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fV% APPEAL KEEPS IN FRONT
1Itafiai .4 publishallthe news possible.
S-It does so impartially* wasting no words.
-Its respondents an able and ensrgetle
VOL. 31. NO. 26
AID BELGIANS ON
A BUSINESS BASIS
Elaborate Financial System
Gets the Best Results.
ORGANIZED BY AMERICANS.
Commission Will Have Provided Food
stuffs to the Value of $65,000,000 by
Middle of AugustProfit Made In
Cheap BreadBelgians Have Done a
Lot of Work Themselves.
London.The American commission
for relief in Belgium will have provid
ed foodstuffs to the value of about $65,-
000,000 for the Belgian people by the
middle of August Charitable contri
butions from America will have
amounted to about $5,000,000 and from
other quarters of the world approxi
mately the same total. The great bulk
of the food supplies, representing the
remaining $55,000,000, is being provid
ed indirectly by the Belgian people
This is made possible by the elab
orate financial machinery set up by the
commission, enabling the Belgians to
utilize their own energies and re
sources. Fully 75 per cent of the Bel
gian people are being supplied with
food by the commission without re
course to charity. One result of the
commission's operations is that bread
Is now cheaper in Belgium than to
When the commission was formed
last October, under the chairmanship
of Herbert Clark Hoover, it was esti
mated that the total imports required
to keep the population of Belgium alive
would amount in value to about $50,-
000,000 before the next harvest. The
rise in the price of foodstuffs increased
the necessary amount to $05,000,000.
The greatest problem in this connec
tion was involved in the fact that food
stuffs sold in Belgium to those who
still had resources were paid for in
paper. The entire metallic currency
disappeared early in the war, and na
tional bank notes were so scarce that
many communes were printing paper
issues of their own.
This paper money had no value out
side of Belgium, and in any event to
have exported it would have denuded
the country of currency. But unless
this money were turned into gold it
would be necessary for the commis
sion to find in the outside world an
amount of money which was out of
the question. At the outset, therefore,
the commission began to devise a meth
od for effecting the exchange of these
local currency obligations into gold.
Negotiations were opened with the
belligerent governments for permission
to set up a form of exchange whereby
persons or institutions abroad owing
money in Belgium should turn over to
the commission the amount due in
sterling or dollars. The commission
undertook to pay their debts for them
in Belgium out of paper money which
it received from the sale of foodstuffs.
The belligerent nations agreed to this
after long negotiations, and there was
.thus set up a form of exchange. The
commission is today the only institu
tion which is doing a systematic bank
ing business across enemy lines.
By degrees the commission has ex
tended this exchange department of
its organization, which has come to be
the lifeblood of the structure. It has
induced many well to do Belgians to
pledge their credit for moneys handed
over to the commission in gold, which
in turn is paid to them in Belgium in
paper. The commission also has ad
vanced money to the communal gov
ernments, taking their obligations
therefor, and by pledging these obliga
tions abroad has obtained further re
sources. The communes have been en
abled in this manuer to procure money
to pay communal officers, to maintain
the schools and keep up municipal
works, thus enabling the Belgians to
carry on the details of civil govern*
ment and saving the country from the
thinner of anarchic conditions.
One phase of these operations arose
in connection with a number of Bel
gian concerns, which, while they had
resources abroad, had exhausted their
local resources in payment of work
men or in disbursements to depositors.
A form of hardship had grown up
through the inability of such ^concerns
to make good their obligations to the
public and persons who had believed
themselves well to do were being forc
ed to the bread lines through inability
to draw money due them.
Through the operations of the com
mission these concerns were enabled
to hand over in London and New
York funds they possessed abroad, and
the commission in turn delivered pa
per money received from the sale of
food. Thus the cycle of credit was re
established, and many thousands of
persons were saved from the bread
Before this machinery was set up
practically the whole population was
dependent on the world's charity, pa
per money being of no avail. The
initial appeals of the commission,
therefore, were made on behalf of the
7,000,000 of people. With the success
of these financial efforts, however, all
of the people still able to pay for their
food were made self dependent, and
the appeals of the commission for char*
itable contributions were reduced to
those made on behalf of the absolutely
ErMIAPH UN SltrTlNG STONE
Found on Slab Just Turned Over After
Columbia, Conn.Needing a flat stone
for repairs that he was making. Ed
ward Phillips pried up one which for
over fifty years had been used as a
stepping stone near the farmhouse
back door. To his surprise he saw on
the reverse side, in fairly plain letters,
In memory of Emily, daughter of Mr.
