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title: 'The Princeton union. (Princeton, Minn.) 1876-1976, November 25, 1909, Page 6, Image 6',
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I E RIDDLE O SLEEPValcanizinEARTHLYWhere
A Mystery That the Mind of Man
Is Unable to Penetrate.
THE CAVERN OF MORPHEUS.
It Is Pitch Black as Far as Human
Understanding Goes, For We Know
No More About It Than We Do About
Its Twin Mystery, Death.
When all is written, how little we
know of sleep! It is a closing of the
eyes, a disappearance, a wondering re
turn. In uneasy slumber, in dreamless
dead rest, in horrid nightmare or in
ecstasies of somnolent fancies the eyes
are blinded, the body is abandoned,
while the inner essence is we know not
where. We have no other knowledge
of sleep than we have of death. In de
lirium or coma or trance, no less than
In normal sleep and in dissolution, the
soul is gone. In these it returns, in
that it does not come again, or so we
Yet when I reflect on my death I for
get that I have encountered it many
times already and find myself none
the worse. 1 forget that I sleep. The
fly has no shorter existence than
man's. We bustle about for a few
years with ludicrous importance, as
bottle flies buzz at the window panes
They, too, may imagine themselves of
infinite moment in this universe we
share with them. But this is to take
no account of the prognostics of sleep
There is something hidden, something
secret, some unfathomed mystery
whose presence we feel, but cannot
verify some permeative thought in
sistently moving in our hearts, some
phosphorescence that glows we know
not whence through our shadowy at
Neither sleep itself nor half its prom
ises nor mysteries have been plumbed.
It is the mother of superstitions and
of miracles. In dreams we may search
the surface powers of the freed soul.
Visions in the night are not all hallu
cinations voices in the night are not
all mocking. There is a prophet dwells
within the mindnot of the mind, but
deeper throned in obscurity.
The brain cannot know of this holy
presence nor of its life in sleep. The
brain is mortal and untrustworthy, a
phonograph and a camera for audible
and palpable existence. Strike it a
blow in childhood so that it ceases its
labors and awake it by surgery after
iforty years and it will repeat the in
fantile action or word it last recorded
and will take up its task on the in
stant, making no account of the inter
mediate years. They are nonexistent
to it. Yet to that hidden memory those
diseased years are not blank. It know?,
it has recorded, though the brain has
slept. And in hypnotic or psychic
trance, when that wonderful ruler is
released from the prison of the body, it
can speak through the atom blent ma
chinery of the flesh and tell of things
man himself could not know because
of his paralyzed brain. This ruler i
not asleep in sleep, nor in delirium is
it delirious, and in death is it dead?
Through all the ages it has been our
sphinx, which we have interrogated in
vain It joins not in our laughter nor
our tears. We have fancied it with im
mobile, brooding features of utmost
knowledge and wisdom and sorrow, it
has asked us but one question, nor
from the day of Oedipus unto today
have we answered rightly, so that we
die of our ignorance It is Osiris liv
ing in us. It is the unknown God to
whom we erect our altars, the fire in
the tabernacle, the presence behind the
veil. Not in normal wakefulness at
least will it answer our queries, but in
sleep sometimes it will speak. And it
may possibly be that at last, after all
these centuries, we are learning how
to question it and in hypnotic trance
and in the fearful law of suggestion
are discovering somewhat of its rays
tery and how to employ it for our
worldly good Yet to its essential se
cret we are no closer than our fore
We may define dreams and night
mare, coma and swoon and trance
with what terms we will, search their
physical reasons and learn to guide
and guard, yet we know no more of
them than of electricity We may be
gin to suspect that telepathy and clair
voyance and occult forces of the son!
are not superstitious fancies, and we
may even empirically classify and
study and direct them. Yet the sou!
itself is no nearer our inquisition
Though we should know of its real
ity, though our finite minds should
fathom the infinitude, of what benefit
would it be? Would it modify our be
liefs or our hopes orourtaiths? Would
it dictate one action to our passionate
lives? There would be no change in
human nature and no reforms of the
world We are the children of our fa
thers, and our children will tread the
prehistoric paths Dreams are our life,
whether we wake or sleep We drowse
through existence, awaking and dying
and being reborn daily, ever torpescent
and unamazed. and our thousand slum
berous deaths we call restorative sleep
sleep that restores our physical be
ing, building up where we have torn
down, recreating what we destroy.
