is nothing more or
less than melting the gold of which the
pen is formed so that it unites solidly
with the iridium. The blank is then
passed between rollers of peculiar
form to give a gradually diminishing
thickness from the point backward.
The rolls have a small cavity in which
the extreme end of the iridium pointed
nib is placed to prevent injury to the
iridium. After rolling the nib of every
pen is stiffened and rendered spongy
This is the most important process
in the manufacture of the pen, as the
elasticity of the pen depends entirely
upon this operation. The pen is then
trimmed by a press similar to that
which is used for cutting out the
blanks or by automatic machinery.
When the blank has been trimmed the
name of the manufacturer and the
number of the pen are stamped on it
by means of a screw press.
The pen is given its convex surface
also by means of a screw press, the
blank being pressed between a concave
die beneath and a convex one above.
Quite a little force is necessary to
bring the pen to the required convex
ity, and when this operation is com
pleted two jaws approach the blank
and press it up on opposite edges, thus
giving the pen its final shape.
The next step is to cut the iridium
into two points by holding it on the
edge of a thin copper disk which is
charged with fine emery and oil and
revolves at a high speed. The nib is
then slit by a machine and the slit
cleared by means of a fine circular
saw. After slitting, the nibs are
brought together by hammering, and
the pen is burnished on the inside by a
concave form and on the outside by a
convex form. This is necessary to give
the pen a uniform surface and greater
These nibs are then set by the fingers
alone, after which operation the pen is
ground by a lathe with a thin steel
disk and a copper cylinder, both charg
ed with fine emery and oil. The slit
is then ground by a fine disk, and the
sides of the nibs and the points are
ground upon the copper cylinder. After
the grinding is done the pen is polished
upon buff wheels, which completes the
process of manufacture.
Before the pen is placed upon the
market, however, it is given a thorough
Inspection to see that it possesses the
proper elasticity, fineness and weight,
then passed to an inspector who tests
it and weighs it.Chicago Chronicle.
The Stray Ballet.
It is an odd fact that the most expert
marksman cannot equal the unerring
accuracy of the stray bullet in reaching
the mark.Baltimore American.
Mrs. John Lane of London has in
vented a new description for that pe
culiar yet by no means rare human
foible which lays its victims open to
the charge of being "penny wise and
pound foolish." She calls it "extrava
gant economy," and by way of illus
trating her meaning tells of "a woman
of massive intellect" who to save 15
cents in aggregate on several pur
chases spent a whole forenoon in the
wet, caught a chill and had to go to
the seaside to recuperate, really giving
up pounds for her indulgence in a
The notable thing about Mrs. Lane's
argument, penned in the Fortnightly
Review of recent date, is that women
are the chief sinners in saving at the
spigot simply to waste at the bunghole.
She says they will shop all day on a
cup of tea or an eclair to spend the
savings in gewgaws or extravagant
articles of dress. Men do not starve
their own stomachs in that fashion,
but while preaching economy at home
in all things that affect the family they
cling to twenty-five cent cigars and
similar luxuries and plan most expen
sive outings, which are "all right, my
dear," so long as they are in them.
But really somebody must be practic
ing economy or there would be uni
versal bankruptcy. Matters not who
is the economist, wife or husband, so
long as the results are all in the fam
Czar Nicholas and the Zemstvos.
Four congresses of the Russian
zemstvos, representatives of the whole
people, have been called since the out
break of the war. The first congress
was held in St. Petersburg in private,
the government having first permitted
it and then forbidden it at the eleventh
hour. The second and the third con
gresses of the series met in Moscow in
private. The third congress met and
transacted business in defiance of the
orders of the authorities. Strangely
enough, a deputation of the third con
gress, pronounced "illegal," was re
ceived by the czar and given a cour
teous hearing. The deputies were even
asked to convey to all Russia the prom
ises of the czar with reference to call
ing a national assembly.