Joseph and Mrs. Eunice Smith, who died
April 15, 1814, aged six months and fifteen
days. Rest.- thou, sweet slumberer, in the peace
Short was thy life forgotten soon
Except the few who, drowned in sorrow's
With painful pleasure still remember
Nobody knows where the. stone had
been used or where it came from. Mr.
Phillips' father bought the house over
fifty years ago and the stone was at
the back door then for a stepping
stone. It is five feet long and nearly
two feet wide.
LAST SHOT OF CIVIL WAR.
Woman Asked Police to See if Old Gun
Was LoadedIt Was.
New York.The "last shot of the
civil war" was fired recently in a
courtroom. It came from a gun which
had been hanging for years on a wall
in the home of the late Willard H.
Hodgson. The musket had been car
ried in the war of the rebellion by
Mr. Hodgson's father.
Mr. Hodgson's sister was preparing
to move to another house, but was
afraid to take down the old musket.
She called in Lieutenant Henry Brown
of the Flatbush police station and
turned the gun over to him. He took
it around to the station house and
showed it to Attendant Patrick
O'Loughlin of the Flatbush court,
which is in the same building.
Standing in the corridor O'Loughlin
pointed the gun at the floor and pull
ed the trigger. The old war musket
was heavily loaded, and there was a
report which startled the police re
serves and the people in the court
WANTS A NATIONAL
BANK IN CANAL ZONE
Helm of Kentucky Would 60
After South American Trade.
Washington. Representative Helm
of Kentucky has a plan to establish a
national bank at Ancon, in the Pana
ma canal zone, with branches else
where in that country. He would
call It the Pan-American bank and
give it a capital stock of $25,000,000,
divided into shares of par value of
Just before congress adjourned Mr.
Helm introduced a bill to incorporate
the Pan-American bank, and when
the Sixty-fourth congress convenes he
will press it for action.
"The commercial tieup resulting
from the European war has convinced
every thinking man in this country
that foreign trade is a vital element
in our domestic prosperity and that
the continents of North and South
America have greater identity of in
terests than was ever realized before."
said Mr. Helm. "There never was a
time when opportunity was knocking
so loud at our doors. The commerce
and business of a continent are with
in our grasp. The manufacturing en
terprises in Central and South Amer
ica are very, limited, and it is to this
matter that I wish the attention of
the country could be directed.
"Few, if any. of the republics to the
south of us have the means of trans
porting or delivering their products to
any other country. Under existing con
ditiins nearly all the trade of Central
and Sduth America flows across the
Atlantic. It ought to be flowing from
North America to Central and South
"About the only means of creating
commercial and business relations are
banking facilities, transportation, press
bureau and mercantile agents. Under
the federal reserve act a bank with
$1,000,000 capital in the United States
can establish a branch bank in any of
the countries in Central or South Amer
ica. This provision, in my opinion,
does not meet the conditions. What
we need is a bank of sufficient propor
tions and magnitude-and importance
and prestige to handle the business of
"The government of the canal zone is
going to be just as stable and steady
as the government of the United
States. If we establish a bank on the
canal zone it becomes identified with
the locality. Our government is be
hind it That guarantees confidence
and makes it a sure go. The govern
ments to the south of us would be in*
spired with confidence in the institu-
Girl Made a Lieutenant. T-i,^
Petrograd.-Army orders contain the
promotion of a young woman, Alexan
dra Lagerev, to lieutenant, with six*
teen other girls belonging to families
of Don Cossacks. -'$'&'% ~^f.v
She has been fighting alongside male
relatives since the beginning of the
war. Bight of these have been killed,
and Miss Lagerev was a prisoner, but
she killed her guard, and escaped and
led a reconnoiterlng party which cap
tured eighteen uhlans. #***^*..4*
As a Result $275,000,000
Stays In America.
OCEAN PATHWAY DESERTED.
Great Passenger Liners_That Formerly
Carried Thousands Back and Forth
Now Doing Duty In the War or Tied
Up at Their Piers In Neutral Ports.