Blackpitch black, indeed-is the
cavern of Morpheus. Faith peoples it
with varied legions and builds its
chaos into myriad forms Nightly we
enter it and drain the Lethean air and
forget, and daily we return with re
joicings, babbling of dreams that were
not dreamed, and finally we enter fot
the last time and drain somewhat
more deeply the essence of ecstasy
and awake no more and no more re
turn to the autumn dyed skies of the
dawn. And yet we shall dream-At
Factory Men Stand
The hottest place In New York is in
Desbrosses street in a vulcanizing fac
tory, where telephone wires are Insu
lated by being coated with a prepara
tion of rubber. In the room where
this process takes place the tempera
ture rises to 212 degrees, 100 degrees
hotter than the hottest it may be out
lide in the sun. Man can endure no
more. Actually there are some who
can stand this, howeveronly a few.
mind you, but still some. They are
only the strongest and hardiest of
workmen, and they can be in the room
but a few brief minutes at a time.
Several times daily it Is their duty to
enter the room to see that all goes
To keep from losing their skin and
to protect themselves from the terrible
heat these men wear heavy woolen
shirts buttoned high above their necks
and woolen masks and gloves. Four
or five minutes at the most in the vul
canizing room is all they can stand
without collapsing, and some can't
even stay that long. Outside these
men nobody is ever allowed to endure
such a frightful heat. In fact, it is
hard to convey the idea of 212 degrees.
You can get the same degree (of tem
perature by thrusting your linger into
boiling water. Water boils at 212 de
grees F.New York World.
HE LOVED HER.
The Depth of His Feeling Was Re
vealed In His Answer.
"Do you love me?" he asked
In reply the modern young girl look
ed at the modern young man with eyes
perfervid with emotion.
"Do I love you?" she repeated. "I
do. I love you psychologically, socio
logically, economically. From the psy
chologic standpoint I feel that our
different organisms are so nicely dif
ferentiated as to form a properly artic
ulated area of combined consciousness.
Sociologically our individual environ
ment has been enough in contrast to
form a proper basis for a right union.
Economically I feel sure that when we
come to combine we shall be able to
introduce into the management of our
affairs the right financial balance to
produce the scientific result which
every well ordered and conducted busi
ness produces. And, now, how do you
The young man reached forward. He
clasped her swiftly, but surely, in his
arms. He hugged her long and plenty.
He kissed her alabaster cheek and her
"How do I love you?" he replied.
"My dear girl, I love you just as much
as if you really knew what you were
Study Under Difficulties.
It was my love for my children that
gave me the energy, the will power, to
reach great'heights in my profession.
I practiced, 1 studied my great roles
and arias seated at the piano, the baby
at my breast, the others playing around
me none too softly. I memorized my
parts while standing at the oil stove
cooking our simple meal or while busy
at the washtub, with my little ones
always around me. Singing, learning,
studying, I was supremely happy be
cause they were with me. I brought
up my children, and they were my
comfort and my support. They made
a brave, courageous "fellow" of me.
And it was no difficult task. If 1 had
to hurry to the theater for rehearsals
I would give the children their supper
at 5 o'clock and put them to bed.
When I returned at 10 or 11 o'clock I
would be greeted by merry birds* twit
ter from the different little nests, and
I would divide my sandwiches with
them. Then we would sleep as only
the happy and healthy may.Mme.
Schumann-Heink in Delineator.
Collier and a Collier.
A single misprinted letter may pro
duce astonishing results, and even the
misreading of a capital letter as a
small one may be disastrous. When
John Payne Collier died the London
Press correctly gave a paragraph stat
ing that he had been buried in Bray
churchyard, near Maidenhead, a large
number of friends being present at the
funeral. But a provincial paper which
presumably knew nothing of the notori
ous Shakespearean critic gave the same
paragraph concerning "John Payne, a
collier," and to complete the thing
headed it "The Bray Colliery Disaster."
"Are you uperstitious?"
"In a practical way."
"How is that?"
"Well. I never walk under a ladder
unless 1 feel sure it won't fall on me,
and I always expect bad luck when
pursued by a mad bull across a lot in
which there are just thirteen acres."
Cleveland Plain Dealer.
Survival of Fittest.
Miss Helen Mathers thinks that the
decline of the novel is due to a large
extent to motorcars. There is no doubt
that a large class of readers have been
almost entirely eliminated by these
vehicles. We refer to those persons
who used to read as they walked along
the roadway.London Punch.
Madge (proudly)Did you see that
handsome man 1 just danced with?
