I^P HE APPEAL KEEPS IN FRONT
i P* BECAUSE:
1 -It aims to publish all the news possible.
-It does so impartially, wasting no words.
3-Its correspondents are able and energetio.
VOL. 29. NO. 2.
(The bird portraits with this article are
from the "American Natural History."
Copyright 1904, by William T. Hornaday.
are reproduced here~bythe permission-of
publishers, Charles Scribner's Sons.)
Sugars Frill Is
Keeping in mind this enormous
loss, consider also the following
(1) That insectivorous birds do
more than all other agencies com
bined to keep down insect pests
(2) That such birds undoubtedly
are rapidly decreasing in number
and ihut, therefore,
(o) Destructive insects are, in all
probability, increasing very rapidly,
By WILLIAM 1. HORN AD A
Director of the New York Zoological Park
HE United States de
partment of agricul
ture is responsible
for the start
ling statement that,
in the year 1904, in
sect pests cost this
country no less than
are the figures of
of Jyoss. of Loss.
10 20 10 20
HiKlily Valuable as an Insect and Grub
Destroyer, But Murdered by the
Thousands for Pot-Pies
in the South.
with the result that the damage.they
do is mounting up, year by year.
It is perfectly apparent that here
is a situation which demands immedi
ate action, and that Lhis action should
bring about the vigilant protection for
all time, and in all parts of the coun
try, of all insectivorous birds. Many
of the most useful of these birds are
already on the tobogganslide to
ward extermination, as the result of
stupid state legislation, or the lax en
forcement of such laws as have been
enacted. To be explicit:
There are seven states in which the
robin is being legally killed by the
tens of thousands annually as "game"!
These states are Louisiana, Mississip
pi. Florida, South Carolina, North Car
olina, Tennessee and Maryland.
The black bird is legalized "game,"
and suffers the same fate in four
statesLouisiana, South Carolina.
Tennessee and Pennsylvaniaand the
District of Columbia besides.
Doves are slaughtered by the whole
sale in 26 states, much to the loss of
the farmers, for this bird is a great
eater of weed seeds.
Cranes, which are also very useful
birds, are much hunted for food and
for "sport" in Colorado, Nebraska,
North Dakota and Oklahoma.
Of the sixty-odd species of shore
birds (i. e., snipe, curlews, plover,
sandpipers and the like), at least 30
feed on noxious insects yet all of
these birds are rapidly disappearing.
According to Mr. W. L. McAtee of the
A Great Tree-Protector, and Champion
Ant-Destroyer Which Is Being Ex
terminted by Pot-Hunters.
bureau of biological survey (United
States department of agriculture):
"The black-bellied plover, or beetle
head, which occurred along the Atlan
tic coast in great numbers years ago,
Is now seen only as a straggler. The
golden plover, once exceedingly abun
dant east of the Great Plains, is now
rare. The Eskimo curlew with
in the last decade has Drobably been'
A Useful Bird Which Is Rapidly Becom
exterminated, and other curlews great
ly reduced. So adverse to the
shorebirds are present conditions that
the wonder is that any escape. In
both fall and spring they are shot
along the whole route of their, migra
tion north and south.
The accompanying illustrations pre
sent portraits of a group of birds, most
of which the average person probably
knows by sight, though I fear that
only a small minority have a clear
idea of their very great economic
The jacksnipe (or Wilson's snipe) is
one of the shorebirds (referred to by
Mr. McAtee), which, as a family, are
being rapidly exterminated. It de
stroys large numbers of worms and
larvae, for which it probes with its
long bill in the soft earth of corn and
potato fieldsthereby doing the farm
er a great serviceas well as along
the shores of ponds, lakes and
streams. It also feeds on grasshoppers
and other injurious insects. It should
be carefully protected, especially dur
ing the breeding season.
The kildeer plover is another valu
able and beautiful shorebird which
is being hunted to death. It frequents
meadows and pasture lands, as well
as shores, apd ^pvoura. great quanti
ties of mosquitoes, crane flies, grass
hoppers, army worms, cut worms,
caterpillars, cotton-boll weevils, clover
leaf weevils, rice weevils, marine
worms, wire worms and crayfish.
Doubtless everybody knows the rob
in, perhaps the most democratic of our
birds, beloved in the northern states
The Kildeer Plover.