Statistics Show Loss to Europe.
New York.A quarter billion dollars
of good American money will be kept
in this country this year on account of
the war. There will be at least that
much saved by the inability of the
public to travel to Europe. Last year
the steamship companies received in
fares alone approximately $83,000?000,
carrying eastward and westward more
than 1,200,000 passengers. A conserv
ative estimate fixes the amount spent
by this traveling army at close to $192,-
000,000, making the total amount spent
for European travel $275,000,000.
There will be no exodus to Europe
this summer, however. The Great
Green Way of the Atlantic is as lone
ly as New York's Great White Way
on a summer Sunday night. This is
the time of year when the rush across
the ocean begins. The tide of travel
sweeps east across the Atlantic from
May till August and back again from
August till the middle of October. But
this year the tide hasn't set in and it
won't set In. Uncle Sam is holding
back the tide by refusing to issue pass
ports, and on the other side of the
ocean the kaiser's submarines prove
Nobody is going away who can't
prove to the satisfaction of Uncle Sam
that he or she has business in Europe.
Doctors, Red Cross nurses, reserves,
continue to go. but even their number
From all ports of the north Atlantic,
there left for Europe last year in four
months just 27,727 passengers. Dur
ing the same four months of this year
the number of departures was 4,198, a
falling off of 17,529. The westward
sailings were 13,662 for the same pe
riod last year and this year 4,674, a
deficit of 8,995.
The arrivals and departures at New
York last year from and to Europe to
taled an army of more than 1,200,000.
Of this number 148,380 traveled first
class, 241,810 in the second cabin and
813,743 in the steerage. The grand to
tal to and from all north Atlantic ports
was: Eastwardfirst class, 83,261 sec
ond class, 121,085 steerage, 479,232.
Westwardfirst class, 90,840 second
class, 238,347 steerage, 631,862.
The average first class fare across
the Atlantic on little ships and big
ships' is $120, second class $50, and
third or steerage $35. That means
that last year $20,892,120 was paid
the steamship companies for first class
passages, $17,720,000 for second class
and $44,892,120 for steerage, a total of
Placing the amount of money spent
during the season in Europe by the
first class traveler at $1,000, the sec
ond class at $500 and the steerage at
$100, a pretty good average of Ameri
can contributions abroad will be the
result. Computed by these figures the
amount spent in Europe last year by
the American traveling public would
have been $191,726,700. That these
figures are by no means overestimated
will be realized when one stops to re
flect that $10,000 for the season would
be no money at all for each of 5,000
American families to dissipate. This
would alone mean $50,000,000.
At a modest calculation there was
spent last year by people from America
on European travel $278,664,500 $300,-
000,000 would be, perhaps, nearer the
mark. It is safe to say that the war
has cost Europe $250,000,000 of Amer
ican tourist money this year. That
mftefa, cash in hand would do strange
things. It would do wonders for the
unemployed of the country. It's the
ransom of a king and no bagatelle
even to a Rockefeller. There will be
just that much more money remaining
in the United States this year.
The click of glasses and the clink of
wealth are hushed. The stewards' tips
are missing. The bands of music are
silent The $10,000,000 Vaterland of
the Hamburg-American line is eating
her head off at the dock In Hoboken.
The $10,000,000 Imperator of the same
line is a hospital ship at Bremen. The
$10,000,000 ship Aquitania of the Cu
nard line is a converted cruiser, and
the $10,000,000 Olympic of the White
Star line has also been impressed by
the British government The France,
the beautiful $8,000,000 queen of the
French line fleet. Is doing government
duty for France. The North German
Lloyd's Kronprinzessin Cecilie, Kaiser
Wilhelm II. and Kronprinz Wilhelm
have figured in the war.
More ships on the average are arriv
ing here today than ever before.
Steamers whose names are nnfnmflfqr
to customs men and shipping men have
reached the port in the past six weeks,
sometimes as many as ten a day. They
come here under charter or looking fo
a charter to carry away American
goods. All kinds of freight is being
stowed away in their holds, all.kinds
of vessels axe in demand. They can't
come here fast enough to satisfy the
merchants and manufacturers who
have goods for foreign consumption.