KateYes he has a jealous wife, who
will allow him to dance only with the
plainest girl in the room.Boston
Many a young man starts in to work
fired with a noble ambition. Then the
ambition evaporates, and he gets fired
1 Chicago News.
lie Pranks With an Author's Manu
scripts and Decorations.
A Paris contemporary dealing with
the love of great men for animals
gives an amusing account of Chateau
briand and his monkey. When he was
engaged in preparing Fontanes' works
for the press, on returning one day he
was met by bis monkey.
"Ah, you rogue," said Chateaubriand,
"your shamefaced look tells of mis
chief." The monkey was chained up,
but as things did not appear much dis
turbed Chateaubriand thought no more
of the matter until it was time to re
sume work. Fontanes' manuscripts
were not to be found.
At last Chateaubriand looked into
the waste paper basket, and there were
the manuscripts. The monkey had
watched his master, and as he had
seen him fold a sheet of paper and
tear it into four, so he had dealt with
Fontanes' writings. With much labor
they were pieced together and after
Chateaubriand thought it advisable
to see what else the monkey had done.
His orders had disappeared from a
drawer which was always kept closed.
The servants searched everywhere for
them, but they were not to be found.
Nearly a week elapsed before t' *y
were traced, and then a domestic no
ticed that the monkey had suspended
them to the cornice in a quasi-sym
The monkey was given his conge,
and Chatbeaubriand replaced him by
a cat, which was allowed a place on
his master's writing table, and great
was the pleasure which he derived in
playing with puss.
DIVING FOR COINS.
The Natives of Madeira Are Experts
at the Business.
As we drew in and came to anchor
we saw descending upon us a fleet of
small, curious boats filled with half
naked men. We suspected now that
Madeira was a cannibal island and pre
pared for the worst. It was not quite
as bad as that. They merely wanted
us to throw coins over into the liquid
azure which they call water in this
country, whereupon their divers would
try to intercept the said coins some
where between the top and bottom of
the sea. We didn't believe they could
do it, but we tried and, as usual, found
that the other fellow knew his own
game better than we did.
If thost, amphibians did not always
get the coins they generally did. They
could see them perfectly in that amaz
ing water, and they could dive like
seals. Some of the divers were mere
childrenpoor, lean creatures who
stood up in their boats and shouted
and implored and swung their arms in
a wild invitation to us to fling our
money overboard. But they did not
want small moneyat least not very
small money. They declined to dive for
pennies. Perhaps they could only dis
tinguish the gleam of the white metal.
Let a nickel or a dime be tossed over
and two or three were after it in a
flash, while a vehement outbreak of
Portuguese from all the rest entreated
still further largess. It was really a
good show, and, being the first of its
kind, we enjoyed it.Albert Bigelow
Paine in Outing Magazine
Meaning of the Green Bough.
The custom of placing a green bough
on the root of a newly built house is
not confined to Germany, but was
adopted by the French Canadians, who
brought it with them from Brittany.
The custom originated from the super
stition prevalent centuries ago that
every tree is inhabited by a spirit
consequently it was believed that ev
ery time a tree was felled another
spirit was dispossessed, and this was
supposed to cause some bitterness on
his part against society. Rather than
risk having these homeless and dis
gruntled spirits vent their ill feeling
upon the houses under construction or
upon the builders a branch was plant
ed on the highest part of the house
for their occupancy. They were then
supposed to be mollified, and if they
remained so until the roof was put on
any evil design contemplated would
prove harmless, for the spell would be
broken.Van Norden's Magazine.
The history of Savona is that of a
long struggle with the Genoese, ended
in the sixteenth century, when they
seized the town and rendered its har
bor useless by sinking vessels filled
with stones at the entrance. In 1746
it was captured by Sardinia, but was
Genoa. The ancient Savo where Mago
stored his booty in the second Punic
war, Savona was the birthplace of the
popes Sixtus IV. and Julius II. and
the home of the ancestors of Colum
the first islands be discovered in the
West Indies.London Standard.
_. __ "i believe that Monterey. Mexico, is
soon back again under the control of the hottest spot in the world in the
daytime," said an Arizona man. "I
have seen the thermometer register as
high as 120 degrees in the late after
noon. It was so hot that the natives
who ventured on the streets would
bus, who bestowed its name on one of hug the foot wide shade of the low
buildings like lichen clings to tree
bark. But here's the funny part of it:
When the sun sets it begins to cool off.
and at night it is positively necessary
to sleep under blankets. The nights
are delightfully cool, and I presume it
is because one is able to get a good
slee^ tha^ it is possible t_o live in that
Five-year-old Bobbie went visiting
with his mother and, unexpectedly re
maining overnight, was obliged
wear his cousin Kate's nightgown
The next morning he said tearfully, climate."Washington Post.