Another Valuable Shorebird Which De
stroys Great Quantities of Worms
Only the Sultan Adheres to the Old
Style Oriental InstitutionMod
ern Turk Resorts to Divorce.
The domestic arrangements of the
sultan are entirely different from
those of his subjects. Most Turks
have one wife the sultan has no
recognized sultana. Turks of high
rank marry into their own class the
sultan forms unions with women of
slave origin. The ordinary man may
not look upon an unveiled woman ex
cept she be his relation or servant
the sultan has the right to talk with
any woman in the land face to face.
Turks of position model their house
holds more or less on the European
plan the sultan's household is orien
That does not mean that in the im
perial palace you would find women
sipping sherbet or smoking narghilehs
or clad in baggy trousers. On the
cdntrary, you would find them smok
ing nothing more oriental than a
cigarette, sitting on a European chair
and, yes, wearing corsets! But the
code of morals is entirely different,
says the New York Sun.
The imperial harem is founded on
the old court system of the Byzantine
emperors and has an etiquette and
law of its own. The first fact one
must grasp is that the wives or
favorites of the sultan have no im
portance at all. They are nobodies.
The daughter of a Circassian peasant
may be honored by the sultan's favor
and' even bear him a child, but yet
be distinguished by no other title
than the commonplace "Kadin Effen-
dl." Only the mother of the eldest
son receives the royal designation of
"sultan," her whole title being "Kha
Her dignity only results from her
being the mother of a possible heir
to the throne that is, in the event
that the sultan has no brothers, for
the brothers have the right of prece-
HAREMS OUT OF DATE IN TURKEY
for his cheerful song and his hand
some appearance, glad everywhere to
be the companion and the friend of
man when he is well treated, and high
ly valuable as a destroyer of harmful
grubs, worms and insects. Yet this
bird is murdered literally by the thou
sands for pot-pies by negroes and
poor whites in the southern states
above mentioned, and is more or less
hunted in other states. Mr. E. A.
Mcllhenny, who lives on Avery Island,
La., says that during the ten days or
two weeks of the "robin season" (in
January when the berries are ripe) at
least 10,000 of these useful and beau
tiful birds are slaughtered daily for
the pot. "Every negro man and boy
who can raise a gun is after them,"
says Mr. Mcllhenny.
Although thftrbird causes some loss
to small fruit growers, it certainly
does vastly more good than harm. It.
is constantly at work on lawns and
fields hunting for destructive insects,
which it is exceedingly difficult to
keep in control. It devours many
caterpillars, including hairy species,
which infest the orchard, woodland
and shade trees. Forty per cent, of
its food is insects, and 43 per cent,
wild fruit. It would pay the farmer
well to go some expense in order
to keep the robins away from his
fruit trees and berry bushes rather
thap shoot these birds which are so
useful to him in many ways. To mur
der them for pot-pies is, of course,
nothing short of barbarous.
The purple martin is also fond of
the society of man, and when not
molested by the villainous English
sparrowsand still more villainous
men by whom it is shot for food,
chiefly in the southit is glad to
breed in birdhouses near human habi
tations. It mai.es a charming neigh-
The Purple Martin.
An Industrious Hunter of Mosquitoes and
Other Dangerous Insects, Which
Itself la Being Hunted to
""XJeath as FoodV*
bor and a very useful one, for it is re
markably swift and graceful on the
wing, and is expert and persistent in
catching rose beetles, May beetles,
cucumber beetles, mosquitoes, house
flies and flies that trouble horses
and cattle. One observer records
that 32 parent martins made 3,275 vis
its to their young in one Jay, each
visit meaning, probably, anywhere
from one to half a dozen insects.
The nighthawk (also called "bull-
bat") i- probably one of che most
useful of birds. It feeds exclusively
on insects, and ranks next to the
golden-winged woodpecker (flicker) as
a feathered destroyer of ants, which
it takes when they are in the winged
stage. Potato beetles, cucumber bee
tles, leaf hoppers, bugs of various kinds
and enormous quantities of gnats and
mosquitoes are found in their stom
achs. They are entirely harmless, for
they never feed on fruit, grain, grass
or vegetables. Yet they are being
hunted for sport and are being exter
The loggerhead (or southern) shrike
is a champion pest destroyer, a large
dence as the elder male descendants.