ST. PAUL AND MINNEAPOLIS. MI p SATURDAY: JUKE 26, 1915.
TERRIER'S L0Nj3 VIGIL
Guarded Basket For Twenty-four
Hours Before Yielding.
St. Louis. Ignoring all blandish
ments, a Skye terrier guarded an em
pty basket for twenty-four hours at
Taylor and Adams streets,. Kirk wood,
until finally a boy made friends with
the dog and coaxed It to his home, to
which he also took the basket.
Persons living in th| neighborhood
first observed the dog at its vigil the
previous afternoon. I refused to let
anybody touch the basket and could
not be lured away by tempting offers
Mrs. J. J. Wilkins carried food and
water to the dog arid'^ve it a sack
to lie upon. King Aaftler, fourteen
year-old son of Arthur^ Ambler, made
overtures to the terrier for a long time
before he won its confidence sufficient
ly for It to permit him to take the bas
Who owns the dog and the basket
could not be ascertained, and young
Ambler said he hoped the owner would
not turn up.
TEACHERS ALL GET MARRIED
Superintendent of Battle Creek (Mich.)
Schools Is Growing Desperate.
Battle Creek, Mich.William G. Co
burn, superintendent of- schools, com
plains of the Inroads that Cupid makes
on his corps of teachers. An amazing
proportion of them leave each year to
marry. This year nineteen teachers
are wearing diamond solitaires.
Professor Coburn hap made many
visits to normal schools to flu vacan
cies, and he says that next year he
will have to do it all over again.
Last year he warned? the county
clerk against issuing marriage licenses
to schoolteachers under contract. He
declared that "a woman who will
break her contract with the school
board would not hesitate very long
about breaking a marriage contract."
The county clerk couldn't see his way
clear to turn down an applicant for a
Mr. Coburn has been superintendent
of schools here for twenty years, and
recently he was re-elected for another
term. CERTIFIED BABIES
GIVEN IN CHICAGO
Dispose of Homeless Children
to Worthy Foster Parents.
Chicago.The city of Chicago is giv-.
ing away ofllcially certified babies
brown eyed, gray eyed and blue eyed
little beauties, quite chubby and per
fectly healthyand they are intrusted
to the care of highly recommended and
thoroughly worthy foster parents only.
This is a new idea, in which Chicago
leads the way. Medical officials of
other large cities are watching its de
velopment with close interest and with
a view to its adoption.
Chicago, like every other municipali
ty, finds on its hands dependent little
ones who have no parents to care for
them, no friends -to vouch for their
good behavior. Chicago takes them
all under Its broad wingChicago leads
among the baby loving citiesexam
ines them physically and mentally and
then offers officially certified infants
What home needs a baby? Many a
household is ready and anxious to wel
come a healthy and happy youngster,
but not every one is worthy of the new
arrival. At least so Chicago thinks,
and thereupon proceeds to examine the
would be foster parents.
Dr. William J. Hickson of the
psychopathic laboratory of the munic
ipal court of Chicago is the originator
of the plan. Dr. Hickson is a baby
specialist also an ardent student of
the problem of mental deficiency. Here
are his fixed standards for a certified
"At birth the certified baby must
weigh at least six pounds and measure
"At one year of age he must weigh
twenty-one pounds and measure twen
ty-seven Inches, increasing three Inches
during the second year, and from his
third to tenth year two inches annual
ly. His fontanelle, or 'soft spot' should
close at about the nineteenth month.
"Mentally he should be as follows:
"Three to four and one-half months,
grasp an object that is placed before
him. Hold his head erect unsup
"Seven months, sit alone, unsupport
ed, and reach for toys. 5 \w
"Eight to ten months, start to creep.
Some babies never creep, but start to
"Ten months, start to stand, holding
some object At eleven months, stand
entirely alone and at from twelve to
fourteen months start to walk.
"One year, say 'mamma* and 'papa.'
"Two years, talk quite plainly, know
names of animals, persons and objects
and put two words together."
TOWN DRUNKARD DOOMED.
New York Governor Signs Bill Allow
ing Constable to Forbid Him Drink,
Albany, N. Y.The town drunkard
must reform in spite of himself. Gov
ernor Whitman and Senator Jones
have conspired to bring this about A.
bill signed by the governor provides
that a peace officer or constable of a
town shall have the power to forbid
the sale or giving away of liquor to
certain persons by notice In witting.