The fourth meeting of the zemstvos,
held in Moscow in July, was frowned
upon, but the members cleverly urged
that the step was necessary in order to
convey in a formal way the message of
the czar to the third congress. In com
mon with the Liberals of Russia the
outside world has been disappointed at
the meager results of these assemblies
of the people's representatives. But the
fact that they met, deliberated and
made known their views to the masses
is a long step in advance for Russia.
The habit of meeting will grow, and
one day when the government least ex
pects it something will happen to shake
the fabric of aristocracy to its base.
Pearys Fourth Arctic Trip.
It is a matter for regret that the
equipment and departure of the ex
pedition now speeding northward
should have been attended with sensa
tional elements which suggest the ad
venturer rather than the serious ex
plorer. There may have been reasons
why these methods were necessary to
attract attention to the trip. Stanley
indulged in a great deal of posing, but
he accomplished good work in Africa.
Peary's outfit for this voyage is the
best that could be designed, and his
plan is based upon previous experi
ence. If the coming winter proves mod
erate on his route, he will push his
base 350 miles nearer the pole than has
heretofore been possible. From that
point the force will be fresh for the
sledge journey over the ice pack, which
Peary believes will take him to the
farthest north. The explorer is to try
what he has tried before and failed in.
Success this time hinges upon his abil
ity to breast the difficulties which have
checked him in the past.
In the last college year 537 students
at Columbia earned an average of
about $172 by work done while attend
ing to their studies. In these cases
work of coarse had to supplant foot
ball. Some educators hold that the
only education gained at college worth
the while is that which the college
worker masters. He is dead in earnest
and, unlike the mass, has little diffi
culty in making a living after he quits
For the thousandth time the health
authorities are announcing the discov
ery that mosquitoes are responsible for
yellow fever. What's the use of talk
ing so much? Why don't they get
out and "swat" the mosquitoes?
Pubic is Aroused.
The public is aroused to a know
ledge of the curative merits of that
great medicinal tonic, Electric Bitters,
for sick stomach, liver and kidneys.
Mary H. Walters o546 St. Clair Ave.,
Columbus, O., writes: "For several
months, I was given up to die. I had
fever and ague, my nerves were
wrecked I could not sleep, and my
stomach was so weak, from useless
doctors'drugs, that I could not eat.
Soon after beginning to take Electric
Bitters, obtained relief, and in a
short time I was entirely cured."
Guaranteed at C. A. Jack's drug
store price 50 cents.
Russia's Big Man, Witte.
Sergius Witt*, ex-premier of Russia
and head of the peace embassy, is one
of the few influential men of the em
pire who has risen from the people.
Originally a railway clerk, he has
worked his way up and is a practical
man of affairs, wielding great moral
and intellectual force in Russian offi
Witte's role in Russia is unique. He
is a Russian of Dutch descent and has
had the manliness to quarrel with the
czar and with the clique which is all
powerful in the palace. While affiliat
ing with the autocrats, he has not fail
ed to keep a skilled hand upon the
pulse of the masses from which he
sprung. He knows the temper of the
people and long ago arrived at the con
clusion that absolutism is doomed.
The climax in Witte's career came
when he stubbornly opposed the czar's
far eastern policy. He opposed the Rus
sian plans of conquest in Korea and
Manchuria, the seizure of Port Arthur
and in general every act tending to
provoke Japan. Instead of making an
enemy of the Japanese he advised the
czar to cultivate their friendship. He
received humiliation and a loss of posi
tion for his pains.
Witte has always been a sturdy foe
to reaction. He denounced the Kishi
neff massacres, defeated for a time the
Russification of the Finnish army and
saved the universities from persecu
tion. He believes in the people and,
what is more, stands for the moral
rights of the people as derived from a
higher law than that of the backward
empire. If Russia is to be trusted be
cause of the possibilities in her people,
Sergius Witte is a representative to
listen to and to look to as her guide.
He has been pronounced the "living
bridge between autocracy and consti
tutionalism, possibly the only bridge
autocracy can cross safely."
The "Iiid" In Canada.