And the royal favorite of the moment
will have transitory importance on
account of the influence which she
may exercise over the sultan.
Royal princesses are considered in
ferior to the mother of the sultan, who
is the real queen of the little world
of the harem, has absolute authority,
a large staff of officials and the su
preme title of "Valide sultan." Thus
it happens that a woman of slave
birth may, if she be the mother of an
heir to the throne, eventually become
the highest woman of the land.
Every royal princess has her daira,
or separate apartments, slaves, ser
vants and so on, the management of
the household being given over to her
kalfas, or ladies in waitingthat is to
say, Turkish women of good birth
who have remained unmarried.
Royal princesses rarely take a hus
band of their own rank. They are
generally married by the sultan to
the sons of men of wealth and posi
tion, such as pashas, officers of state,
high civil officials and the like, a
policy which is founded on a very
practical reason, namely, that the ar
rangement makes the existence of a
heriditary aristocracy impossible.
One of the paradoxes in Turkey is
that the poorer a Turkish woman is
the greater her freedom. The rich
woman canont -move a step unaccom
panied. She sees Constantinople only
from the windows of her closed
brougham or through a veil thick
enough to act as a mask. She may
dress as exquisitetly as a mannequin
in a Paris dressmaker's showroom,
but she must not display so much as
an inch of embroidery in public.
When her husband wants to take a
second wife," or grows tired of her
and wishes to divorce her, he has
both the opportunity and the means
if he is a rich man. It is not chic
among Turks of any education to take
a second wife but divorce is re-
ST. PAUL AND MINNEAPOLIS. SATURDAY. JANUAM 11,191b.
One of the Most Usefuh.of Insectivorous
Birds Which Is Being Hunted for
"Sport" and Exterminated.
percentage of its fo4d being harm
ful rodents and destructive insects,
the latter including grasshoppers,
crickets and moths, w&ich it frequent
ly impales upon thornsW sharp twigs.
It sometimes catches young birds
(though this is more characteristic of
the northern shrike, o? butcher bird,)
but its diet is chiefly insects and small
rodents. It is, therefore, very valu
able to the farmer.
The golden-winged woodpecker
(also called "flicker,"'''highhole.'fretc.)
is an industrious tree' protector, and
the most efficient of all feathered ant
eaters. It is also feeds freely upon bee
tles, grasshoppers, crickets, caterpil
lars, and other harmful insects, as well
as on weed seds. Yet it is rapidly
growing rare because it is much
hunted for food. It Ishould be pro
tected everywhere and at all times.
In view of the decrease already ac
complished in the general volume of
bird life in America, in view of the
enormous losses annually inflicted up
on the people of this ..country by the
ravages of insects, ano} in view of the
destruction of wild life which is now
furiously proceeding throughout Amer
ica, the McLean bill, \vhich -is now be
fore congress, to provide for the fed
eral protection of all migratory birds,
becomes the most important wild life
measure that ever cape before that
body. In view of tKe*~4mvual economic
loss that will rontini(e as long as a
federal migratory biid bill fails to
pass, it is impossible flir anyone to put
forth one good reason- r-unless it be on
purely technical groundsagainst that
measure. The Weeksfbill, before the
?ower house of congress, is precisely
like the McLean bill,|and it matters
not which one passes|first.
Unless the people f this country
wish to shut their eygs to their own
interests, and pay outfniillions of dol
lars annually in the fq|m of increased
-eost of liviag- dwj^?o=*CT|e TSsse& caused
by insect pests which would be
destroyed by the birds, they should
demand that a federal migratory bird
bill be at once enacted into a law. It
is Senate Bill No. 6497, and on the
senate calendar it is No. 606. We can
not afford to wait until 1914 or 1915,
and congress has full power to act
The Loggerhead Shrike.
Fifty-nine Per Cent, of Its Food Is In
sects, and Twenty-eight Per Cent.
Is Harmful Rodents.
placing polygamya simple repudia
tion by the husband of his wife, pro
vided he is well enough off to pay the
nekyah or marriage settlement, which
he is legally bound to hand over to
The woman of the poorest classes
can go out alone. Custom does not
oblige her to .wear her veil down.