Refuses Offer of $17,500,000
NATIONS AT WAR WANT IT.
Greece, Peaceful, Made Largest Bid
Against Many Other CountriesAc
quisition of Vessel Would Have Given
Her a Big Naval Advantage Over
New Yor*. Argentina's patriotic
pride In her new super-Dreadnought
Moreno, which sailed recently from
Newport News, is strong.
Not even a profit of about $6,000,000
in cash could induce the South Ameri
can republic to sell this warship, one of
the largest afloat, which was built at
Camden, N. J. The offer was made by
Greece through an agent in this city,
acting on instructions of the Greek
minister in Paris, whose government
was willing to pay 3,500,000 for the
American built vessel. The cost to Ar
gentina for the construction of the Mo
reno was about $12,000,000.
Greece, however, was not the only
country that made bids for the immedi
ate transfer of the warship for mone
tary considerations that would net Ar
gentina a large profit.
Italy, it is understood, is anxious to
add the great sea fighting machine to
its navy, although her offer was not as
large as that made by the Athens gov
The first intimation that negotiations
had been in progress mentioned Russia
as the bidder, but the fact of Russia's
inability to use the navy she now has
eliminated that country as one of the
nations that coveted the Moreno.
"Yes, there have been offers for the
sale of the Moreno," said Manuel A.
Molina, acting Argentine consul in
New York. "I am not sure which
countries made the bids, but I know
that all of them were rejected by my
The fact that Greece, not yet em-,
broiled to the European conflict, was
the highest bidder for the new sea
fighter" confirms a recent statement
that the Hellenic power has been mak
ing pretentious military preparations,
which included the purchase of the
United States warships Idaho and Mis
sissippi for $12,000,000 and are now fol
lowed by the further offer of about
$17,500,000 for the Moreno to add to
her ready made navy.
Greece has also bought about 100,000
tons of coal in this country and a
large quantity of hospital supplies, be
sides ammunition. The further fact
that Greece was able to pay $12,000,-
000 in cash for the two American ves
sels and was ready to pay the amount
bid for the Moreno also indicates a
favorable condition of the Greek ex
chequer or the readiness of a friendly
power to advance the necessary
The New York agent to whom the
Greek minister at Paris intrusted the
important mission is in close social
and commercial relations with Argen
tina, but the government at Buenos
Aires refused to consider even the
flattering offer that would mean a
profit of 50 per cent of the battleship's
The prospective purchaser or pur
chasers were encouraged in their ne
gotiations by the controversy that de
veloped between the Argentine gov
ernment and the New York Shipbuild
ing company, which-built the Moreno,
over the payment for extra work,
which delayed the delivery.
The acquisition of this vessel of 27,-
500 tons displacement and a speed of
22% knots by the Greek navy in case
of a conflict with her ancient and
natural enemy, Turkey, would be of
great importance and would give that
country a greatly superior naval
strength over that possessed by Tur
Argentina has proudly rejected the
great inducement, and the Moreno will
continue to fly the blue and white
flag. The transport Chaco of the Ar
gentine navy brought the crew for the
Moreno and is now at Philadelphia.
The Chaco will follow the super-Dread
DOG A "PANHANDLER."
Bubbles Collected Pennies. Enough to
Pay For License.
Warren, Mass.For the license of
Bubbles, a dog owned by Edward W.
Burns, former proprietor of the Hotel
Ramsdell, 200 cents were paid to Town
Clerk William P. Duncan. Bubbles
collected the cents himself from travel
ing salesmen and other guests in the
hotel. He is a Boston bull terrier, six
years old and Is known to every child
Bubbles will not be satisfied unless
he Is given a cent At all times he will
refuse silver. When a cent Is thrown
to him he grabs it in his teeth and runs
to a corner of a room and then returns
At the beginning of the year Mr.
Burns' son began to save the cents re
ceived by Bubbles. The cents are on
exhibition In the window of a Main
street store. SA
fiNew Shoes Every Six Weeks.
London. It is estimated that six
weeks is the life of an army shoe and
that for a year of the war 71,000.000
pairs will be necessary.-r
HUNGRY CHICKS PROVE CASE.
