Newspaper Page Text
HH AMERICAN NEWSPAPER
J. .ADAMS. EDITOR AND PUBLISHER
ST. PAUL OFFICE
No. 301-2 Court Block, 24 E. 4th st.
3. Q. ADAMS. Manager.
PHONE: N. W. CEDAR 5649.
W2 Tenth AvenuV
I. V. SBIi.KRS, Msnaarn
Katered at the PoHtofllce In St. Paul.
Dllnnenota, as neconl-clnn* mall
matter, June 0. 1885, under
A ct of Con KXCK*,
March 3. 1S7.
TERMS, STRICTLY IN ADVANCE:
8INGLE COPY, One Year $2.40
8INGLE COPY, Six Months 1.25
SINGLE COPY, Three Months.. .65
.Omittances .shoul 7 be made by Expre&a
Money Order, Post Office Money Order, Re
gistered I^sttei or Bank Draft. Postage
stamps will be received the same as cash for
the fractional parts or a dollar. Only one
cent and two cent stamps taken.
Silver should neve-be sent through the mail.
It is alin st sure to wear a bole through the
envelope and be lost or else it may be sto
len. Pcrwas who send silver to us in letters
do so at their own risk.
riarriaee and death notices 10 lines or less SI.
Each additional line 10 cents. Payment
strictly :n advance, and to be announced at
all must come in season to be news.
Adve tising rates, 15 cents per agate line, each
insertion. There are fourteen agate lines
in an iaeh, and about seven words in an
agate line. No single advertisements less
than 91. No discount allowed on less than
three montbs contract. Cash must accom
pany all orders from parties unknown to us.
Further particulars on appl'cation.
Reading notices 25 cents per line, each insertion.
No discounts for time or space. Reading
matter is set in brevier typeabout six
words to the line. All head-liaes count
double. subscription expires. Renewals should be
made two weeks prior to expiration, so that
no paper may be missed, as the paper stops
when time is out.
II occasionally happens that papers sent to sub
scribers are lost or stolen. In case you do
not receive any number when due, inform us
by postal o&rd at the expiration of five days
from that date, and we will cheerfully for
ward a duplicate of the missing number.
Communications to receive attentions must be
newsy, upon important sublets, plainly
written only upon^one side of the paper
must reach us Tuesdays if possible, anyway
not later than Wednesdays, and bear thesig
nature of the author. No manuscript "re-
turned, unless stamps are sent for postage.
We do not hold ourselves responsible for the
views of our correspondents.
Soliciting agents wanted everywhere. Write
for terms. Sample copies free.
In every letter that you write us never fail to
give your full name and address, plainly
written, post office, county and state. Busi
ness letters of all kinds must be written on
separate sheets from letters containing news
or matter for publication.
SATURDAY, MARCH 18, 1922.
ALWAYS PROTECTED When
thou passest through the waters, I
will be with thee and through the
rivers, they shall not overflow thee:
when thou walkest through the fire,
thou sluilt not be burned neither
shall the flame kindle upon thee.
WILLIAM MONROE TROTTER
On April 7, William Monroe Trot
ter, editor of the Boston Guardian
and world-famous agitator for the
rights of the colored people, will be
50 years old.
He has done more to fight jim
crowism and to inspire in the colored
people a determination to battle for
their rights than any living man of
He has impoverished himself, hav
ing spent the fortune left him by his
fathers, in financing his work for
freedom and justice for the colored
In the presence of this giant of
agitation, nine-tenths of the alleged
colored leaders appear as pigmies.
He has always stood for absolute
equality of citizenship. The majority
of the "leaders" have compromised in
one way or another.
He deserves a FIFTY THOU
SAND DOLLAR FUND. His work
can not be estimated in dollars and
cents. Even a small fund will show
that his work has been appreciated
and that the colored people are will
ing to pay for freedom.
The editor of every paper circulat
ing amnog the colored people ought
to boost Trotter in his editorial col
umns and also contribute to the
THE APPEAL has already sent a
check for Five Dollars.
Reader: Do not fail to send at
once your contribution to the Guard
ian Staff, The Guardian, 34 Cornhill,
CLOSE THE DOORS
When the Senate concursas it
should doin the bill which has just
passed the House, the restricted im
migration law will be extended one
year from June 30 next. It is the in
tention of the House Immigration
committee to draft a permanent en
actment, but the subject is so intri
cate that it cannot be disposed of
hurriedly. The extra year will be
none too long.