Should her husband, in a fit of anger!
wish to divorce her, he must first of
all produce the Nekyah, the dowry,
in ready money, not an easy matter
for a poor man.
The real danger to domestic happi
ness in the great mass of Turkish
homes is the growing tendency of di
vorce, and a divorce wholly favorable
to the man as against the woman.
The payment of the modest nekyah
arranged at the time of his marriage
is a simple affair, and it is seldom
enough to keep the divorced wife for
the rest of her days. She is forced to
take refuge with her parents or to
find shelter with some of her friends.
Day on Which Women Rule.
Candlemas day is not celebrated in
Holland much more than in England,
but its place is taken by a festival un
known in this country. Slipper day in
the Netherlands is the one day In the
year in which the Dutch woman
claims superiority over her husband.
On that day she rules him to her
heart's content, and he generally
obeys good humoredly enough. That
is, unless-she is one of those ladies
not unknown in Holland or in any
other country who aspire to complete
rule over their unhappy partners
throughout the year.Philadephia In
Jumped, Killed Stayed, Safe.
Ernest Woods, fireman, jumped and
was killed, while Fred Lebush, en
gineer, stayed at his post and escaped
death when the train from St. Albans,
which they were driving, collided with
an engine in the Grand Trunk yards at
Montreal. Woods had barely leaped
from the engine when the, baggage
car toppled over upon him,''-
ODD TURK RELIGION
Whirling Dervishes Inflict Wounds
Men of Ottoman Country Work Them
selves Into a Frenzy and Then
Use Various Instruments of
Torture to Please Allah.
Constantinople.The religion of the
Ottoman empire is typical of its peo
plebarbarous and fantastic. The
Dervishes, the regular religious order
in Turkey, recognize no authority but
that of Allah, and, in consequence,
have been persecuted not a little by
the jealous Sultans. Although the lay
men who profess this faith have but
to repeat one or two short prayers
and wear the sacred cap for a few min
utes every day, those who take the
vows of poverty, abstinence from
wine, and celibacy, from time to time
perform strange rites in their worship
The Whirling Dervishes, after a few
preliminaries, begin to chant the Ko
ran to weird music played on flutes
and tarboukas, which seems to intoxi
cate them. One by one they close
their eyes, stretch their arms horizon
tally and begin to twist, slowly at
first, but gain speed until they seem,
like a sleeping top, to be motionless.
A'.l the time they never touch, al
though there may be a score of more
whirling at the same time in the cen
ter of the floor, never leave the spot
where they stand, and never get out
of time, always moving to the music.
This they continue until they fall ex
hausted and are covered with a cloak
until they have recovered.
The ceremonies performed by the
Howling Dervishes, another sect, are
quite as strange, and a great deal
more barbarous even than those just
mentioned, but in neither case are
the rites performed secretly for, un
like other Mohammedans, the Der
vishes do not object to the "Christian
dog" attending their places of wor
ship, so long as he removes his shoes
before he enters the "tekieh," or tem
Round the walls of the hall used by
the Howling Dervishes hang all sorts
of cruel-looking Implementssharp
darts, nippers, chains, pinchers and
other weapons. These the devotees
use to mortify their flesh when they
have worked themselves up to a state
Type of Dervishes of the Desert.
of religious ecstasy and delirium. Fast
er and faster they move thier heads,
higher and higher rises the music, one
by one the Dervishes leave their place
and begin to leap high in the air, nod
ding all the time. Kettledrums are
beaten, the chanting becomes louder.
The Dervishes form a chain, placing
their hands on each other's shoulders,
then step one pace backward and one
Iforward with a terrific simultaneous
lurch, emitting a long-drawn howl,
like the cry of some wounded animal.
The excitement is intense, and the
Dervishes, foaming at the mouth, be
gin to wound themselves with various
implements from the walls. They han
dle redhot irons, fill their mouths with
iburning charcoal, drive a spit right
[through one cheek and out the other
side, and leave it there while they con
tinue to nod and howl. They perform
a sort of wild dance with a pointed
dart in each hand, throwing them
selves upon them, until, worn out,
they roll over, covered with blood and
While this is going on mothers
bring their children for the priest to
stand upon, for in so doing he is sup
posed to cure all diseases. Tiny chil
idren undergo this ordeal, and are
jforced to bear the pressure until their
-ribs crack and their eyes bulge from
their livid faces. Even those of the
ihighest rank come to be stood upon
the imam, or high priest, believing
that it will cure them of their ill
Caught Three-Foot Anarchist.