Come Home With Quantity of Neigh
bor's Corn and a Few Messages.
Stevens Point, Wis.Frank M. Sack
ett after a great deal of difficulty, has
convinced H. K. West of this town
that his chickens are a lot of bandits
at heart. He told him about it long
ago, and now Mr. West, blushing, ad
Mr. Sackett complained thatliis seeds
were being dug up faster than he could
plant them. Mr. West spoke about
Missouri, and Mr. Sackett agreed to
"show him." He scattered corn in his
garden, but first ran a thread through
each kernel, and on the far end he tied
Hanging from each chicken's beak
when they went home were the evi
dences of guilt. No jury's verdict was
ever more damning.
Here are a few of the inscriptions on
"I have just been scratching in Mr.
"I am a naughty chicken."
"I have been trespassing."
"I am a feathered bandit"
FARMERS' BIG PROFITS.
War Demands, It Is Said, Added $200,-
000,000 to Growers' Gains.
Chicago.Europe's war has enriched
middle west farmers approximately
$200,000,000, the money going chiefly
to growers of grains. What speculators
have made by the war perhaps never
will be known.
A prominent grain merchant said the
$200,000,000 "extra" received by farm
ers for their bumper wheat, corn and
oats crops can be readily accounted for
by citing the one instance in regard
to prices for cash wheat He pointed
out that wheat now is selling and has
been for months at from 35 cents to 50
cents more a bushel than It would have
brought but for the war.
MONTHS IN PRISON
"HAPPIEST OF LIFE"
vict, a California Millionaire.
Atlanta, Ga. When Frederick A.
Hyde, sixty-seven years old, million
aire land.dealer and former president
of the board of education of San Fran
cisco, left the federal penitentiary
here, after serving sixteen months, his
first statement was that those months
had been the most useful of his whole
life. He added that he would return
to his home in California, where his
wife, daughter and three sons are wait
ing for him, not afraid to look any man
in the face.
"Not only have these sixteen months
been the most useful in my career,"
said Hyde when interviewed in his
apartments at the Piedmont hotel, "but
this period has been the happiest of
my life, and I have derived more good
from my work at the prison than at
any other time."
Hyde was imprisoned in December,
1913, after one of the most sensational
court battles in the history of the coun
try. He was sentenced to serve two
years for alleged conspiracy in land
frauds, but the sentence was commu
ted by President Wilson.
At the penitentiary Hyde was known
among his fellow prisoners as the "an-
gel convict" because of his work to
better the conditions bf the other pris
oners, especially those who were poor.
He was assigned to the prison news
paper, Good Works, and in the per
formance of his duties was allowed to
go to all parts of the prison and min
gle with all the convicts.
From the first he took an interest in
their welfare. He found that baseball
and a few wornout movie films were
the only amusements in the prison.
He laid out plans for a complete ath
letic field which, with money furnish
ed by himself, was constructed by
Hyde and his fellow prisoners.
Hyde's greatest work in the prison
was with the unfortunate men who
finished their terms but looked upon
freedom with no pleasure because they
were without friends or money to
make a new start in life. To hun
dreds of these Hyde gave encourage
ment and money, in many cases fur
nished them with sufficient funds to
re-establish themselves in business.
One of Hyde's "philanthropies in the
prison was the establishment of a li
brary. He bought hundreds of valua
ble books with his own money and do
nated them to the prison.
PATIENT FASTED TWO MONTHS
And Buttermilk "Did Taste Good at
Warsaw, Ind.After establishing a
record for continuous fasting Jim Rob
inson asked for a glass of buttermilk
and as he slowly swallowed it admit
ted that it tasted good. This was the
first nourishment taken by Robinson,
who Is an inmate of the county infirm
ary, for eight weeks
His long.fast was due to lack of ap
petite and the fact that the taste and
smell of food nauseated him.
Physicians here declare his case has
no parallel in medical history. Fifty
five days was held to be the limit of
man's endurance, yet Robinson passed
that mark by more than a day and is
During that period he lost nearly a
hundred pounds^Except for being
weakened, his general physical condi
tion was not affected.
HE APPEAL STEADILY GAINS
*-It W not controlled by any ring or oliane.
o support but the people's.--
$2.40 PEB YEAR.