Until the war upset all Europe the
THE SIN OF SILENCE
To sin by silence when we should
protest makes cowards out of men.
The human race has climbed on pro
test. Had no voice been raised against
injustice, ignorance and lust, the in-
quisition yet would serve the law, and
guillotines decide our least disputes.
The few who dare must speak and
speak again to right the wrongs of
many.-Ella Wheeler Wilcox.
transatlantic liners were bringing as is ten thousandfold greater in the
many as a million aliens into the South than in the North. Ninety per
country in a year. The situation was cent of the lynching occurs in the
becoming serious. Hostilities broke, South, and ALL of the disfranchise-
up the traffic, but after the armistice' ment and jimcrow laws,
a perfect flood of emigrants was' A little instance which is illuminat-
headed this way. Restriction was a'ing. A colored man was arrested in
positive necessity. The 3 per cent Chicago last week charged with hav-
proposition was adopted as a tern-!
run the quota These troubles have'
/he date on the address label snows when been largely overcome. During- the shortly after. About midnight the
eight months of operation under the
porary measure. The basis for cal-'club, breaking her skull. A doctor
dilation was the number of nationals diagnosed his case as dementia prae-
of a given country resident in the' cox and he was committed to the
United States according to the 1910,psycopathic hospital for treatment,
census. The idea was to receive an
additional 3 per cent of the respective' gia? Well this is what did happen
totals annually in Georgia last summer even when no
This arrangement met many diffi-| white woman
culties at the start. Ellis Island was o*ed
crowded with aliens who had over-,turn
law immigrants have numbered 192,- S
United States needs a long rest from
its efforts to assimilate newcomers,
and no matter what form permanent
legislation may take, we agree with
Chairman Johnson, of the immigra
tion committee, that there will be no
desire to return to the virtually un
limited entrance of foreign labor.
This melting-pot business is all right
as a theory, but the country has got
to look out for itself and its doors
must be closed to strange men with
1787, slavery had been forever ex
eluded. Afterward he was carried into
Missouri, where he was hired as a
slave. Claiming freedom on the ground
that his residence in Illinois had wiped
out his status as a slave, his case was
taken before the Supreme Court for
After a three years' consideration of
the case the decision of the court was
pronounced in an exhaustive opinion
delivered by Chief Justice Taney, seven
of the nine judges concurring.
In substance, the decision was as
follows: (1) That persons of the
African race were not, and could not
be, acknowledged as "part of the peo-
ple," or citizens, under the Constitu
tion of the United States. (2) That
Congress had no right to exclude citi
zens of the South from taking their
Negro servants, as any other property,
Into any part of the commuuity, and
that they were entitled to claim Its
protection therein. (3) That the Mis
souri Compromise of 1820, in so far as
it prohibited African slavery north of
a designated line, was unconstitutional
The decision raised a storm from
one end of the country to the other
and made the civil war a foregone
THERE IS A DIFFERENCE.
The "jimcrow negroes" who are
continually repeating "the North is
no better than the South" know they
are lying when they utter. such rot.
The oppression of the colored people
ing assaulted a white woman with a
What would have happened in Geor-
000. The limit for twelve months is lynch
355,000, and it is not likely to be that he was dead, the mob broke into
reached. So much the better. The
A-dcol- shot a man an in
shot by a white mob. He
take to a hospital where he died
tsrange and violent doctrines. So' sentatives and is now in the senate
says the Philadelphia Inquirer and so in the hands of the judiciary commit-
say we all. I tee.
If the judiciary committee reports
'the Dyer bill, its enactment by the
senate is almost certain. The sena
tors on that committee are:
Knute Nelson, Minnesota William
P. Dillingham, Vermont Frank B.
Brandegee, Connecticut William E.
i Borah, Idaho Albert B. Cummins,
THE DRED SCOTT DECISION.
It was fifty years agoMarch 6,
1857,tLat the Supreme Court of the
United States rendered its decision in
the famous Dred Scott case. The re
sults which followed, this decision were
stupendous and far-reaching. jlowa LeBaron B. Colt, Rhode Island
Dred Scott was a slave belonging to'Thomas Sterling, South Dakota Geo.
a surgeon in the United States army, Norris, Nebraska Richard P.