San Francisco.Recognized as an
anarchist of international notoriety,
Edward Lagzbin, a hunchback, three
feet tall, will be deported on informa
tion received from Washington. Lagz
bin arrived a month ago from the
Orient. He was sentenced to Siberia
as a Nihilist conspirator but escaped.
Fines Wife for Impure Catsup.
Utahville, Pa.Mrs. J. F. McFarlant
appeared before her husband, a justice
of the peace, on a charge of selling
adulterated catsup and was fined $60,
which she paid. Mrs. McFarland, who
conducts a prosperous country store,
tr,BT i. '"1.U ''k 'v^.i&.-lM'^k^^d'^^i:
NOTED CATHEDRAL i?^ SPAIfi
Statue of Virgin in the Toledo Wears
a Mantel on Which Are Em
broidered 78,000 Pearls.
Madrid, Spain.Spain richer in
cathedrals than any other country in
the world, and one of the grandest of
them all is at Toledo. The Virgir.
Mary is said to have a special liking
for it and to have paid it frequent
visitson one occasion actually put
ting a new robe on St. Idlefonso, one
of the archbishops. In fact the scene
is represented in sculpture and paint
ing in all parts of the cathedral, and,
to preclude all doubt about it, the
very stone is shown on which the Vir
gin alighted. It is incased in red
marble and over it is the inscription:
"We will worship in the place where
her feet have stood."
There are several statues of the
Virgin in the Toledo cathedral, each
Western Facade of the Famous Cathe
dral at Toledo.
of which is adorned with a gorgeous
gown. One wears a mantle upon
which are embroidered 7S.000 pearls.
The massive proportions and ornate
architecture of the cathedral at
Toledo make it one of the most gor
geous in the world. After the bright
glare of the Spanish sunlight, it is
marvelous how beautiful is the inte
rior as it comes streaming through
750 varicolored windows. The pave
ment is of variegatetd marble end
around the walls are twenty-three
The greatest artists of Spain la
bored on this cathedral for six cen
turies. It is not strange, therefore,
that it xcites-the'-yisifor's enthusi
asm. The choir, for example, is
decorated with probably the most
elaborate wood carving in the world.
Around a pavement of white marble
rise, on three sides, two rows of seats
for the priests, one above the other.
Their arms, back, feet, headpieces
and railings are exquisitely carved
into sacred, grotesque, mythological
or historical subjects in basrelief.
One's first impression on entering
the cathedral is most vivid and im
posing. Five naves divide the church.
The middle one is of great height,
and the others beside it seem to bow
their heads and kneel in token of ad
miration and respect. Eighty-eight
pillars, each as large as a tower and
each composed of sixteen spindle
shaped columns bound together, sus
tain the enormous mass of the build
The architecture of the whole build
ing is homogeneous and perfect,
Which is a very rare virtue in Gothic
architecture. The original plan, in
spite of the many years it wras
HE APPEAL STEADILY GAINS
4-it is the organ of ALL Afro-Americans.
5-It is not controlled by any ring or clique
6It asks no support but the people's.
ing, has been adhered to from one end
to the other, with the exception of a
few arrangements of the chapels,
which, however, do not interfere with
the harmony of the general effect.
BOATS FOR SCHOOL "KIDS"
Argentine Government Thus Reaches
Thousands of ChMdren to Edu
Buenos Aires.The Argentine gov
ernment has solved the problem of
providing education for the floating
population along the delta of the La
Plata river with school boats. These
floating schools go from point to point
along the La Plata and its tribu
taries, changing the roll of students
as the school steams to new territory
along the waterfront.
In addition to saving thousands,of
dollars in the annual expenses of the
department of education, it is offi
cially reported that education is now
being brought to thousands of Ar
gentine children who were previously
without any scholastic attention what
Each schoolship consists of double
deck sections devoted to the higher
and lower classes while a terrace and
private apartments for the teaching
staff form the superstructure. The
ships have a capacity of two' hun
dred pupils each. They are absolutely
health assuring, and their value in
meeting the peculiar difficulties con
fronting the education department
in the La Plata delta is considerable.