POLAND A DESERT
FUTURE IS DARK
EverySecondMan In theCoun
try Is Now a Refugee.
PEOPLE IN WANT OF FOOD.
Robert Crozier Long Makes Extended
Tour of Country and Finds Great
Devastation and Much Suffering.
Tells Exactly What He Has Seen and
What People Face.
London.Robert Crozier Long, au
thor and special correspondent, has
written an account of his extended
tour of the war devastated districts of
Poland. In it he says:
"'Finis Poloniae,' Kosciusko's epi
taph on his country, has been real
"A tour of central and south Poland
and the Polish parts of Galicia con
vinces me of that I visited all the
chief towns and many villages, or
ruins of villages, in 10,000 square miles
of country lying between the Austro
German lines and the Vistula in a
semicircle from the Bzura to the Nida.
1 visited also the basin of the Dunajec
and Willoka, the theater of the san
guinary May day outbreak. The coun
try is a desert, the home of nomads.
I got my first glimpse of it on the
Bzura, west of Warsaw, where during
a four months' artillery duel every
habitation has disappeared.
"I reached this battle front first after
dusk and from an observation tower
saw the remnants were gaunt erect
pillars. This is typical of burnt out
Poland. A street of frame cottages,
often straw thatched, catches fire from
the first shell and only ugly rows of
brick chimneys are left
"Isolated factories all have been de
stroyed, mostly by airmen's bombs on
the suspicion that they were staff
headquarters. Thirty villages either
were burned or blown up.
"The governor of Radom assured me
that In his province 500 villages had
been burned. Refugees assure me that
in a circle extending thirty miles
around Lodz only five villages were
"Poland's population is suffering as
no Europeans have suffered since the
Thirty Years' war. Every second man
is a refuge. Warsaw has 60,000 refu
gees, a third of them Jews. In Radom
I found 15.000 refugees, in Kielce 20.-
"A Warsaw rabbi assured me that
100,000 Jews from the^ towns of Lodz,
Piotrkow and Lowicz are without
homes. Many refugees still tramp the
roads, begging despairingly from peo
ple themselves beggars. Many thou
sands are huddled in the tottering frag
ments of cottages, while 10,000 are
shivering in the abandoned trenches
and terraced Russian dugouts at Ska
"I met many refugees without food*
or money and mostly ill clad. Near
Ostrowiec was a dreary procession of
men in thick sheepskin coats without
other clothing, women In men's trou
sers and children in dresses improvised
"Such is Poland's present The fu
ture will be even worse. The country,
ravaged and irreclaimable, begins to
resemble the primeval Sarmatian
waste. Roads, forests and even fields
"The roads which have been repair
ed cannot bring food to civilians, for
all are crowded by parallel transport
columns. The fields were destroyed
by transport and artillery trains,
which, finding the roads too narrow,
spread right and left, obliterating
"Winter grain was not sown, and
there is no seed grain for spring.
"The worst, because it is irremedia
ble, is the forest destruction. Some
woods have been hewn wholesale to
make causeways through morasses,
some to pave roads, some to make a
clear field for artillery, some shelled to
bits because they afforded shelter for
troops, some drenched with petroleum
and burned. This forest devastation
means for Poland generations of beg-
STOWAWAY ALMOST DEAD.
Seattle Man Hadn't Food or Water
For Eight Days.
Seward, Alaska.Leland F. Farmer,,
a young draftsman who stowed away
on the steamer Admiral Evans of the
Pacific Alaska Navigation company at
Seattle, was found' In the lower hold.
He had been eight days without food
or water, but will recover. When dis
covered he was wedged head down
ward between two bales of hay.
Farmer had heard that there are ex
cellent opportunities for draftsmen at
Ship Creek, Cook Inlet where the gov
ernment is assembling men and mate
rial for building the federal railroad in
Cork Leg No Help to Him.
Cleveland, O.Owen Kelley's cork
leg instead of acting as a life preserver
a few days ago when he fell into the
lake from the pier at the foot of Bast
Ninth street came very near being a
life destroyer. Struggle as he would
he could not raise his head to a level
with his leg, which floated buoyantly.
Commander Kelly of the Ohio naval
militia steamer Dorothea was coming
ashore and dragged the drowning majo.