He was taken by his master to Fort. Ernst, Kentucky Samuel M. Short-
Snelling, in the State of Illinois, terrl-: ridge, California Charles A. Culber-
tory from which, by the ordinance of son, Texas Lee S. Overman, North
mob went to the hospital to
the wounded colored man and
room, got corpse, car- outskirtsthedth of and
returned to the hos
burnedw ietr to a crisp. The charged re-
happened in the city of
Augusta, Ga., in the Year of Our
Lord, Nineteen Hundred and Twenty
GET BUSY WITH THE U. S. SENA-
The Dyer anti-lynching bill bas
been passed by the house of repre-
Carolina James A. Reed, Missouri
Henry F. Ashurst, Arizona John K.
Shields, Tennessee Thomas J. Walsh,
Now is the time to write or tele
graph the members of the judiciary
committee and ask them to support
the bill. It is especially important
that the people of Minnesota flood
Senator Nelson with letters and tel
egrams asking him to vote for a fav
orable report on the bill. The out
look is favorable but work must be
done to make assurance doubly sure.
THE MAN WHO DARES
I honor the man who in the consci
entious discharge of his duty dares to
stand alone the world, with ignorant,
intolerant judgment, may condemn,
the countenances of relatives may be
averted, and the hearts of friends grow
cold, but the sense of duty done shall
be sweeter than the applause of the
world, the countenances of .relatives or
the hearts of friends.Charles Sumner.
CRINGING AWAKENS CONTEMPT.
We cannot win by blinking at facts
or by ignoring fundamental princi
ples. Editor J. Q. Adams of the ST.
PAUL APPEAL is sound to the core
and we shall all have to accept his
kind of leadership if we expect to at
tain our full stature and status under
the American Constitution. Cringing
may be comfortable for the time be
ing put it is mighty humiliating for
all the time thereafter and it awakens
contempt for us as it should do in
the minds and hearts of our adver
Editor Adams points the way,
whether we accept his advice or not
and sooner or later he wil blaze the
way to our financial, industrial and
political enfranchisement in
country where none will dare molestt.h
us or make us afraid. Wise colored
leaders will take notice and govern
The foregoing from The Planet of
Richmond, Va., edited by Hon. John
Mitchell, Jr., who recently polled
20,000 votes as candidate for gov
ernor of the state, is pleasing to the
editor but we accept it as a tribute
to the cause for which THE APPEAL
has fought for nearly forty years
rather than a personal compliment.
RAPS AMERICAN CHRISTIANS
In a recent interview a Japanese
gentleman walloped the American
Christian hypocrites in these words
and hits the nail on the head:
"I am a Christian, but I cannot
reconcile the rules which Christianity
taught me with American practices.
Americans are overly suspicious and
narrow hearted. Our nation is sup
posedly anti-Christian, but we have
"American missionaries teach us
that all people are equal, so we wel
come Americans,. let you travel
throughout Japan unmolested, buy
property, engage in business, and
give you equals, rights with our own
peoplte when yoiu are in Japan. You
practice America what your
missionaries teach us we must do, if
we want to be Christians. Even the
missionaries do not practice what
they preach when they return to
President Harding and Secretary
Hughes "have been moved" by com
plaints from Americans in the near
east and have, demanded equal op
portunities for Americans in Persia
and Mesopotamia. It seems that
those who kick get at least some of
the things they complain about. And
the President would sit up and take
notice if the Colored people kicked
hard enough and in unison.
While the administration is quick
to come to the aid of "Americans
abroad," it does* not hesitate to curse
'Americans at home." Colored
Americans have been jimcrowed in
every way right here in America.
The President's speeches in Alabama
and Georgia were curses upon pa
troitic Americans and double curses
because some lickspittle "leaders"
attempted to condone them.
WOMEN AS PREACHERS.
The women are demanding their
right to become preachers of the gos
pel on equal terms with the men. At
a recent meeting of women pastors a
speaker declared that the majority of
the church members at present are
women drawn by the eloquence and
magnetism of the male preachers and
Macartney of Philadelphia, dissents
from this view and says that the or
dination of women as ministers of the
gospel would be prejudicial to the
best interests^ of the church and
"would increase the occasions for'
factional scandal and satanic church
No doubt the men would be at
tracted to the church services if the
shepherdess was young and charm
ing, had a trim figure, wore a peek
a-boo waist, with a skirt falling to
her knees, the portion of her anatomy
from that point to the French-heeled
oxfords encased in "invisible" silk
stockings. It would not matter what
she said, the attendance of the men
including all of the bald-headed "fa-
thers in Israel" would swamp the
meeting houseand they would all
be in the front pewsif possible.