Readers who are curious to know
what goes to the making of a "wild
political revel" among our northern
neighbors are referred to the menu
here quoted, which was recently en
joyed at a picnic given by a Liberal
member of parliament to his constitu
ents in London, Ont. The edibles, po
tables, etc., disposed of by, say, 5,000
voters and their families, were as fol
400 layer cakes.
100 angel cakes.
100 jelly rolls.
250 gallons vanilla ice cream.
800 dozen bananas.
15 barrels lemonade.
20 dozen ginger ale.
20 dozen lemon sour.
20 dozen ginger beer.
20 dozen sarsaparilla for the blood.
20 dozen soda water.
6,000 bags of candies.
The spread looks very innocent to
outsiders, but the opposition party
press of the district took a different
view and denounced the excursion in
such terms as "orgie," "saturnalia"
and "wild political revel." The sports
indulged in were in keeping with the
menu, and, with the exception of the
cigars, the whole affair suggests a
Sunday school outing. Evidently party
feeling is very bitter or the "lid" is
down very tight in the province of On
An American who has been abroad
for some years is struck with the rage
for putting handles to names which
is now prevalent in this country. He
observes that in his lifetime Daniel
Webster was simply Mr. Webster and
not "Senator" Webster. Not content
with giving high political titles, many
now have the custom of tacking on
the name of the simplest offices and
callingsas "councilman," "selectman,"
"forecaster," and even "conductor." In
the highest official circles, both civil
and military, titles are reserved for
formal occasions, when they mean
Collier's Weekly lands hard upon the
much used proverb, "Exceptions prove
the rule," declaring it to be nonsense.
The origin of the saying is traced to
a maxim in Scottish law to the effect
that exceptlo probat regulam, in which
"probat" does not mean "proves," but
"tests," and "regulam" does not mean
"rule," but "ruling." When the ruling
of a judge is questioned by filing an
exception, the ruling is tested by a de
cision on the exception hence "The ex
ception tests the ruling" would be the
proper rendering and one having little
application in everyday affairs.
Closely following the death of an
American who fell from a flying ma
chine while making a trial trip came
the report of two successful trips in
Europe. The fact that the same prin
ciple was the feature of each machine
may mean that the secret of the bird
may have been found, and if properly
applied, the problem of aerial naviga
tion will be solved.
Is often caused by sores, ulcers and
cancers, that eat away your skin.
Wm. Bedell of Flat Rock, Mich.,
says: I have used Bucklen's Arnica
Salve for ulcers, sores and cancers.
It is the best healing dressing I ever
found." Soothes and heals cuts,
burns and scalds. 25 cents at C. A.
pack's drug store guaranteed.
L^-M 4i# i'M
THE PRINCETON TTKIOBf: THURSDAY, AUGUTST 31, 1905.
Church Topics a*
Morning theme, "Working Truth for
a Twentieth Century Awakening."
Evening, Union service in the M. E.
Morning, "The Outskirts of God's
Way." Evening, "Salvation the An
tithesis of Damnation." The evening
service will be a union service of Con
gregationalists and Methodists.
Two Hundred I.ot8 In Lake Park Addition
to Village of Mora.
Sale to be held at Mora, Minnesota,
September 12th, 1905, at 9 a. m. and
continue until lots are sold, a beauti
ful summer resort situated on the
shores of Lake Mora. To be sold to
the highest bidder on the following
terms: $1.00 down and $1.00 per month
thereafter without interest until paid.
Remember the date and be on the
ground for a profitable investment.
38-2t Struble & Pope, Proprietors.
C. Unger, 211 Maple St., Cham
paign, 111., writes: I was troubled
with a hacking cough for a year and
I thought I had consumption. I tried
a great many remedies and was under
the care of physicians for several
months. I used one bottle of Foley's
Honey and Tar. It cured me, and I
have not been troubled since." Sold
by C. A. Jack.
Over 30 Years Experience.
1011 First Ave. North,
DO IT TO-DAY!"