Indeed their success has been such
that a number of additional school
ships for other waterfront districts
are now in course of construction.
Sued for Preventing Marriage.
Nashville.Father T. C. Abbott ot
St. Patrick's church has been sued for
$10,000 by Miss Bessie Etherly, twen
ty years old, a Protestant, on the
charge that he prevented her marriage
to J. J. Walsh, a Catholic. Walsh pro
cured a license, but Miss Etherly
charges that Father Abbott refused
to perform the ceremony and person
ally carried the license back to the
clerk of court telling him not to is
sue another. Walsh has since refused
tq disobey the order of the prelate.
$2.40 PER YEAft.
Nearly All of Them Were Named
Each Has a Meaning, but Owing to
Misspelling, Etc., It Is Impossible
to Conjecture Their Original
London.Those who are most fa
miliar with the London streets prob
ably think least about their history.
But the stranger who at rare inter
vals, or possibly for the first time in
his life, visits the metropolis, must
often speculate as to the origin of
this or that thoroughfare, or wonder
how some of the curiously-named
streets he passes through came by
their names. Since it has always
been the custom in this country to
name the ways of towns and cities
after somebody or something, one may
be sure that every one of the names
of London streets once had a special
meaning, though that meaning has so
much lost its point in the course of
time, or the original spelling has been
so corrupted, that it is now in many
cases practically impossible even to
conjecture the original purport of
the place-names of the metropolis.
Many London thoroughfores, like
many a country village, probably owe
their names to the existence of some
hostelry in the immediate neighbor
hood, and around which, in course of
time, other houses were built, so that
at last a street was formed. Hanging
Sword alley, off Whitefriars street,
and Catherine Wheel alley, near Liv
erpool street station, no doubt ob
tained their names in this manner.
Gracechurch street, city, is said to
have had nothing whatever to do
with that particular virtue in the be
ginning, and perhaps there is no
more of it there nowadays than there
used to be. It was originally spelled
"Grass-church," because of the grass
that once grew along its edges, or on
account of the fact that venders of
herbs dwelt there.
Holborn is another corruption of a
perfectly different word. Originally
it was "Old Bourne" or "Hill Bourne,"
so-called from the stream which broke
out near where Holborn Bars after
ward stood, and ran down the side of
the street to the Fleet river. From
the latter, as every one may suppose,
Fleet street took its name. And as a
final example of the .corruption c!
London's Fashionable Recreation Ground
Took Its Name from the Famous
names, brought about by a loose re
gard for spelling and pronunciation,
one may instance the Barbican, which,
as we are assured, is an easy render
ing of the old word "burk-kenning"
It is a little difficult in these days
to believe that the area about Char
ing Cross was no more than a little
village in the time of Edward I.
Opinions differ as to the first mean
ing of the word "Cross" attached to
the name of this hamlet,' but it is
probable that it had the same signifi
cation that is to be discovered in oth
er cases of the kind in London and
There have probably been cross
roads here from time immemorial, but
it is said that in the case of Charing
Cross there was a more specific rea
son. Edward I is stated to have
erected a cross in memory of his
queen on the spot where the statue
of Charles I was afterward set up.
Piccadilly, if we may believe the
usual explanation given for its curious
name, was so called because the first
person to build a house in thai
neighborhood was interested in 'pica
dilloes," by which name the stiff col
lars or ruffs formerly worn were orig
Abundant evidence as to the marshy
nature of the ground upon which a
large part of the city of London was
originally built is still to be discov
ered in such names as Frenchchurcb
street, Finbury and Moorflelds.
Made Scene Too Realistic.
Columbus, O.Too much realism
has caused trouble for Roy W. Emig.
Bert Kocher, who took the part of a
whitecapper in Emig's play, "Scalp
lock of Stony Lonesome," has sued
Emig for $100 damages. In the play
Kocher had the role of a Brown coun
ty whitecapper. After a bunch oi
make-believe Indiana university stu
dents had tied his hands and feet they
'!hazed" him. To make the scene more
realistic, they used clippers on hie
hair. Kocher now says the hair-cut
ting gave him a cold and that he was
humiliated in the sight of his friends..
xml | txt