ATLANTA THE LIMIT.
Atlanta, Ga., seems to have been
and is yet, the breeding place of near
ly all the four things which feed on
race prejudice and religious intoler
A catalogue of these un-American
things would take too much space, so
it will suffice to mention the latest
evolved from the "K. K. K. controlled
city. At the meeting of the city
council Monday, by a vote of 14 to
8 a committee was appointed to pre
pare an ordinance prohibiting, inter
racial worship of God. Under this
proposed law white and colored peo
ple could not attend the same churches.
A white person could not preach in a
colored church. A white person
could not preach in a colored church.
A white person could not teach in a
colored Sunday school and even in
,Je presence of death a white priest
could not administer extreme unction
to a colored hjjpian being.
Atlanta wirif in racial and religious
"PEARL GOOD" A MISNOMER.
That, "therel is nothing in a name,"
has been decidedly verified in Port
land, Ore. Pretty, blue-eyed Pearl
Good, aged seventeen years, has con
fessed to having committed forty-six
burglaries. Her plunder consists of
money, jewelry, clothing, toilet arti
cles, etc. She' is one of a family of
eight children, is average in dress,
manner and speech, and is not at all
"hard boiled" though evidently a bad
egg. In nearly every one of her rob
beries entry was made by means of a
latchkey, and1 he fair "lady Raffles"
says the average housewife leaves
her doorkey "hidden" in places most
"J easily discovered by the housebreaker.
This rare Pearl evidently saw^some
of the film pictures of that great
artist, Pearl White, and emulated her
Protest always pays. For some
time the people of India have been
making "silent protest" against the
many injustices from which they suf
fer and now it seems that results are
about to be achieved. The govern
ment has introduced several bills for
the repeal of nearly all of the repres
sive and restrictive laws now on the
And because they have protested,
England will give independence to
the Egyptians. Down South, Moton
et al are lauding the brutal people
who have stolen the rights of the col
ored people and restricted them to a
jimcrow place in the social scheme.
if women were installed as pastors Twenty-six American marines who
would fall over each other in the ef- engaged in a fight with the city po-
forts to get into the fold.
The Reverend Clarence Edward
Representative Fordney of Michi
gan'has introduced a bill in the house
proposing a loan of $5,000,000 to Li
beria. The Liberians seem to want
the money and the president was in
the U. S. last year making an appeal
for it but THE APPEAL believes it
to be a dangerous matter. If* the
money is loanedv and not promptly
paid it will be an excuse for the
United States to go in and take pos
session, and thus get a foothold in
Africa, and then Uncle Sam will pro
ceed to mistreat and murder the Li
berians just as he did in Haiti. The
Liberians would do well to sidestep
At a recent hearing of the house
committee on merchant marine,^
Coxey of Coxey army fame, that $40,-
000,000 worth of idle vessels be
turned over to him and his associates.
One of the committee asked Coxey if
he had had any experience in oper
ating ships. "No, none," replied Mr.
Coxey, "No more than Mr. A. D.
Lasker." Lasker, the Jewish'head of
the Shipping Board, was appointed
by the President, not because he had
experience, but because he had aided
Mr. Harding in his campaign for the
The supreme court of North Car
olina has just decided that schools
are not necessities. Long ago the
white people of the state decided
that education was not necessary for
the colored children, about thirty
cents per capita, more or less for
their instruction while the white chil
dren received about fifty times as
much. North "Caliny" is a great old
commonwealth, more or less.
President Harding evidently has a
keen sense of the ridiculous. He has
recently appointed Brig. Gen. John H.
Russell to investigate conditions in
Haiti. It will be recalled that Rus
sell, as Colonel Russell, was in com
mand in Haiti when the outrages com
plained of were perpetrated. In other
words, he will investigate what hap
pened under his own regime.
Managua, Nicarague on De
penitentiary forb terms rangindg
atuh vteo yearg orities oughetl
Hait i and sen
cred many thou
Thursday night the Illinois consti
tutional conevntion argued Delegate
Edward H. Morris' addition to the bill
of rights. It reads: "Laws shall be
applicable to alike to all citizens with
out regard to race or color, and no
citizen, by reason of his race or color,
shall be prohibited from doing any
thing that any other citizen may do."