"Mamma, before I'll wear a girl's
nightie again I'll sleep raw Har
Youth and Old Age.
"Before a man is thirty he falls in
love with every pretty girl he looks at."
"Yes, and after he is thirty he falls
in love with every pretty girl who
looks at him."Stray Stories.
KnackerYou have a boy in college
and a girl, cultivating her voice"
Bocker Yes. and I don't know which
has the better yell Brooklyn Life.
The Crew, the Work and the Kind of
Life the Men Lead.
Life aboard a submarine Is not so
unpleasant or dangerous as one might
imagine, but it is entirely different
from that led on other types of ships.
The crew, usually consisting of two
officers and fourteen men, is selected
from volunteers after a most rigid
medical examination. Service rarely
extends beyond a period of two years,
and real work on a submarine is limit
ed to about three weeks in the sum
mer and one in the winter. During the
remainder of the time the men live on
a "parent" ship or on shore. The boat
is. however, put through the various
evolutions once every week.
The first impression on entering a
submarine is one of heat, the air being
rather close and heavy, but the men
soon become accustomed to it. Stand
ing room space is about six and one
half feet, and toward both ends the
boat tapers away almost to a point.
There are no portholes. The hatchway
in the conning tower is the only aper
ture. Under water electric light is
used. There are ventilators, but when
the boat dives they are shut off with a
Life on board a submarine is essen
tially "in common." The way men
and many objects are crammed to
gether in a narrow space is almost
Cooking is done in an electric oven,
and no foods which have a strong or
disagreeable smell are used. Of course
smoking is allowed only when on the
surface and then on the bridge. Ow
ing to the character of the men select
ed discipline is perfect.
There is scarcely any noise in a sub
marine when submerged. The greatest
depth the boat descends does not ex
ceed thirty feet At that depth her
speed is about 8 knots. The air is
quite "breathable" for four hours, but
in case of emergency the crew can re
main closed in for seventy hours with
The men love the life. With the offi
cers they are as one family, sharing
everything equally, including the dan
gers, which are not much to speak of.
provided every one does his duty.
When the weather is fair there is very
little rolling In rough weather the
men escape knocking about by holding
on to "steadying lines"New York
JURIES IN ENGLAND.
They Get Through Their Work Quickly
and With Little Fuss.
The working of the British jury sys
tem exhibits a marked contrast with
that of our own. It is possible that my
experience in British courts was ex
ceptional, but in not a single instance
did I see a juror challenged or reject
ed. In all of the courts requiring ju
ries the necessary number of men
were present, and they were sworn in
without question. In the sheriff's dep
uty court in Scotland the presiding
judge gave notice to the jury that he
expected to adjourn the court at 2
o'clock and stated that if they could
all remain until that hour he would at
once dismiss the men who had been
called for a second panel. The jurors
conferred together and decided to re
main till 1 o'clock, whereupon the
judge notified the other men to appear
at 12:30. The one jury impaneled for
the morning session rendered six ver
dicts in cases involving prosecutions
for thefts, fraud and burglary
In the court of quarter sessions at
Taunton, England. I saw a single jury
in one day render eleven verdicts. 1
found that it was customary in the
several sorts of court that I attended
for the same jury to act in successive
cases. In no instance did I see a jury
leave their seats to make up their ver
dict. Usually the issue before them
was made so plain that all who gave
attention knew in advance what the
decision would be. I made note of an
exceptional instance of delay when the
court was forced to wait nine minutes
for the report of the jury. In this case
the judge who gave the instructions
was himself in doubt as to what the
verdict ought to be
A Scottish jury consists of fifteen
persons, and a majority may render a
verdict, in England the number i?
twelve, and unanimity is required. But
I noted no difference as to practical
results in the two countries. The
twelve men in the English jury were
as prompt and certain in their action
as were the eight out of fifteen in the
Scottish jury.McClure's Magazine.
A Hot Spot.
IEUIUICU vu iuc aueeis VVUUJU
The Complete Bookkeeper.
Mrs. KnickerHow do you make
your books balance? Mrs. Booker
That's easj. I always spend the exact
sum I receive right away.New York
For Him to Say.