"And to think that ten months ago I looked like
this! I owe it to German Syrup."
JfTh time-worn injunction, "Never put
off 'til to-morrow what you can do to-
day," is now generally presented in this
form: Do it to-day!" That is the terse
advice we want to give you about that
hacking cough or demoralizing cold with
which you have been struggling for sev
eral days, perhaps weeks. JTak some
reliable remedy for it TO-DAYand let
that remedy be Dr. Boschee's German
Syrup, which has been in use for over
thirty-five years. A few doses of it will
undoubtedly relieve your cough or cold,
and its continued use for a few days will
cure you completely. |N matter how
deep-seated your cough, even if dread
consumption has attacked your lungs,
German Syrup will surely effect a cure
as it has done before in thousands of ap
parently hopeless cases of lung trouble.
JNe trial bottles, 25c regular size,
75c. At all druggists. a
For Sale by C. A. Jack.
YOUR MONEY IS
and will be refunded to you if after us
ing half a bottle of
you are not satisfied with results.
This is our guarantee which goes witk
For Sale and Guaranteed Only by
C. A. JACK, Princeton, Minn.
R. O. A. McRAE DENTIST
Office in Odd Fellows Block.
ROSS CALEY, M. D.,
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON.
Office and Residence over Jack's Drugstore,
Office in Odd Fellows' Building.
ATTORNEY AT LAW.
Office in Carew Block,
Main Street. Princeton.
HAPMAN & KALIHER,
BARBER SHOP & BATH ROOMS.
A fine line of Tobacco and Cigars.
Main Street. Princeton.
3 A. ROSS,
Will take full charge of dead bodies when
desired. Coffins and caskets of the latest-styles
always in stock. Also Springfield metalics.
Dealer In Monuments of all kinds.
E A. Ross, Princeton, Minn. Telephone No. 30.
Finest 5c and 10c Cigars on the Market.
Main Street, Princeton.
RELIABLE WELL DRILLER.
Twenty years in the well business. Can give
perfect satisfaction. If you want a good well
call on or address R. E LYNCH,
Long Distance 'Phone 313.
Centrally located. All the comforts of home
life. Unexcelled service. Equipped with every
modern convenience for the treatment and the
cure of the sick and the invalid. All forms of
Electrical Treatment, Medical Baths, Massage.
X-ray Laboratory, Trained Nurses in attend
ance. Only non-contagious diseases admitted,
Trained Nurses furnished for sickness
in private families.
Staff of Physicians and Surgeons,
H. C. COONEY, M. D.
Chief of Staff.
N. K. WHITTEMORE, M. D., H. P. BACON. M. D.,
R. B. HIXSON, M. D., G. ROSS CALEY, M. D.,
D. K. CALDWELL. M. D., A. G. ALDRICH. D.
MISS EM MA NORDSTROM. Supt.
I Announcement i
If you are looking for
beautiful ribbons, fancy
wash silks, newest voiles,
I latest figured lawns, good
We can also fill your wants in
the grocery line.
R. D. BYERS,!
Bottom Price Cash Store. i
Manske & Son, Props.
We Bake Daily.
Full weight, best materials, free
from all impure ingredients.
Baking for parties, weddings,
etc., given prompt attention,
Give Us a Call.
Main5t. Princeton, Minn.
Peterson & Nelson
Can set your buggy tires cold while
you are waiting without taking,, the
wheels off from the buggy or the
bolts out of the wheels.
f^'f-* $s w* -y^'s^jft
Great Northern Railway.
ST. PAUL, MINNEAPOLIS, PRINCETON
GOING SOUTH. GOING NORTH.
Brook Park.. 9
Pease (f) 10:30
L. Siding (i). 10
Elk River.... 11
Ar. St. Paul. 1
(f) Stop on signal.
ST. CLOUD TRAINS.
Ar. St. Cloud
_. GOING BAST.
Le. St. Cloud
WAsYa -Tued yFREIGHT.