That's the stuff.
A campaign to have legislatures of
all states pass a bill requiring regu
lar courses in the study of the United
States Constitution has been started
in* New York. Illinois, Iowa, Michi
gan and Vermont have such a law.
What will Georgia, Mississippi and
Texas, where they violate the Consti
tution every day, have to say about
Prof. Kelly Miller of Howard uni
versity is like the proverbial cow who
gives a pail of milk and then kicks it
over. Miller wrote a strong article
in reply to President Harding's
southern speeches and then spoiled all
by first lauding B. Washington and
then writing in favor of jimcrow
schools.. Steady, Kelly!
Sterling P. Strong, who has opened
his campaign for United States sena
tor from Texas, is telling the people
"Come to Washington next winter
and you will meet a senator who is
a member of the Ku Klux Klan." It
is quite likely that there are already
several Ku Klux among the members
of both houses.
Governor-General Wood announces
that he will follow the policy out
lined in the report of the Wood
Forbes mission as the basis of ad
ministration in the Philippines. All
of which translated means that the
Filipinos will not get the freedom
which the United States promised
That "the way of the transgressor
is hard," especially if he is colored,
has been terribly verified in New
York in the case of William Burke, an
18-year-old colored youth who was
sentenced to ten years in Sing Sing
pfrison for the larceny of fifty cents'
worth of bread.
The colored people in the French
West Indies (Guadeloupe and Mar
tinique) are bitterly opposed to the
sale of their islands to the United'
States. They realize that with the
coming of the Americans, hell would
break loose in their own happy
A new M. E. college for .."Negroes"
was dedicated in Mississippi Friday.
Thus the so-called Church of Christ
encourages the drawing of the color
line in education.
The colored people in the Island of
Trinidad, British West Indies have
been talking about local self-govern
ment and at once the British govern
ment clamps down the screws on
REV. GEORGE W. GAINES
COMMISSIONER TAGERT ON
Washington, D. CThat the ma
terial and moral interests of the
whole country are involved in the
question of Negro education is the
substance of an interview given out
by Dr. John J. Tigert, United States
Commissioner of Education, on his
return from a recent conference in
Nashville with the heads of the 28
State and Federal Land Grant Col
leges for Negroes. The fact that Dr.
Tigert is a native of Tennessee and
has always lived in the South adds
significance to his statement, which
follows in full:
"The neglect of Negrb education
has resulted in an immeasurable loss
to the country. It has affected not
only the material prosperity, espe
cially of the South, where the Negro
population is greatest, but has like
wise affected the standard of living
and the character of citizenship, and
has injured the morale of our peo
ple. If we had long ago made pro
vision for the technical education of
our Negro population, the increase in
the value' of our products, both agri
cultural and manufacturing, would
have been incalculably great. The
intangible and immaterial benefits
which would have accrued can scarce
ly be estimated, nor can we form any
estimate of what would have been the
effect upon the Negro himself by way
of encouragement, arousing his am
bition and increasing his value as a
Former Pastor of St. James A. M. E. Church Who Died
Recently in St. Louis.
ANTI-KLUX BODY FORMED
Purpose Is to End Mob Violence and
Healdton, Okla., MarchAn anti
Ku Klux Klan organization, known
as the Knights of the Visible Empire
has been formed here. John Q. Hyde,
one of the organizers, announced in
a statement today that the purpose of
the society "is to protest against mob
rule, as exemplified in the teachings
of the Ku Klux Klan." Hyde is a
Hyde said the membership had
jumped to 150 today and that 150 oth
ers were waiting to sign applications.
"We pledge allegiance to the law
of the land and only ask that the
laws be enforced by those empowered
to enforce them. There will be no
secrecy," he said.
TRAIN BANDITS GET HAUL
Colored Robbers Hc-.cf Up Diners on
Ch,cago M^arch.-The Bos on Lim
ited, crack New York Central pas-
Many Colored Men in the American
War for Independence.