"Do you think I can stand an opera
"You know your financial condition
better than I do "Exchange.
Anger is a stone cast into a wasps'
INHERIT THE JOB.
The Postmasters of a Little Town In
Forty years before, as quite a boy,
Jones had left a little town in Kent.
England. Now. on the first long vaca
tion he ever bad since, be was visiting
his childhood scenes. He had remem
bered that the postmaster's name was
pengelley, and he had remembered, too,
that he was a kindly old man. There
wasn't the slightest probability, he
thought, that the postmaster was still
alive, but his acquaintance with the
former incumbent might smooth things
a little with the new one, so that the
whereabouts of people to whom he had
been directed would be made known.
"What's become of Mr. Pengelley?"
he asked, interrupting for a moment
his majesty's letter assorter.
"I am Mr. Pengelley."
"Perhaps you're his son."
"Yes my father's name was Pen
gelley, too," drawled the Englishman.
"I mean the postmaster."
"So do I."
"Was your father postmaster forty
"My word, no! That was my grand
father. You see. our names are all
alike, and the postoflSce department
doesn't know but that the first one is
alive We inherit this job, don't you
know. And my wife's just presented
me with a son There was no hag
gling over his name."New York Press.
TWO MEN AND A TIP.
An Incident In a Broadway Lunch
Room In New York.
A business man who in his univer
sity days had been a devoted student
of ethics sat down in a lower Broad
way lunch room a few days ago and
saw something that awakened a par
ticular train of thought in channels
unused since his student days.
Directly opposite him two men were
finishing their midday meal. One. a
sprucely dressed chap, sipped his last
drop of coffee, placed a dime on the
table in front of his empty cup and
walked out. The other, equally well
dressed, took a little longer time over
his coffee before preparing to go.
Then just as he was about to rise he
furtively passed his hand over to the
dime in front of his former neighbor's
plate and moved it to a position in
front of his own. He then walked
hastily out. The waiter a moment
later picked up the dime, noting be
fore whose plate it was. and cleaned
away the dishes, mumbling the while.
Now the former college man is won
dering whether this is not a case where
he can aptly apply those words of
Shakespeare, "Who steals my purse
steals trash. but he that
niches from me my good name robs
me of that which not enriches him
and makes me poor indeed."New
People often ask the meaning of the
legal expression "nisi prius." Literally
interpreted, it means "unless before,"
a name given to the sittings of a court
for the trial of civil causes. Judges
on circuit, besides trying prisoners,
have the power to give decisions
causes of complaints between private
parties and when so acting are called
judges of "nisi prius." Formerly,
when the circuits were less frequent,
the sheriff was commanded "by writ"
to bring the jury and witnesses from
the county where the action arose to
Westminster, Gloucester or Winchester
on a certain day, but when the assizes
became frequent a "nisi prius" clause
was inserted in the writ containing
these words: "Unless before that day
our justices shall come to your county
and take the assizes there." As it hap
pened that the assizes always did take
place before the date named in the
writ, the clause was practically useless
and now remains only as a name for
those civil causes to which until re
cently it referred.Dundee Advertiser.
The Fascination of Corn Cutting.
Corn cutting always has a fascina
tion for me. I like to see the farmer
grip the tall stalks with a stout hand
and. deftly holding them, clip them
with a quick stroke of a knife. Around
the bundle when it is gathered he
twists a slimmer stalk and tucks the
ends tightly under It is a tidy art,
for a twist may lack-just
the inch that
holds the bundle. The farmer's work
develops quick judgment as well as
deftness of hands, and so it is a good
school, for it makes the brains and the
hands work together. The boy who
follows with a tork should be able to
lift the bundle and build a stook that
will resist the wind. When the busk
ers come every ear should have been
kept well up from the ground and the
stalks so well ventilated that there is
no smell of mildew.E. P. Powell in
The famous cedars of Lebanon also
grow in India and Algeria, but their
home is the Lebauons of northern
Syria. In ancient times the sides of
the whole mountain were covered with
them, but now they are found in only
one small hollow on the northwestern
slope. These are securely fenced in.
but in spite of the great care of the
gardener the 200 that now survive will
soon die, and the species will become
The Tripping Tongue.
Friend1 understand. Mrs. Stern,
that your daughter has married since
we last met. Mrs. SternYes. and
been divorced. FriendAh! And who
Is the happy man?Boston Transcript.
Liberty cannot be established with
THE RIVER SEINE
Its Contact With Paris on Its Journey*
to the Sea.