South HarborChas. Freer Cove
East SideAndrew Kalberg Onstead
Onamia-G. H. Carr Onamia
PageAugust Anderson Page
eum ann Foreston
J. C. Borden Princeton
BaldwinH. B. Fisk Princeton
Blue Hill-Chas. D. Kaliher Princeton
Spencer BrookJ. L. Turner Spencer Brook
WyanettOle Peterson Wyanett
SantiagoW. W. Groundrey Santiago
Dalbo-M. P. Mattson... Dalbo
Grain and Produce Market.
Wheat, (new) No. 1 Northern
Wheat, (new) No 2Northern...
Corn Oats (new)
Beans (hand picked)
Flax. Rye (new)
PrincetoB Holler Hills and Elevator,
Wheat, (new) No. 1 Northern..
Wheat, (new) No. 2 Northern..
Vestal, per sack
Flour, (100 per cent)per sack
Banner, per sack
Whole wheat (10 lb. sack)....".
Ground feed, per cwt
Coarse meal, per cwt
Middlings, per cwt
Shorts, per cwt
Bran, per cwt.
NO. 93, of P.
Regular meetings every Tuesday eve
ning at 8 o'clock.
ro^,. FRANK IPETERSON. c. C.
OSCAR PETERSON, K. R. & S.
K. O. T. M.,
Tent No. 17.
Regular meetings every Thurs
day evening at 8 o'clock, in the
N. M. NELSON. Com.
W. G. FREDERICKS. R.
NO. 208,1. O. O.F
Regular meetings every Friday evening at 8:00
ROBT. H. KING, N. G.
JOHN BOMAN, R. Sec.
THE PEOPLE'S FAVORITE.
Lines to Dalbo, Cambridge, Santi
ago and Qlendorado.
%W Good Service in Princeton and to all
Patronize a Home Concern.
Service Day and Nigbt.
AND FEED BARN.
CRAVENS & KALIHER, Props.
Single and Double Rigs
at a rioments' Notice.
CommercialTravelers' Trade a Specialty
:35 a.m. a.m.
:40 a.m. a.m.
:55 a m.
10 a m.
Anoka Elk River
Zimmerman. Princeton. Brickton (f).
L. Siding (I).
Milaca Ogilvie 5
Brook Park. 6
Ar. Duluth. 9
35p.m 05 p.m.
45 02 p.m
10:18 a. m.
10:28 a. m.
Foreston:::. I JislSm fM
"ft a and Saturday.
10:45 a. m.
5:0W 0 p.m.iu
Lep. Milaca... Princeton.. Elk River.
GOING WESTMonday, Wednesday'and Friday
i* 110:00 a.m.
Princeton i i-AQn
ELK RIVER TRAINS.
(Great Northern.) For St. Paul and Minne
apolis, trains leave at 6-00 A. M. and 11-35 A
For stations west to Williston, N. D. via
Crookston 9:53 P. M.
(Northern Pacific.) West bound. North
Coast Limited, 11.50 A. M. (at tank). Minne
sota Local, 10 08 A. M. Manitoba Express 11 47
P. M. (at tank.) East bound, Manitoba Ex
press, 40 A. M. Twin City Express, 6 02 A. M.
(at tank) Minnesota Local, 4:14 P.M., North
Coast Limited, 12:48 P.M. (attank,) and at
MILLE LACS COUNTY.
Bogus BrookO. E. Gustaf son Princeton
BorgholmEmil Sjoberg Bock
GreenbushR. A. Ross Princeton
HaylandAlfred F. Johnson Milaca
Isle Harbor-Otto A. Haggberg isle
MilacaOle E. Larson Milaca
MileR. N.Atkinson Foreston
PrincetonOtto Henschel Princeton
I 25@2 00
All goods delivered free anvwhere" in Princeto75
NO. 92, A^. & A. M.
Regular communications, 2d and 4th
Wednesday of each month.
GRANT, W. M.
FRED KEITH, Sec'y.