The employment of colored men be
came a subject of much importance at
an early stage of the American War
of Independence. The British natur
ally regarded slavery as an element
of weakness in the condition of the
colonies, in which the slaves were
numerous, and laid their plans to gain
the colored men and induce them to
take up arms against their masters
by promising them liberty on this con
The situation was looked upon by
the public men of the colonies as
alarming, and several of them urged
the Congress to adopt the policy of
emancipation. But while the general
question of emancipation was de
feated, the exigencies of the contest
again and again brought up the prac
tical one of employment for colored
men, whether bond or free.
Only Freemen Wanted In Army.
In May, 1775, Hancock and War
ren's committee of safety introduced
the* following formal resolution: "Re-
solved, That it Is the opinion of this
committee, as the contest now be
tween Great Britain and the colonies
respects the liberties and privileges
of the latter, which the colonies are
determined to maintain, that the ad
mission of any person as a soldier into
the army now raising, but only such
as are freemen, will be inconsistent
with the principles that are to be sup
ported and reflect dishonor on these
colonies, and that no slaves be ad
mitted into this army upon any con
Washington took command of the
army around Boston on July 3, 1775.
The Instructions for the recruiting
officers from his headquarters at Cam
bridge prohibited the enlistment of
any "negro." It may also be noticed
that they were forbidden to enlist
"any person who is not an American
born, unless such person has a wife
and family and Is a settled person
In this country."
Many Colored Men Enrolled.
Notwithstanding all this, the fact
remains, according to Bancroft, that
"the roll of the army at Cambridge
had, from its first formation, borne
the names of men of color." Free
colored men stood in the ranks by the
side of white men. In the beginning
of the war they had entered the
provincial army, and the colored men,
like others, were retained in the serv
ice after the troops were adopted by
A committee on conference, consist
ing of Dr. Franklin, Benjamin Harri
son and Thomas Lynch, met at Cam
bridge, October 18, 1775, with the
deputy governors of Connecticut and
Rhode Island and the committee of
the council of Massachusetts Bay, to
confer with Gen. Washington, and ad
vise a method for renovating the
army. On the 23d of October the
groes to be excluded from the ne"w
enlistment, especially such as are
slaves?" All were thought improper
by the council of officers. It was
agreed that they be rejected alto
In general orders, issued November
12, 1775, Washington says: "Neither
negroes, boys unable to bear arms,
nor old men unfit to endure the fa
tigues of the campaign are to be en
Permitted Their Enlistment.
Washington, however, in the last
days of the year, under representa
tions to him that the free colored men
who had served In his army were very
much dissatisfied at being discarded,
senger tram running from Boston to resolution respecting them and gave
Chicago, was boarded by two Negro license for their being enlisted,
robbers Tuesday night as it entered Washington promised that if there
the city limits I was any objection on the part of Con-
Entering the dining car with drawn gre8g he would discontinue the enlist-
pistols, they held up Adolph Pierson, in
minutes and the two bandits leaped The entire affair
from the train before it had picked 1 changed when, in 1779 the South be-
up speed after the stop, and escaped
fearing that they might seek em-
ent in the British army, took
responsibility to depart from the
o1776,lored co men
the steward, and robbed him of $27J 15, Congress, determineJanuaryt"thadno,but
and his watch.
lhe robbery took less than three be re-enlisted th
"HUMAN NATURE'S FOULEST BLOT."
My ear is pained
My soul is sick with every day's report
Of wrong and outrage, with which earth is filled*
There ik no tiesh in man's obdurate heart.
It does not feel for man: the natural bond
Of brotherhood is severed as the flax
That falls asunder at the touch of fire.
He finds his fellow guilty of a skin
Not colored like his own: and having power
To enforce the wrong, for such a worthy cause
Dooms and devotes him as his lawful prey.
Thus man devotes his brother, and destroys:
'Tis human nature's broadest foulest blot. Cowper.
gan to be invaded. South Carolina,
especially, was unable to make any
effectual efforts with militia, by reason
of the great proportion of citizens
necessary to remain at home to pre
vent insurrections among the colored
men and their desertions to the enemy,
who were assiduous in their endeavors
to excite both revolt and desertion.
The result was that in all the South
ern states the legislatures passed reso
lutions to enlist the colored men, and
the colored patriots of the Revolution
are as much entitled as their white
brethren for the ardor with which
they fought the common enemy,
whether they were bondmen or free
men. It has never been possible to
give an exact statement as to the
number of colored men who served in
the Revolution, for the reason that
they were generally mixed in regi
ments and not calculated separately.