Inevitably in its passage through
Paris the blue and silver of the Seine's
robe are blurred by contact with the*
volumes of smoke which occasionally
bang upon its surface and stained by
the impurities which reach it from the
streets. Though it quickly recovers its
pristine blueness after the fortifica
tions have been left behind, it is never
again quite the unsophisticated river
that it was before its Paris experience.
Its waters are less limpid. Its course
more nervous, while at its meeting
with the sea at Honfleur its color and
character have changed completely.
There the vast stretches of mud over
which it rolls, mud of Paris, mud of
Rouen, give to the waters of the wide
Seine estuary reaching from Trouville
to Le Havre the half dead moire tones
of oxidized silver. The great Parisian
river dies magnificently, and no more
gorgeous spectacle can be conceived
than when on a fine evening the sun
sets upon the Seine at its junction with
the sea. where its ultimate cliffs fade
away behind the summer haze into a
powder of gold, and it burns a light
turquoise blue, with weird reflections
of brazen yellow, old gold and cadav
erous green. How different from its
gentler and simpler aspect as it hud
dles round the heart of Paris, warm
purple and burnished gold when the
sinking sun strikes it as it softly laps
against the stone embankment of the
Louvre or sparkling blue, dappled with
white, beneath the silvery mists
of the Paris morning!Harper's Week
Bold Highway Robber and the First
English Woman Smoker.
Mary Frith, better known as Moll
Cutpurse, was a notable figure in old
time London life. She had the repu
tation of being the first woman to
smoke tobacco in England.
The length of her days is a disputed
point, but it seems certain that she at
tained the age of over threescore years
and ten. It is asserted that constant
smoking prolonged her life. A por
trait representing her in the act of
smoking forms the frontispiece of Mid
dleton's comedy of the "Roaring Girl."
She also figures in other plays of the
Mary was ..he daughter of a shoe
maker living in the Barbican, and Ma
lone gives 1584 as the date of her
birth She early took to wicked ways
and became a noted "highwayman."
Among her familiar friends* re the
notorious Captain Hind and Richard
Hannam. She was an expert swords
woman. Single handed she robbed on
Hounslow heath General Fairfax of
200 gold jacobuses, shooting him
through the arm and killing two of
his horses on which his servants were
riding. For the offense she was com
mitted to Newgate, but on paying the
general 2,000 she obtained her liberty.
At one time Mary had 3.000 of her
own. but by giving money to distress
ed cavaliers she died comparatively
poor. Her death took place in July,
1659. and she was laid to rest in St.
Bridget's.Mil Igate Monthly.
Metheglin and hypocras were num
bered among the many good things be
loved of Pepys, and the latter drink
stood him in good stead at a guildhall
banquet which occurred during one of
his spells of pledged abstinence from
wine. This was on lord mayor's day.
1663, when the diarist notes: "We went
into the buttry and there stayed and
talked and then into the hall again
and there wine was offered, and they
drunk. I only drinking some hypocras,.
which do not break my vowe, it being.,
to the best of my present judgement,,
only a mixed compound drink and not
any wine if I am mistaken. God for
give me. But I hope and do think I
am not." He was. Hypocras was
usually composed of spice, herbs and
sugar steeped for many days in Rhen
ish wine, and it is not reasonable to
suppose that the lord mayor's butler
had forgotten the wine.
The young woman who has been ex
plaining in the north London police
court that she expected 15 invested in
consols to bung her in 10 shillings in
the pound interest knew about as
much concerning "the funs" as the
elder Mr Weller. You recall Sam
Weller's scorn upon discovering that
his father supposed "reduced counsels"
to be alive. But there is one single
point about consols which most peo
ple, probably including many who pos
sess some, could not answer offhand
of what exactly is the name an abbre
viation? There is nothing even to re
mind us of it. Even the precise per
sons who would die rather than con
tract "omnibus," "telephone" or "pho
tograph" never speak of "consolidated
The First Firearms.
The early history of firearms in the
sense of tubes from which missiles are
thrown by the action of a detonating
compound of the nature of gunpowder
Is wrapped in obscurity, though it maj
be inferred from the few early record5?
that such weapons were first employed
in warfare soon after the beginning ot
the fourteenth century, if not some
time before. The country of their ori
gin remains uncertain, but it was most
The Retort Sympathetic.
Amelia (with a simper)I have such
hard work to keep George from being
silly when he is with me. Priscilla
(tartly)You don't expect impossibili
ties of the poor fellow, do you?Baiti